Abstract

Tantalum pentoxide thin films are prepared by oblique angle electron beam evaporation. The influence of flux angle on the surface morphology and microstructure is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> thin films are anisotropic with highly orientated nanostructure of slanted columns. The porous microstructure of the as-deposited films results in the decrease of effective refractive index and packing density with increasing deposition angle. The anisotropic structure results in optical birefringence. The in-plane birefringence increases with the increase of deposition angle and reaches the maximum of 0.055 at the deposition angle of 70. Anisotropic microstructure and critical packing density are the two key factors to influence the in-plane birefringence.

© 2009 Chinese Optics Letters

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2008 (8)

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, Nanotoday 3, (3-4) 31 (2008).

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

V. Janicki, J. Sancho-Parramon, and H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 516, 3368 (2008).

2007 (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Opt. Commun. 247, 107 (2005).

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538 (2000).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

1993 (1)

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993).

1990 (1)

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

1982 (1)

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

1977 (1)

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).

1966 (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87 (1966).

1962 (1)

P. Kofstad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 776 (1962).

Adams, J.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089 (2004).

Albella, J. M.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

Atanassova, E.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Beydaghyan, G.

Brett, M. J.

A. C. van Popta, M. H. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, Opt. Lett. 29, 2545 (2004).

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993).

Brown, T.

Buzea, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089 (2004).

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Cuiffi, J. D.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Dean, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089 (2004).

Denis, J.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

Dluhy, R. A.

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, Nanotoday 3, (3-4) 31 (2008).

Dong, H.

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Fan, Z.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Opt. Commun. 247, 107 (2005).

Fonash, S. J.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Fu, X.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

Gao, X.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Georgieva, M.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Haanstra, H. B.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87 (1966).

Hawkeye, M. H.

Hayes, D. J.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

He, X.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Henry, M. R.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Huang, J.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

Janicki, V.

V. Janicki, J. Sancho-Parramon, and H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 516, 3368 (2008).

Jin, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Kalkan, A. K.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Kaminska, K.

Kamiyama, S.

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

Kofstad, P.

P. Kofstad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 776 (1962).

Kruschwitz, J. D. T.

Kuroiwa, K.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Li, H.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Li, X.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Li, Z.

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Ma, J.

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Martinez-Duart, J. M.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

Matsui, M.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Meng, J.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Messier, R.

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538 (2000).

Mizuki, J.

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

Muto, G.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Nagayoshi, H.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Ni, J.

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

Nieuwenhuizen, J. M.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87 (1966).

Palmer, C.

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Paskaleva, A.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Pawlewicz, W. T.

Popta, A. C. van

Robbie, K.

Rubio, F.

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

Sancho-Parramon, J.

V. Janicki, J. Sancho-Parramon, and H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 516, 3368 (2008).

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Shao, J.

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Opt. Commun. 247, 107 (2005).

Sit, J. C.

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Smy, T.

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993).

Spassov, D.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Stojadinovic, N.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Sunal, P. D.

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538 (2000).

Suzuki, H.

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

Tait, R. N.

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993).

Tanimoto, S.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Tarui, J.

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).

Tripp, R. A.

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, Nanotoday 3, (3-4) 31 (2008).

Venugopal, V. C.

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538 (2000).

Vracar, L.

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Wang, J.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Opt. Commun. 247, 107 (2005).

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

Wu, J.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Xia, G.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

Xiao, Q.

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Xu, C.

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Yang, Y.

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

Yao, J.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

Zhang, W.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

Zhang, Z.

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

Zhao, L.

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Zhao, Y.

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, Nanotoday 3, (3-4) 31 (2008).

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

Zhu, Y.

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

Zorc, H.

V. Janicki, J. Sancho-Parramon, and H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 516, 3368 (2008).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kimura, J. Mizuki, S. Kamiyama, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2209 (1995).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8734 (2006).

Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) (2)

C. Xu, H. Dong, Q. Xiao, J. Ma, Y. Jin, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 1595 (2008).

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Fan, J. Huang, Y. Jin, J. Yao, and J. Shao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 35, 760 (2008).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. Ni, Y. Zhu, Q. Zhou, and Z. Zhang, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3458 (2008).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. Kofstad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 776 (1962).

J. Phys. D (1)

Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Y. Yang, and Z. Zhang, J. Phys. D 41, 152007 (2008).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Matsui, H. Nagayoshi, G. Muto, S. Tanimoto, K. Kuroiwa, and J. Tarui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 62 (1990).

Nanotechnol. (1)

A. K. Kalkan, M. R. Henry, H. Li, J. D. Cuiffi, D. J. Hayes, C. Palmer, and S. J. Fonash, Nanotechnol. 16, 1383 (2005).

Nanotoday (1)

R. A. Tripp, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, Nanotoday 3, (3-4) 31 (2008).

Nature Photon. (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nature Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Wang, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, Opt. Commun. 247, 107 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87 (1966).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1089 (2004).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Atanassova, N. Stojadinovic, A. Paskaleva, D. Spassov, L. Vracar, and M. Georgieva, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 075017 (2008).

Solid State Commun. (1)

X. He, J. Wu, L. Zhao, J. Meng, X. Gao, and X. Li, Solid State Commun. 147, 90 (2008).

Thin Solid Films (3)

F. Rubio, J. Denis, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, Thin Solid Films 90, 405 (1982).

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, Thin Solid Films 226, 196 (1993).

V. Janicki, J. Sancho-Parramon, and H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 516, 3368 (2008).

Other (1)

B. Dick and M. J. Brett, in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. vol. 6 (American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, 2004) pp. 703-725.

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