Abstract

This letter presents an autofocus (AF) method to position a high-magnification microscope lens that automatically captures hundreds of images from a single moving slide. These images are taken by a mobile clinic unit in a rural location, and are later automatically processed and revised by a remote specialist. This process requires high focus precision to enable image processing techniques to achieve proper results. Low focusing times are also required for the system to be operative. We propose a novel method that combines two focus measures with an adapted searching scheme to cope with both constraints.

© 2013 Chinese Optics Letters

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  22. J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).
  23. Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

2012

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

2011

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

M. E. Plissiti, C. Nikou, and A. Charchanti, IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 15, 233 (2011).

2010

J. Luo, L. Sun, K. Wu, W. Chen, and L. Fu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 580 (2010).

C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, and Y. J. Chen, Applied Soft Computing 10, 296 (2010).

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

K. C. Lin, J. Electron. Imag. 19, 023012 (2010).

2007

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, J. Microsc. 227, 15 (2007).

2003

N. Kehtarnavaz and H. J. Oh, R. Time Imag. 9, 197 (2003).

J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).

2000

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

1999

K. S. Choi, J. S. Lee, and S. J. Ko, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 820 (1999).

1998

M. Subbarao and J. K. Tyan, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 864 (1998).

1997

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

1995

J. Baina and J. Dublet, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications IET, 232 (1995).

1991

M. Charfi, A. Nyeck, and A. Tosser, Electron. Lett. 27, 1233 (1991).

1990

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

1985

F. C. Groen, I. T. Young, and G. Ligthart, Cytometry 6, 81 (1985).

Baina, J.

J. Baina and J. Dublet, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications IET, 232 (1995).

Bravo, I.

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Cano, A. E.

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Charchanti, A.

M. E. Plissiti, C. Nikou, and A. Charchanti, IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 15, 233 (2011).

Charfi, M.

M. Charfi, A. Nyeck, and A. Tosser, Electron. Lett. 27, 1233 (1991).

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, and Y. J. Chen, Applied Soft Computing 10, 296 (2010).

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. J.

C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, and Y. J. Chen, Applied Soft Computing 10, 296 (2010).

Choi, K. S.

K. S. Choi, J. S. Lee, and S. J. Ko, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 820 (1999).

Cornelissen, F.

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

Dublet, J.

J. Baina and J. Dublet, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications IET, 232 (1995).

Fernandez, P. R.

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Fu, L.

Gardel, A.

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Geerts, H.

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

Geusebroek, J. M.

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

Groen, F. C.

F. C. Groen, I. T. Young, and G. Ligthart, Cytometry 6, 81 (1985).

He, J.

J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).

Hong, Z.

J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).

Hwang, R. C.

C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, and Y. J. Chen, Applied Soft Computing 10, 296 (2010).

Izumi, K.

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

Kehtarnavaz, N.

N. Kehtarnavaz and H. J. Oh, R. Time Imag. 9, 197 (2003).

Ko, S. J.

K. S. Choi, J. S. Lee, and S. J. Ko, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 820 (1999).

Lazaro, J. L.

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Lee, J. S.

K. S. Choi, J. S. Lee, and S. J. Ko, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 820 (1999).

Ligthart, G.

F. C. Groen, I. T. Young, and G. Ligthart, Cytometry 6, 81 (1985).

Lin, K. C.

K. C. Lin, J. Electron. Imag. 19, 023012 (2010).

Liu, X.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

Liu, X. Y.

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, J. Microsc. 227, 15 (2007).

Luo, J.

Luo, X.

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

Malpica, N.

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Nikou, C.

M. E. Plissiti, C. Nikou, and A. Charchanti, IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 15, 233 (2011).

Nozaki, M.

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

Nyeck, A.

M. Charfi, A. Nyeck, and A. Tosser, Electron. Lett. 27, 1233 (1991).

Oh, H. J.

N. Kehtarnavaz and H. J. Oh, R. Time Imag. 9, 197 (2003).

Ooi, K.

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

Pena, J. M.

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Plissiti, M. E.

M. E. Plissiti, C. Nikou, and A. Charchanti, IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 15, 233 (2011).

Pozo, F. Del

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Santos, A.

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Smeulders, A. W.

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

Solorzano, C. Ortiz de

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Subbarao, M.

M. Subbarao and J. K. Tyan, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 864 (1998).

Sun, L.

Sun, Y.

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, J. Microsc. 227, 15 (2007).

Takeda, I.

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

Tang, J.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

Tosser, A.

M. Charfi, A. Nyeck, and A. Tosser, Electron. Lett. 27, 1233 (1991).

Tyan, J. K.

M. Subbarao and J. K. Tyan, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 864 (1998).

Vaquero, J. J.

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

Wang, W. H.

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, J. Microsc. 227, 15 (2007).

Wang, Y.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

Wu, J.

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

Wu, K.

Xu, X.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

Young, I. T.

F. C. Groen, I. T. Young, and G. Ligthart, Cytometry 6, 81 (1985).

Zhang, X.

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

Zhou, N.

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

Zhou, R.

J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).

Applied Soft Computing

C. Y. Chen, R. C. Hwang, and Y. J. Chen, Applied Soft Computing 10, 296 (2010).

Chin. Opt. Lett.

J. Luo, L. Sun, K. Wu, W. Chen, and L. Fu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 580 (2010).

Q. Zhao, X. Luo, N. Zhou, and J. Wu, Chin. Opt. Lett. 10, 11006 (2012).

Cytometry

J. M. Geusebroek, F. Cornelissen, A. W. Smeulders, and H. Geerts, Cytometry 39, 1 (2000).

F. C. Groen, I. T. Young, and G. Ligthart, Cytometry 6, 81 (1985).

Electron. Lett.

M. Charfi, A. Nyeck, and A. Tosser, Electron. Lett. 27, 1233 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.

K. S. Choi, J. S. Lee, and S. J. Ko, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 45, 820 (1999).

K. Ooi, K. Izumi, M. Nozaki, and I. Takeda, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 36, 526 (1990).

J. He, R. Zhou, and Z. Hong, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 49, 257 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed.

M. E. Plissiti, C. Nikou, and A. Charchanti, IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed. 15, 233 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

M. Subbarao and J. K. Tyan, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 864 (1998).

in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications

J. Baina and J. Dublet, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Image Processing and its Applications IET, 232 (1995).

J. Electron. Imag.

K. C. Lin, J. Electron. Imag. 19, 023012 (2010).

J. Microsc.

A. Santos, C. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. J. Vaquero, J. M. Pena, N. Malpica, and F. Del Pozo, J. Microsc. 188, 264 (1997).

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, J. Microsc. 227, 15 (2007).

R. Time Imag.

N. Kehtarnavaz and H. J. Oh, R. Time Imag. 9, 197 (2003).

Sensors

X. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Tang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, Sensors 11, 8281 (2011).

P. R. Fernandez, J. L. Lazaro, A. Gardel, A. E. Cano, and I. Bravo, Sensors 10, 47 (2010).

Other

X. Y. Liu, W. H. Wang, and Y. Sun, in Proceedings of IEEE 28th Annual International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 4718 (2006).

Y. Sun, S. Duthaler, and B. J. Nelson, in Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 70 (2005).

S. Y. Lee, S. S. Park, C. S. Kim, Y. Kumar, and S. W. Kim, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Consumer Electronics 67 (2006).

C. H. Chang and C. S. Fuh, "Auto Focus Using Adaptive Step Size Search and Zoom Tracking Algorithm", Master Thesis (National Taiwan University, 2005).

M. J. Russell, A. Bester, and T. S. Douglas, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa 183 (2005).

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