Abstract

Accommodation and convergence play critical roles in the natural process of depth perception, and the field of natural three-dimensional (3D) perception in stereo displays has been extensively explored. However, no prototypes of these natural 3D displays are suitable for wear due to the system size and weight. In addition, few of the researches have involved subjects with ametropia. We propose and develop an optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) capable of diopter adjustment of both the virtual image and the real world scene. The prototype demonstrates a diagonal field of view (FOV) of 42o and an exit pupil diameter of 9 mm, and a diopter adjustment range of -5.5D to 0D. Depth adjustment of virtual image is demonstrated with experiments, the results show the HMD can be further used to investigate the accommodation and convergence cues in depth perception in AR environment, particularly for users with different degree of the ametropia.

© 2014 Chinese Optics Letters

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2013

X. Hu and H. Hua, Proc. SPIE 8648, 86481 (2013).

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

D. Cheng, Q. Wang, Y. Wang, and G. Jin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 031201 (2013).

2011

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, Opt. Express 19, 20940 (2011).

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

K. J. MacKenzie, R. A. Dickson, and S. J. Watt, Proc. SPIE 7863, 78631 (2011).

2010

S. Liu and H. Hua, Opt. Express 18, 11562 (2010).

Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, 3D Research 1, 17 (2010).

2009

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

S. Liu and H. Hua, Opt. Lett. 34, 1642 (2009).

2008

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, Display 29, 106 (2008).

2005

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

2004

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

2002

T. Iwasaki, and A. Tawara, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 113 (2002).

2000

Akeley, K.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, Opt. Express 19, 20940 (2011).

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Banks, M. S.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, Opt. Express 19, 20940 (2011).

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Cheng, D.

Dickson, R. A.

K. J. MacKenzie, R. A. Dickson, and S. J. Watt, Proc. SPIE 7863, 78631 (2011).

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

Girshick, A. R.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Goon, A.

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

Hong, K.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, 3D Research 1, 17 (2010).

Howarth, P. A.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, Display 29, 106 (2008).

Hu, X.

X. Hu and H. Hua, Proc. SPIE 8648, 86481 (2013).

Hua, H.

Huang, T.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

IJsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

Iwasaki, T.

T. Iwasaki, and A. Tawara, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 113 (2002).

Jin, G.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, 3D Research 1, 17 (2010).

Krueger, M. W.

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, 3D Research 1, 17 (2010).

Liu, S.

Liu, Y.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

MacKenzie, K. J.

K. J. MacKenzie, R. A. Dickson, and S. J. Watt, Proc. SPIE 7863, 78631 (2011).

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

Ravikumar, S.

Rolland, J. P.

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

Tawara, A.

T. Iwasaki, and A. Tawara, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 113 (2002).

Ukai, K.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, Display 29, 106 (2008).

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

D. Cheng, Q. Wang, Y. Wang, and G. Jin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 11, 031201 (2013).

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

Watt, S. J.

K. J. MacKenzie, R. A. Dickson, and S. J. Watt, Proc. SPIE 7863, 78631 (2011).

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

Zhu, Q.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

3D Research

Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, 3D Research 1, 17 (2010).

ACM Trans. Graph.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, ACM Trans. Graph. 30, 95 (2011).

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004).

Appl. Opt.

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Display

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, Display 29, 106 (2008).

J. Imaging. Sci. Technol.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, J. Imaging. Sci. Technol. 53, 030201(2009).

J. Vision

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, and M. S. Banks, J. Vision 5, 834 (2005).

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt.

T. Iwasaki, and A. Tawara, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 113 (2002).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

K. J. MacKenzie, R. A. Dickson, and S. J. Watt, Proc. SPIE 7863, 78631 (2011).

X. Hu and H. Hua, Proc. SPIE 8648, 86481 (2013).

SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 44, 318 (2013).

Other

J. A. Jones, J. E. Swan II, G. Singh, and S. R. Ellis, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization ACM 29 (2011).

G. Singh, J. E. Swan II, J. A. Jones, and S. R. Ellis, in Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization ACM 149 (2010).

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