Single-mode, long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the near- to mid-infrared covering the wavelength range from 1.3 to 2.3 are presented. This wide spectral emission range opens applications in gas sensing and optical interconnects. All these lasers are monolithically grown in the InGaAlAs-InP material system utilizing a buried tunnel junction (BTJ) as current aperture. Fabricated with a novel high-speed design with reduced parasitics, bandwidths in excess of 10 GHz at 1.3 and 1.55 µm have been achieved. Therefore, the coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) wavelength range of 1.3 to 1.6 µm at 10 Gb/s can be accomplished with one technology. Error-free data-transmission at 10 Gb/s over a fiber link of 20 km is demonstrated. One-dimensional arrays have been fabricated with emission wavelengths addressable by current tuning. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) tunable devices provide an extended tuning range in excess of 50 nm with high spectral purity. All these devices feature continuous-wave (CW) operation with typical single-mode output powers exceeding 1 mW. The operation voltage is around 1-1.5 V and power consumption is as low as 10-20 mW. Furthermore, we have also developed VCSELs based on GaSb, targeting at the wavelength range from 2.3 to 3.0 µm. The functionality of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) systems is shown by presenting a laser hygrometer applying a 1.84-µm VCSEL.
© 2008 Chinese Optics LettersPDF Article