Abstract

An adaptive filter for cancelling noise contained in the direct absorption spectra is reported. This technique takes advantage of the periodical nature of the repetitively scanned spectral signal, and requires no prior knowledge of the detailed properties of noises. An experimental system devised for measuring CH<sub>4</sub> is used to test the performance of the filter. The measurement results show that the signal-to-noise (S/N) value is improved by a factor of 2. A higher enhancement factor of the S/N value of 5.4 is obtained through open-air measurement owing to higher distortions of the raw data. In addition, the response time of this filter, which characterizes the real-time detection ability of the system, is nine times shorter than that of a conventional signal averaging solution, under the condition that the filter order is 100.

© 2013 Chinese Optics Letters

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

J. Vanderover and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Appl. Phys. B 99, 353 (2009).

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

2006 (1)

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

2002 (3)

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1 (2002).

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

P. Werle, Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 59 (1996).

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 805 (1996).

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, R. E. Warren, and D. E. Cooper, Opt. Lett. 19, 144 (1994).

H. Riris, C. B. Carlisle, and R. E. Warren, Appl. Opt. 33, 5506 (1994).

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, and J. Bechara, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20, 525 (1994).

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, Opt. Eng. 33, 3093 (1994).

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).

1991 (1)

1978 (1)

M. R. Sambur, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Sig. Process. 26, 419 (1978).

1975 (1)

B. Widrow, J. R. Glover, and J. M. McCool, Proc. IEEE 63, 1692 (1975).

Alibert, C.

Anderson, G. A.

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

Baranov, A. N.

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, and J. Bechara, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20, 525 (1994).

Carlisle, C. B.

Chen, D.

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Chen, W.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

Claps, R.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

Cooper, D. E.

Cui, X.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Cui, Y.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Cuminal, Y.

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1 (2002).

Disselkamp, R. S.

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

Dyroff, C.

Geng, H.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Glover, J. R.

B. Widrow, J. R. Glover, and J. M. McCool, Proc. IEEE 63, 1692 (1975).

Harman, T. L.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

He, Y.

L. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Zhou, K. You, Y. He, and W. Liu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 042802 (2012).

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Kan, R.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Kan, R. F.

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Kebabian, P. L.

Kelly, J. F.

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

Leleux, D. P.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

Li, H.

Liu, J. G.

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Liu, W.

L. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Zhou, K. You, Y. He, and W. Liu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 042802 (2012).

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Liu, W. Q.

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, and J. Bechara, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20, 525 (1994).

McCool, J. M.

B. Widrow, J. R. Glover, and J. M. McCool, Proc. IEEE 63, 1692 (1975).

Mcmanus, J. B.

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).

Nicolas, J. C.

Oehlschlaeger, M. A.

J. Vanderover and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Appl. Phys. B 99, 353 (2009).

Riris, H.

Rouillard, Y.

Ruan, J.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Sambur, M. R.

M. R. Sambur, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Sig. Process. 26, 419 (1978).

Sams, R. L.

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

Schandl, J.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, Opt. Eng. 33, 3093 (1994).

Scheumann, B.

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, Opt. Eng. 33, 3093 (1994).

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, and J. Bechara, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20, 525 (1994).

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).

P. Werle and F. Slemr, Appl. Opt. 30, 430 (1991).

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1 (2002).

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

Vanderover, J.

J. Vanderover and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Appl. Phys. B 99, 353 (2009).

Wang, L.

Wang, M.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Warren, R. E.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197 (1998).

P. Werle, Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 59 (1996).

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 805 (1996).

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, Opt. Eng. 33, 3093 (1994).

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).

P. Werle and F. Slemr, Appl. Opt. 30, 430 (1991).

Widrow, B.

B. Widrow, J. R. Glover, and J. M. McCool, Proc. IEEE 63, 1692 (1975).

Xia, H.

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

You, K.

Zahniser, M. S.

Zhang, Y.

L. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Zhou, K. You, Y. He, and W. Liu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 042802 (2012).

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Zhang, Y. J.

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

Zhou, Y.

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 (1)

H. Xia, W. Liu, Y. Zhang, R. Kan, Y. Cui, M. Wang, Y. He, X. Cui, J. Ruan, and H. Geng, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29 , 1444 (2009).

Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C (1)

R. F. Curl and F. K. Tittel, Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

J. Vanderover and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, Appl. Phys. B 99, 353 (2009).

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).

R. S. Disselkamp, J. F. Kelly, R. L. Sams, and G. A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. B 75, 359 (2002).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Chin. Phys. (1)

R. F. Kan, W. Q. Liu, Y. J. Zhang, J. G. Liu, D. Chen, and M. Wang, Chin. Phys. 15, 1379 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Sig. Process. (1)

M. R. Sambur, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Sig. Process. 26, 419 (1978).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

P. Werle, Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 59 (1996).

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Werle, B. Scheumann, and J. Schandl, Opt. Eng. 33, 3093 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. Widrow, J. R. Glover, and J. M. McCool, Proc. IEEE 63, 1692 (1975).

Res. Chem. Intermed. (1)

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, and J. Bechara, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20, 525 (1994).

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (2)

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 197 (1998).

P. Werle, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 52, 805 (1996).

Other (2)

C. Dyroff, "Tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy for trace-gas measurements with high sensitivity and low drift", PhD. Thesis (Karlsruhe University, 2008).

B. Widrow, Adaptive Signal Processing (Upper Saddle River, Prentice-Hall, 1985).

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