The mechanism of ferromagnetic ordering in ZrOx film is investigated by both experimental observation and theoretical calculation. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic properties can be adjusted from diamagnetism to ferromagnetism by varying the oxygen stoichiometry. We find that oxygen-rich defects can be responsible for the observed magnetic properties by taking the measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence spectra. Density functional theory calculations further confirm that the ferromagnetic order is mainly driven by the exchange interaction between the oxygen antisites and the neighboring anion atoms.
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