Abstract

A new distributed optical fiber sensor system for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection is presented. A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is buried beneath the soil running along the oil pipeline, which is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation and vibration caused by leaking, tampering, and mechanical impacting. The region of additional attenuation can be located based on the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), and the types of external disturbances can be identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power. The Golay codes are utilized to improve the range-resolution performance of the OTDR sub-system and offer a method to characterize the transmitted optical power in a wide range of frequency spectrum. Theoretic analysis and simulation experiment have shown that the application of Golay codes can overcome the shortcomings of the prototype based on the conventional single-pulse OTDR.

© 2005 Chinese Optics Letters

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2005

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

2004

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

2003

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

2002

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

2000

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

1993

M. D. Jones, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 822 (1993).

1990

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, and W. R. Trutna, Electron. Lett. 26, 70 (1990).

1989

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

1961

M. J. E. Golay, IEEE Trans. Information Theory 7, 82 (1961).

Beltran, G.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

Carrillo, A.

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

Chen, C.

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Culshaw, B.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Foster, S.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Giffard, R. P.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Golay, M. J. E.

M. J. E. Golay, IEEE Trans. Information Theory 7, 82 (1961).

Gonzalez, E.

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

Guo, T.

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Gutierrez, R. M. L.

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Jia, Z.

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Jiang, Z.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Jimenez, F. J. M.

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Johnstone, W.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Jones, M. D.

M. D. Jones, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 822 (1993).

Kuzin, E. A.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

Lopez, R. M.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

Lucero, A. Marquez

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

MacLean, A.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Marquez, A.

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

Marsh, D.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Miridonov, S. V.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Moberly, D. S.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Moran, C.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Nazarathy, M.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, and W. R. Trutna, Electron. Lett. 26, 70 (1990).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Newton, S. A.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, and W. R. Trutna, Electron. Lett. 26, 70 (1990).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Parker, P.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

Qiao, X.

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Rosas, A.

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

Shlyagin, M. G.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Sischka, F.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Spirin, V. V.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Sun, A.

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Trutna, W. R.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, and W. R. Trutna, Electron. Lett. 26, 70 (1990).

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Yang, J.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Zhao, G.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Zhu, L.

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese)

A. Sun, X. Qiao, Z. Jia, T. Guo, and C. Chen, Chin. J. Lasers (in Chinese) 32, 224 (2005).

Electron. Lett.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, and W. R. Trutna, Electron. Lett. 26, 70 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. D. Jones, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 822 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Information Theory

M. J. E. Golay, IEEE Trans. Information Theory 7, 82 (1961).

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, R. P. Giffard, D. S. Moberly, F. Sischka, W. R. Trutna, and S. Foster, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 24 (1989).

J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese)

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Yang, and G. Zhao, J. Xi'an Jiaotong University (in Chinese) 37, 933 (2003).

Opt. Fiber Technol.

R. M. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, G. Beltran, E. A. Kuzin, and A. Marquez Lucero, Opt. Fiber Technol. 10, 79 (2004).

Optics and Lasers in Engineering

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, F. J. M. Jimenez, and R. M. L. Gutierrez, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 32, 497 (2000).

Sensors and Actuators A

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, and P. Parker, Sensors and Actuators A 109, 60 (2003).

A. Carrillo, E. Gonzalez, A. Rosas, and A. Marquez, Sensors and Actuators A 99, 229 (2002).

Other

Z. D. Jiang, Y. N. Wang, and Y. L. Zhao, A smart optical fiber sensing cable for monitoring the health of long-distance oil pipeline (in Chinese) China Patent 200410073072.5 (2004).

Z. D. Jiang, Y. N. Wang, Y. L. Zhao, and G. D. Ren, An intelligent method of real-time detecting oil pipeline leakage based on distributed optical fiber sensor (in Chinese) China Patent 02145502.3 (2002).

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