Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has poor therapeutic outcomes for the treatment of port-wine stain (PWS) lesions with long drug-light intervals (DLIs). This letter investigates the possibility of improving the treatment efficacy through increasing the laser power density using a computer simulation and a cock comb model. The computational model includes a Monte Carlo simulation for the laser distribution and a calculation of the singlet oxygen concentrations (1O2). Both simulation and experimental results show that increasing the power density from 100 to 140 mW/cm2 not only improves the PDT efficacy, but also results in the unwanted skin damage.

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2013

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 050902 (2013).

2012

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0880011 (2012).

W. Cai and L. Ma, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 012901 (2012).

2011

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

2010

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 5913 (2010).

B. Li, H. Lin, D. Chen, M. Wang, and S. Xie, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 86 (2010).

2009

2008

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

C. J. Chang, J. S. Yu, and J. S. Nelson, J. Formos Med. Assoc. 107, 559 (2008).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

2007

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

E. Buytaert, M. Dewaele, and P. Agostinis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer 1776, 86 (2007).

K. K. H. Wang, S. Mitra, and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 34, 282 (2007).

2006

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 3, 71 (2006).

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G.Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).

1997

I. Georgakoudi, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 135 (1997).

1995

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

1994

M. Nichols and T. Foster, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 2161 (1994).

1991

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

J. Chen, Y. Lu, S. Chen, and H. Cai, Photogr. Sci. Photochem. 9, 156 (1991).

1990

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

1952

L. Winer and B. Hills, Califor Med. 77, 242 (1952).

Agostinis, P.

E. Buytaert, M. Dewaele, and P. Agostinis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer 1776, 86 (2007).

Bargo, P.

Berns, M. W.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Brown, C.

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

Bryant, R. G.

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Buytaert, E.

E. Buytaert, M. Dewaele, and P. Agostinis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer 1776, 86 (2007).

Cai, H.

J. Chen, Y. Lu, S. Chen, and H. Cai, Photogr. Sci. Photochem. 9, 156 (1991).

Cai, W.

Chang, C. J.

C. J. Chang, J. S. Yu, and J. S. Nelson, J. Formos Med. Assoc. 107, 559 (2008).

Chen, B.

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

Chen, D.

Chen, H.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Y. Lu, S. Chen, and H. Cai, Photogr. Sci. Photochem. 9, 156 (1991).

Chen, R.

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Chen, S.

J. Chen, Y. Lu, S. Chen, and H. Cai, Photogr. Sci. Photochem. 9, 156 (1991).

Cheng, G.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Dewaele, M.

E. Buytaert, M. Dewaele, and P. Agostinis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer 1776, 86 (2007).

Durkin, A.

Farrell, T. J.

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0880011 (2012).

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 5913 (2010).

Foster, T.

M. Nichols and T. Foster, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 2161 (1994).

Foster, T. H.

K. K. H. Wang, S. Mitra, and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 34, 282 (2007).

I. Georgakoudi, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 135 (1997).

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Friebel, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G.Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 135 (1997).

Gibson, S. L.

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Gu, Y.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Hamzavi, I.

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Hasan, T.

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

Hilf, R.

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Hills, B.

L. Winer and B. Hills, Califor Med. 77, 242 (1952).

Hoopes, P. J.

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

Huang, N.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Huang, Z.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 3, 71 (2006).

I.McLean, D.

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Ibbotson, S.

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Kaplan, R.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Kimel, S.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Knox, R. S.

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Kollias, N.

Li, B.

Li, Q.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

Li, X.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Liang, J.

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Liaw, L. H.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Lin, H.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0880011 (2012).

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 5913 (2010).

Liu, F.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Liu, F. G.

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Liu, Q.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 050902 (2013).

Lu, Y.

J. Chen, Y. Lu, S. Chen, and H. Cai, Photogr. Sci. Photochem. 9, 156 (1991).

Lui, H.

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Ma, L.

Meinke, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G.Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).

Mitra, S.

K. K. H. Wang, S. Mitra, and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 34, 282 (2007).

Moseley, H.

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

Nelson, J. S.

C. J. Chang, J. S. Yu, and J. S. Nelson, J. Formos Med. Assoc. 107, 559 (2008).

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Nichols, M.

M. Nichols and T. Foster, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 2161 (1994).

Nichols, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, M. G. Nichols, and T. H. Foster, Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 135 (1997).

Orenstein, A.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Pan, Y. M.

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Patterson, M. S.

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0880011 (2012).

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 5913 (2010).

Pogue, B. W.

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

Qiu, H.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Roggan, A.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G.Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).

S.Murant, R.

T. H. Foster, R. S.Murant, R. G. Bryant, R. S. Knox, S. L. Gibson, and R. Hilf, Radiat. Res. 126, 296 (1991).

Tao, J.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Tseng, S. H.

Tu, P.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Valentine, R.

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

Wang, K. K. H.

K. K. H. Wang, S. Mitra, and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 34, 282 (2007).

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Winer, L.

L. Winer and B. Hills, Califor Med. 77, 242 (1952).

Wood, K.

R. Valentine, K. Wood, C. Brown, S. Ibbotson, and H. Moseley, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 6327 (2012).

Xie, S.

B. Li, H. Lin, D. Chen, M. Wang, and S. Xie, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 86 (2010).

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Yu, J. S.

C. J. Chang, J. S. Yu, and J. S. Nelson, J. Formos Med. Assoc. 107, 559 (2008).

Yu, W. L.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

Yuan, K.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

Zen, J.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Zeng, D.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

Zeng, H.

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Zeng, J.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

Zhang, C.

K. Yuan, Q. Li, W. L. Yu, D. Zeng, C. Zhang, and Z. Huang, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 50 (2008).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Zheng, Q.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Zhong, Q.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, X. Li, Y. Gu, F. Liu, Q. Zhong, Y. Wang, J. Zen, H. Qiu, and H. Chen, Photodiagn. Photodyn. Therapy 5, 120 (2008).

Zhou, G.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Zhou, Z.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Zhu, C.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 050902 (2013).

Zhu, X.

Y. Zhao, Z. Zhou, G. Zhou, P. Tu, Q. Zheng, J. Tao, Y. Gu, and X. Zhu, Photoderm, Photoimmun Photomed 27, 17 (2011).

Zuo, Z.

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

Ann. Dermatol. Venereol.

Y. Gu, N. Huang, J. Liang, Y. M. Pan, and F. G. Liu, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 134, 241 (2007).

Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer

E. Buytaert, M. Dewaele, and P. Agostinis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta Rev. Cancer 1776, 86 (2007).

Califor Med.

L. Winer and B. Hills, Califor Med. 77, 242 (1952).

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).

Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express

B. Chen, B. W. Pogue, P. J. Hoopes, and T. Hasan, Crit. Rev. Eukar. Gene Express 16, 279 (2006).

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. Zhu and Q. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 050902 (2013).

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G.Muller, and M. Meinke, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034021 (2006).

B. Liu, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0880011 (2012).

Y. Wang, Y. Gu, Z. Zuo, and N. Huang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 098001 (2011).

J. Formos Med. Assoc.

C. J. Chang, J. S. Yu, and J. S. Nelson, J. Formos Med. Assoc. 107, 559 (2008).

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

R. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Lui, I. Hamzavi, D. I.McLean, S. Xie, and H. Zeng, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 86, 219 (2007).

Lasers Med. Sci.

N. Huang, G. Cheng, Y. Wang, J. Zeng, H. Qiu, and Y. Gu, Lasers Med. Sci. 26, 665 (2011).

Lasers Surg. Med.

A. Orenstein, J. S. Nelson, L. H. Liaw, R. Kaplan, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 334 (1990).

Med. Phys.

K. K. H. Wang, S. Mitra, and T. H. Foster, Med. Phys. 34, 282 (2007).

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