Abstract

Tunneling is studied in two main single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) topologies, which are n-tub guard ring (NTGR) and p-tub guard ring (PTGR). Device simulation, I-V measurements, and dark count calculations and measurements demonstrate that tunneling is the main source of noise in NTGR, but it is less dominant in PTGR SPADs. All structures are characterized with respect to dark noise, photon detection probability, timing jitter, afterpulsing probability, and breakdown voltage. Noise performance is disturbed because of tunneling, whereas jitter performance is disturbed because of the short diffusion time of photo-generated minority carriers in NTGR SPADs. The maximum photon detection probability is enhanced because of an improvement in absorption thickness.

© 2014 Chinese Optics Letters

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  1. M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).
  2. M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).
  3. A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).
  4. C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).
  5. N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).
  6. M. Gersbach, "Single-Photon Detector Arrays for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging" PhD. Thesis (Ecole Poly-technique Federale De Lausanne, 2009).
  7. R. K. Henderson, J. Richardson, and L. Grant, in Proceedings of International Image Sensor Workshop 26 (2009).
  8. A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).
  9. A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).
  10. R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison-Wesley Publication Company, Boston, 1996).
  11. E. O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 12, 181 (1960).
  12. A. Rochas, "Single Photon Avalanche Diodes in CMOS technology" PhD. Thesis ( Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne, 2003).
  13. W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

2010 (2)

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

2008 (1)

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

2006 (1)

C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).

2003 (1)

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

1989 (1)

A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).

1972 (1)

W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

1963 (1)

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

1960 (1)

E. O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 12, 181 (1960).

Antognetti, P.

W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

Besse, P. A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Carrara, L.

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

Charbon, E.

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).

Cova, S.

A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).

Deen, M. J.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

Fang, Q.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

Faramarzpour, N.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

Fishburn, M.

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

Gersbach, M.

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

Ghioni, M.

A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

Gosch, M.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Haitz, R. H.

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

Kane, E. O.

E. O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 12, 181 (1960).

Karami, M. A.

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

Lacatia, A.

A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).

Lasser, T.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Mcdonald, B.

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

Niclass, C.

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).

Oldham, W. G.

W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

Popovic, R. S.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Rigler, R.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Rochas, A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Samuelson, R. S.

W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

Scarlett, R. M.

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

Sergio, M.

C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).

Serov, A.

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

Shirani, S.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

Yoon, H. J.

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Lacatia, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, Electron. Lett. 25, 841 (1989).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M. A. Karami, L. Carrara, C. Niclass, M. Fishburn, and E.Charbon, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 692 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Rochas, M. Gosch, A. Serov, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, T. Lasser, and R. Rigler, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 963 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (2)

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55, 760 (2008).

W. G. Oldham, R. S. Samuelson, and P. Antognetti, IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 19, 1056 (1972).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Goetzberger, B. Mcdonald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlett, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1591 (1963).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

E. O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 12, 181 (1960).

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. Niclass, M. Sergio, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 6372, 63720S (2006).

M. A. Karami, M. Gersbach, H. J. Yoon, and E. Charbon, Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801F (2010).

Other (4)

M. Gersbach, "Single-Photon Detector Arrays for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging" PhD. Thesis (Ecole Poly-technique Federale De Lausanne, 2009).

R. K. Henderson, J. Richardson, and L. Grant, in Proceedings of International Image Sensor Workshop 26 (2009).

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (Addison-Wesley Publication Company, Boston, 1996).

A. Rochas, "Single Photon Avalanche Diodes in CMOS technology" PhD. Thesis ( Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne, 2003).

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