Abstract

Through the reversible isomerization of trans-cis-trans under the linear polarization light, the molecules of azo materials have the same tropism which is vertical to the polarization of light. This means that azo materials have photo-induced birefringence which is related to optical power and polarization angle of the light. Based on the photo-induced birefringence of azo materials, we design a new type of optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (OPS-VECSEL) which can control the polarization and frequency of the ejection laser. The functional molecules of azo materials are [3-azo-(4'nitro)]-(9-ethyl)-carbazole (ANECz).

© 2008 Chinese Optics Letters

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  2. C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).
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  4. Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
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2007

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

2005

D. Luo and L. Deng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 25, 1385 (2005).

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

2001

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

2000

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

1997

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575 (1997).

1992

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).

1984

Bhawalkar, J. D.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575 (1997).

Cui, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).

Deng, L.

D. Luo and L. Deng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 25, 1385 (2005).

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575 (1997).

Gao, X.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Graupner, W.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

He, X.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Hu, B.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

Hu, F.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Jin, C.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Jing, X.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Karasz, F. E.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575 (1997).

Kumar, N. D.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

Leising, G.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

Li, F.

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Li, S.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Li, Y.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Lin, J.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Liu, J.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Liu, X.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Liu, Y.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Luo, D.

D. Luo and L. Deng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 25, 1385 (2005).

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

Ma, D.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Mao, D.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Müllen, K.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

Nikolova, L.

Ning, Y.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Prasad, P. N.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).

Qiu, F.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Scherf, U.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

She, W.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

Sun, G.

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Tan, C.

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Tao, X.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Tasch, S.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Wang, D.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Wang, F.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Wang, L.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Wang, S.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Wang, W.

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

Wei, Z.

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Wu, D.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Wu, S.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

Wu, Z.

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Xu, H.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Yang, D.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Yao, S.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

Zeng, F.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

Zenz, C.

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

Zhang, X.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Zhang, Y.

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).

Zhao, J.

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Zhao, Y.

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Zhou, Y.

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese)

D. Luo and L. Deng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 25, 1385 (2005).

Q. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and F. Li, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 21, 679 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. D. Kumar, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, and B. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 999 (1997).

C. Zenz, W. Graupner, S. Tasch, G. Leising, K. Müllen, and U. Scherf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2566 (1997).

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, and S. R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2575 (1997).

Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese)

X. Gao, W. Wang, Y. Liu, D. Mao, X. Tao, S. Li, and Y. Li, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 1276 (2007).

F. Qiu, H. Xu, D. Yang, F. Hu, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, and X. Zhang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 34, 525 (2007).

Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, C. Tan, and Y. Zhao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 265 (2005).

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 370 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).

Synthetic Metals

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, J. Lin, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Synthetic Metals 111-112, 563 (2000).

Thin Solid Films

D. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Wang, Y. Ning, C. Jin, J. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Wu, X. He, L. Wang, D. Ma, D. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, Thin Solid Films 363, 198 (2000).

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