Abstract

Visualization of the protein secretory pathway in the high secreting trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) hyphae using confocal microscopy will lead to better understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in protein secretion and contribute to the identification of bottlenecks in the secretion of foreign proteins from fungi. An introduction into visualization approaches involved the application of the fluorescent dye FM 4-64 for staining of membrane-based structures in T. reesei hyphae. Confocal microscopy studies were carried out with 24-hour old cultures of the T. reesei strain Rut-C30. Staining of the fungal hyphae and characteristics of FM 4-64 including spectral properties, time course of the labeling and double labeling with other specific organelle dyes will be discussed.

© 2005 Chinese Optics Letters

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  22. D. Illinger and J. G. Kuhry, J. Cell Biol. 125, 783 (1994).
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  24. R. M. Parton, P. S. Fischer, M. K. Watahiki, and A. J. Trewavas, J. Cell Sci. 114, 2685 (2001).

2004

S. Bolte, C. Talbot, Y. Boutte, O. Catrice, N. D. Read, and B. S. Jeunemaitre, J. Microsc. 214, 159 (2004).

2003

K. M. H. Nevalainen and V. S. J. Te'o, Appl. Mycol. Biotechnol. 3, 241 (2003).

R. Pepperkok, Zellbiologie Aktuell. 3, 15 (2003).

2002

P. C. Hickey, D. Jacobson, N. D. Read, and N. L. Glass, Fungal Genet. Biol. 37, 109 (2002).

N. Emans, S. Zimmermann, and R. Fischer, Plant Cell 14, 71 (2002).

2001

R. M. Parton, P. S. Fischer, M. K. Watahiki, and A. J. Trewavas, J. Cell Sci. 114, 2685 (2001).

2000

K. D. Belanger and R. S. Quatrano, Curr. Opin. Pl. Biol. 3, 67 (2000).

U. Kubitscheck, U. Homann, and G. Thiel, Planta. 210, 423 (2000).

S. Bolte, K. Schiene, and K. J. Dietz, Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 923 (2000).

J. Durand, L. Kojic, Y. Wang, P. Lee, M. S. Cynader, and Q. Gu, Neurosci. 97, 11 (2000).

K. D. Belanger and R. S. Quatrano, Protoplasma 212, 24 (2000).

S. Fischer-Parton, R. M. Parton, P. C. Hickey, J. Dijksterhuis, H. A. Atkinson, and N. D. Read, J. Microsc. 198, 246 (2000).

1999

A. J. Cochilla, J. K. Angleson, and W. J. Betz, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 1 (1999).

N. H. Battey, N. C. James, A. J. Greenland, and C. Brownlee, Plant Cell 11, 643 (1999).

1998

N. D. Read, S. Fischer, and R. M. Parton, Pestic. Sci. 54, 179 (1998).

A. D. Carroll, C. Moyen, P. V. Kesteren, F. Tooke, N. H. Battey, and C. Brownlee, Plant Cell 10, 1267 (1998).

1996

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365 (1996).

1994

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. Ward, and D. Prasher, Science 263, 802 (1994).

D. Illinger and J. G. Kuhry, J. Cell Biol. 125, 783 (1994).

1992

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and G. S. Bewick, J. Neurosci. 12, 363 (1992).

1981

M. J. Bailey, and K. M. H. Nevalainen, Enzyme Microb. Technol. 3, 153 (1981).

Annu. Rev. Neurosci.

A. J. Cochilla, J. K. Angleson, and W. J. Betz, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 1 (1999).

Appl. Mycol. Biotechnol.

K. M. H. Nevalainen and V. S. J. Te'o, Appl. Mycol. Biotechnol. 3, 241 (2003).

Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and C. B. Smith, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 365 (1996).

Curr. Opin. Pl. Biol.

K. D. Belanger and R. S. Quatrano, Curr. Opin. Pl. Biol. 3, 67 (2000).

Enzyme Microb. Technol.

M. J. Bailey, and K. M. H. Nevalainen, Enzyme Microb. Technol. 3, 153 (1981).

Fungal Genet. Biol.

P. C. Hickey, D. Jacobson, N. D. Read, and N. L. Glass, Fungal Genet. Biol. 37, 109 (2002).

J. Cell Biol.

D. Illinger and J. G. Kuhry, J. Cell Biol. 125, 783 (1994).

J. Cell Sci.

R. M. Parton, P. S. Fischer, M. K. Watahiki, and A. J. Trewavas, J. Cell Sci. 114, 2685 (2001).

J. Microsc.

S. Fischer-Parton, R. M. Parton, P. C. Hickey, J. Dijksterhuis, H. A. Atkinson, and N. D. Read, J. Microsc. 198, 246 (2000).

S. Bolte, C. Talbot, Y. Boutte, O. Catrice, N. D. Read, and B. S. Jeunemaitre, J. Microsc. 214, 159 (2004).

J. Neurosci.

W. J. Betz, F. Mao, and G. S. Bewick, J. Neurosci. 12, 363 (1992).

Neurosci.

J. Durand, L. Kojic, Y. Wang, P. Lee, M. S. Cynader, and Q. Gu, Neurosci. 97, 11 (2000).

Pestic. Sci.

N. D. Read, S. Fischer, and R. M. Parton, Pestic. Sci. 54, 179 (1998).

Plant Cell

A. D. Carroll, C. Moyen, P. V. Kesteren, F. Tooke, N. H. Battey, and C. Brownlee, Plant Cell 10, 1267 (1998).

N. H. Battey, N. C. James, A. J. Greenland, and C. Brownlee, Plant Cell 11, 643 (1999).

N. Emans, S. Zimmermann, and R. Fischer, Plant Cell 14, 71 (2002).

Plant Mol. Biol.

S. Bolte, K. Schiene, and K. J. Dietz, Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 923 (2000).

Planta.

U. Kubitscheck, U. Homann, and G. Thiel, Planta. 210, 423 (2000).

Protoplasma

K. D. Belanger and R. S. Quatrano, Protoplasma 212, 24 (2000).

Science

M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. Ward, and D. Prasher, Science 263, 802 (1994).

Zellbiologie Aktuell.

R. Pepperkok, Zellbiologie Aktuell. 3, 15 (2003).

Other

N. D. Read and P. C. Hickey, "The Vesicle Trafficking Network and Tip Growth in Fungi Hyphae" in Cell Biology of Plant and Fungal Tip Growth A. Geitmann, M. Cresti, and I. B. Heath, (eds.) (NATO Science Series, IOS Press, 2001) pp.137-146.

B. S. Montenecourt, S. D. Nhlapo, H. Trimino-Vazquez, H. Cuskey, D. H. J. Schamhart, and D. E. Eveleigh, "Regulatory controls in relation to overproduction of fungal cellulases" in Trends in the Biotechnology of Fermentations for Fuels and Chemicals A. Hollaender, R. Rabson, P. Rogers, A. San Pietro, R. Valentine, and R. Wolfe, (eds.) (Plenum Publishing, New York, 1981) pp.33-53.

P. C. Hickey and N. D. Read, Biology of Living Fungi (British Mycological Society, Stevenage, U.K., 2003).

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