Abstract

GaN thin films grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are successfully bonded and transferred onto Si receptor substrates using fusion bonding and laser lift-off (LLO) technique. GaN/Al2O3 structures are joined to Si substrates by pressure bonding Ti/Au coated GaN surface onto Ti/Au coated Si receptor substrates at the temperature of 400 Celsius degree. KrF excimer laser with 400-mJ/cm2 energy density, 248-nm wavelength, and 30-ns pulse width is used to irradiate the wafer through the transparent sapphire substrates and separate GaN films from sapphire. Cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) measurements show that Au/Si solid solution is formed during bonding process. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the qualities of GaN films on Si substrates degrade little after substrates transfer.

© 2006 Chinese Optics Letters

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  1. S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, IEEE Proc. 83, 1306 (1995).
  2. M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).
  3. A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).
  4. T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).
  5. X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 021912 (2005).
  6. Y.-J. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2760 (2004).
  7. S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 739 (2002).
  8. T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 711 (2001).
  9. H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).
  10. M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).
  11. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599 (1997).
  12. Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).
  13. T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).
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  16. Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).
  17. T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).
  18. J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).
  19. R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).
  20. C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

2005 (3)

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 021912 (2005).

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).

2004 (3)

Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Y.-J. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2760 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

2002 (4)

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 739 (2002).

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).

T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).

2001 (2)

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 711 (2001).

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

1999 (1)

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

1997 (2)

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599 (1997).

1996 (2)

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, IEEE Proc. 83, 1306 (1995).

Ambacher, O.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Angerer, H.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Bremser, M. D.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Bret, T.

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

Cheldng, N.-W.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

Chen, K.

Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599 (1997).

Cho, M. S.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 739 (2002).

Cho, Y.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

Chu, C.-F.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Chu, J.-T.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Dahlheimer, B.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Dai, H.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Davis, R. F.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Dimitrov, R.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Dohler, G. H.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Egawa, T.

T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).

Feng, Y.-C.

J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).

Gao, Z.-X.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Gong, K.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Groos, G.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Guo, B.-P.

J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).

Guo, W.-L.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Guo, X.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Hoffmann, P.

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

Hu, J.-H.

J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).

Hu, X.-D.

Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).

Huh, C.

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

Hwang, H.

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

III, J. W. Ager

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Ilegems, M.

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

Ishikawa, H.

T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).

Jeon, S.-R.

S.-R. Jeon, M. S. Cho, M.-A. Yu, and G. M. Yang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 739 (2002).

Jimbo, T.

T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).

Jones, E.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Kato, H.

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).

Kelly, M. K.

M. K. Kelly, O. Ambacher, B. Dahlheimer, G. Groos, R. Dimitrov, and H. Angerer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1749 (1996).

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Kim, H.

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

Kim, S.-W.

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

Kisielowski, C.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 711 (2001).

Koike, M.

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).

Kruger, J.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Lai, F.-I.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Li, Z.-H.

J.-H. Hu, J.-S. Zhu, Y.-C. Feng, J.-B. Zhang, Z.-H. Li, B.-P. Guo, and X.-S. Xu, Chin. J. Luminescence (in Chinese) 26, 518 (2005).

Li, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Lin, C.-F.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Lin, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2760 (2004).

Liu, B.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Martin, D.

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

Matsuhata, H.

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 021912 (2005).

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Mohammad, S. N.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, IEEE Proc. 83, 1306 (1995).

Morkoc, H.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, IEEE Proc. 83, 1306 (1995).

Nie, R.-J.

Z.-L. Li, X.-D. Hu, B. Zhang, K. Chen, R.-J. Nie, and G.-Y. Zhang, Laser Technique 28, 29 (2004).

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 711 (2001).

Niu, N.-H.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Ohmura, H.

T. Egawa, H. Ohmura, H. Ishikawa, and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 292 (2002).

Okumura, H.

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 021912 (2005).

Park, S. J.

H. Kim, H. Yang, C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, Electron. Lett. 36, 908 (2000).

Quitoriano, N. J.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

Rooman, C.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Rubin, M.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Ruvimov, S.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Saito, H.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 711 (2001).

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).

Salleo, A.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

Salvador, A. A.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, IEEE Proc. 83, 1306 (1995).

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 599 (1997).

Shan, Y.-S.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Shen, G.-D.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Shen, X. Q.

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 021912 (2005).

Shibata, N.

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).

Sunakawa, H.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).

Suski, T.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Takahashi, Y.

M. Koike, N. Shibata, H. Kato, and Y. Takahashi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 271 (2002).

Tan, X.-Z.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Usui, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).

Wagner, V.

T. Bret, V. Wagner, D. Martin, P. Hoffmann, and M. Ilegems, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 559 (2002).

Wang, N.-Y.

Y.-H. Xiang, Y.-S. Shan, K. Gong, X.-Z. Tan, Z.-X. Gao, H. Dai, and N.-Y. Wang, Atomic Energy Science and Technology (in Chinese) 37, 101 (2003).

Wang, S. C.

C.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3916 (2004).

Wang, T.

T. Wang, X. Guo, B. Liu, N.-H. Niu, W.-L. Guo, and G.-D. Shen, Chin. J. Laser (in Chinese) 32, 1295 (2005).

Weber, E. R.

C. Kisielowski, J. Kruger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager III, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17745 (1996).

Wengrow, A. B.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Dohler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315 (2001).

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N.-W. Cheldng, and T. Sands, J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1409 (1999).

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