This paper reviews the progress on nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The design, fabrication, and polarization control of nano-aperture VCSELs are reviewed. With the nano-aperture evolving from conventional circular and square aperture to unique C-shaped, H-shaped, I-shaped, and bowtie-shaped aperture, both the near-field intensity and near-field beam confinement from nano-aperture VCSELs are significantly improved. As a high-intensity compact light source with sub-100-nm spot size, nano-aperture VCSELs are promising to realize many new near-field optical systems and applications.
© 2008 Chinese Optics LettersPDF Article