Abstract

We investigated the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) cells on biofilms in vitro. Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Since dental caries are localized infections, such plaque-related diseases would be well suited to PDT. The diode laser used in this study had the wavelength of 635 nm, whose output power was 10 mW and the energy density was 12.74 J/cm2. HMME was used as photosensitizer. Samples were prepared and divided into five groups: (1) HMME; (2) Laser; (3) HMME+Laser; (4) Control group (+) with chlorhexidine; and (5) Control group (-) with sterile physiological saline. Inoculum of S. mutans incubated with HMME also examined with fluorescence microscopy. PDT exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) increased antimicrobial potential compared with 20 \mum/mL HMME only, laser only, 0.05% chlorhexidine, and 0.9% sterile physiological saline, which reduced the S. mutans of the biofilm most effectively. Laser and 0.05% chlorhexidine were caused reduction in the viable counts of S. mutans significantly different (P<0.05) also, but these two test treatments did not statistically differ from each other. HMME group did not statistically differ with negative control group. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that HMME localized primarily in the S. mutans of the biofilm. It was demonstrated that HMME-mediated PDT was efficient at killing S. mutans of biofilms and a useful approach in the treatment of dental plaque-related diseases.

© 2008 Chinese Optics Letters

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2007

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, J. Dent. Res. 86, 694 (2007).

2005

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

P. Meisel and T. Kocher, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 79, 159 (2005).

2004

M. R. Hamblin and T. Hasan, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 3, 436 (2004).

2002

P. Sreenivasan and A. Gaffar, J. Clin. Periodontol 29, 965 (2002).

2000

S. Shani, M. Friedman, and D. Steinberg, Caries Res. 34, 260 (2000).

1999

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Science 284, 1318 (1999).

1997

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

1996

P. Courvalin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 37, 855 (1996).

Bevilacqua, I. M.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Bonass, W. A.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Brookes, S. J.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Brugnera, A.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Ciancaglini, P.

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Costerton, J. W.

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Science 284, 1318 (1999).

Courvalin, P.

P. Courvalin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 37, 855 (1996).

Friedman, M.

S. Shani, M. Friedman, and D. Steinberg, Caries Res. 34, 260 (2000).

Gaffar, A.

P. Sreenivasan and A. Gaffar, J. Clin. Periodontol 29, 965 (2002).

Goslinski, T.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, J. Dent. Res. 86, 694 (2007).

Greenberg, E. P.

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Science 284, 1318 (1999).

Hamblin, M. R.

M. R. Hamblin and T. Hasan, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 3, 436 (2004).

Hasan, T.

M. R. Hamblin and T. Hasan, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 3, 436 (2004).

Kato, K.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Khouri, S.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Kirkham, J.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Kocher, T.

P. Meisel and T. Kocher, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 79, 159 (2005).

Konopka, K.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, J. Dent. Res. 86, 694 (2007).

Kusa, L.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Meisel, P.

P. Meisel and T. Kocher, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 79, 159 (2005).

Nakagaki, H.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Nattress, B.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Nicolau, R. A.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Pacheco, M. T. T.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Paulino, T. P.

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Percival, R.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Ribeiro, K. F.

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Robinson, C.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Shani, S.

S. Shani, M. Friedman, and D. Steinberg, Caries Res. 34, 260 (2000).

Shore, R. C.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

Sreenivasan, P.

P. Sreenivasan and A. Gaffar, J. Clin. Periodontol 29, 965 (2002).

Steinberg, D.

S. Shani, M. Friedman, and D. Steinberg, Caries Res. 34, 260 (2000).

Stewart, P. S.

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Science 284, 1318 (1999).

Tedesco, A. C.

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Teodoro, G. R.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Thedei, G.

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Zangaro, R. A.

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Archives of Oral Biology

T. P. Paulino, K. F. Ribeiro, G. Thedei, Jr., A. C. Tedesco, and P. Ciancaglini, Archives of Oral Biology 50, 353 (2005).

Caries Res.

C. Robinson, J. Kirkham, R. Percival, R. C. Shore, W. A. Bonass, S. J. Brookes, L. Kusa, H. Nakagaki, K. Kato, and B. Nattress, Caries Res. 31, 194 (1997).

S. Shani, M. Friedman, and D. Steinberg, Caries Res. 34, 260 (2000).

J. Clin. Periodontol

P. Sreenivasan and A. Gaffar, J. Clin. Periodontol 29, 965 (2002).

J. Dent. Res.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, J. Dent. Res. 86, 694 (2007).

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

P. Courvalin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 37, 855 (1996).

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B

P. Meisel and T. Kocher, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B 79, 159 (2005).

Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences

M. R. Hamblin and T. Hasan, Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 3, 436 (2004).

Photomedicine and Laser Surgery

I. M. Bevilacqua, R. A. Nicolau, S. Khouri, A. Brugnera, Jr., G. R. Teodoro, R. A. Zangaro, and M. T. T. Pacheco, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 25, 513 (2007).

Science

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Science 284, 1318 (1999).

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