Abstract

Pulsed laser ablation of soft biological tissue was studied at 10.6-, 2.94-, and 2.08-micron wavelengths. The ablation effects were assessed by means of optical microscope, the ablation crater depths were measured with reading microscope. It was shown that Er:YAG laser produced the highest quality ablation with clear, sharp cuts following closely the spatial contour of the incident beam and the lowest fluence threshold. The pulsed CO2 laser presented the moderate quality ablation with the highest ablation efficiency. The craters drilled with Ho:YAG laser were generally larger than the incident laser beam spot, irregular in shape, and clearly dependent on the local morphology of biotissue. The ablation characteristics, including fluence threshold and ablation efficiency, varied substantially with wavelength. It is not evident that water is the only dominant chromophore in tissue.

© 2007 Chinese Optics Letters

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  1. X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).
  2. D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).
  3. C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).
  4. C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).
  5. M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).
  6. E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).
  7. A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).
  8. S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).
  9. J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).
  10. J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).
  11. F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

2006

X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

2005

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

2003

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).

2002

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

2001

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

1998

D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).

1996

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

1991

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

1987

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Afilal, S.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

Albagli, D.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

Anderson, R. R.

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

Apel, C.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Arai, T.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Ashida, H.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Britton, M.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

Cothren, R. M.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Domankevitz, Y.

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

Dumitras, D. C.

D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).

Dutu, D. C. A.

D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).

Feld, M. S.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Franzen, R.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Gutknecht, N.

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

Hering, P.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Ioana, R. S.

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Ishihara, M.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Itzkan, I.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

Ivanenko, M.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Jubas, J. M.

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

Kawauchi, S.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Kikuchi, M.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Kittrell, C.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Klasing, M.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

Kramer, J. R.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Kurita, A.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Lin, H.

X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).

Matei, C. E.

D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).

Matsui, T.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Meister, J.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Obara, M.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Ogura, M.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Partovi, F.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Peavy, G. M.

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

Ross, E. V.

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

Sarrafzadegan, H.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

Sato, S.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

Skrobal, M.

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

Strikwerda, S.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Sweet, P.

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

Thelen, S.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

Thomas, J. E.

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

Venugopalan, V.

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).

Werner, M.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

Xie, S.

X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).

Youn, J.-I.

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).

Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese)

X. Zhang, S. Xie, and H. Lin, Acta Laser Biology Sin. (in Chinese) 15, 97 (2006).

Chem. Rev.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, Chem. Rev. 103, 577 (2003).

Lasers in Surg. and Med.

S. Sato, M. Ogura, M. Ishihara, S. Kawauchi, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, and H. Ashida, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 29, 464 (2001).

J. A. Izatt, D. Albagli, M. Britton, J. M. Jubas, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 11, 238 (1991).

J.-I. Youn, P. Sweet, G. M. Peavy, and V. Venugopalan, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 38, 218 (2006).

F. Partovi, J. A. Izatt, R. M. Cothren, C. Kittrell, J. E. Thomas, S. Strikwerda, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 7, 141 (1987).

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, Lasers in Surg. and Med. 19, 123 (1996).

Lasers Med. Sci.

C. Apel, R. Franzen, J. Meister, H. Sarrafzadegan, S. Thelen, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 253 (2002).

C. Apel, J. Meister, R. S. Ioana, R. Franzen, P. Hering, and N. Gutknecht, Lasers Med. Sci. 17, 246 (2002).

Med. Laser Appl.

M. Ivanenko, M. Werner, S. Afilal, M. Klasing, and P. Hering, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 13 (2005).

Proc. SPIE

D. C. Dumitras, D. C. A. Dutu, and C. E. Matei, Proc. SPIE 3405, 654 (1998).

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