Atom lithography suffers from serious practical limitations, which have limited the application of this technique in practice. Double deposition method, manipulation of atoms with a linear polarization gradient laser field and moving substrate during deposition process to fabricate nanostructure with a period less than half an optical wavelength, was discussed. The atomic density distribution transversal to the beam direction closely mimics the light intensity pattern, and the structures are equally complex as the inducing light intensity. The variety of patterns and the role of the different parameters were discussed. The optical focusing of group III atoms provides a new approach for controlling the spatial composition of atoms during the growth of III-V heterostructures.
© 2005 Chinese Optics LettersPDF Article