Abstract

Contrary to expectations, a measurement of the random walk in the ring laser gyro (RLG) as a function of laser power P shows that it is not consistent with the P<sup>1/2</sup> rule. In the experiment, the random walk and laser power are tested and recorded at different discharge currents. The random walk decreases with increasing power, but with a rate much less than the theoretical value according to current literature. In order to solve the inconsistency above, we derive the expression for the random walk in RLGs based on laser theory. Theoretical analysis shows that, accumulating effects of lower energy level due to its limited lifetime lead to additional quantum noise from spontaneous emission. Results show that the random walk in the RLGs consists of two components. The former decreases with increasing power according to the P<sup>1/2</sup> rule, whereas the other is power-independent. Thus far, the power-independent quantum limit has not appeared in the literature; therefore, the expressions for RLGs should be modified to describe the low-loss RLGs exactly, where the power-independent term takes a relatively larger proportion. The findings are significant to the further reduction of quantum limit in low-loss RLGs.

© 2012 Chinese Optics Letters

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2010 (2)

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

R. Song, J. X. Tang, and J. Zhou, Laser J. (in Chinese) 31, 36 (2010).

2007 (1)

G. E. Stedman, R. B. Hurst, and K. U. Schreiber, Opt. Commun. 279, 124 (2007).

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

B. T. King, Appl. Opt. 39, 6151 (2000).

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

1997 (1)

G. E. Stedman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615 (1997).

1996 (1)

L. C. Ng and D. J. Pines, J. Guidance 201, 211 (1996).

1991 (1)

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

1988 (1)

M. Faucheux, D. Fayoux, and J. J. Roland, J. Opt. 19, 101 (1988).

1985 (1)

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

1984 (1)

J. E. Killpatric, Proc. SPIE 487, 85 (1984).

1983 (1)

A. Yariv and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE19, 889 (1983).

1980 (1)

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Cooper, S. J.

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

Dahlmann, H.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Dorshner, T. A.

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

Dunn, R. W.

Faucheux, M.

M. Faucheux, D. Fayoux, and J. J. Roland, J. Opt. 19, 101 (1988).

Fayoux, D.

M. Faucheux, D. Fayoux, and J. J. Roland, J. Opt. 19, 101 (1988).

Gea-Banacloche, J.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Haus, H. A.

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

Holz, M.

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

Huber, B.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Hurst, R. B.

G. E. Stedman, R. B. Hurst, and K. U. Schreiber, Opt. Commun. 279, 124 (2007).

R. B. Hurst, R. W. Dunn, K. U. Schreiber, R. J. Thirkettle, and G. K. MacDonald, Appl. Opt. 43, 2337 (2004).

Killpatric, J. E.

J. E. Killpatric, Proc. SPIE 487, 85 (1984).

King, B. T.

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

B. T. King, Appl. Opt. 39, 6151 (2000).

Long, X.

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

MacDonald, G. K.

McLeod, D. P.

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

Merkie, F.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Ng, L. C.

L. C. Ng and D. J. Pines, J. Guidance 201, 211 (1996).

Pedrotti, L. M.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Pines, D. J.

L. C. Ng and D. J. Pines, J. Guidance 201, 211 (1996).

Ravensbergen, M.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Roland, J. J.

M. Faucheux, D. Fayoux, and J. J. Roland, J. Opt. 19, 101 (1988).

Sanders, V. E.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).

Schleich, W.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Schreiber, K. U.

G. E. Stedman, R. B. Hurst, and K. U. Schreiber, Opt. Commun. 279, 124 (2007).

R. B. Hurst, R. W. Dunn, K. U. Schreiber, R. J. Thirkettle, and G. K. MacDonald, Appl. Opt. 43, 2337 (2004).

Schroer, W.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Schuse1e, L.

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

Scully, M. O.

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Smith, I. W.

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

Song, R.

R. Song, J. X. Tang, and J. Zhou, Laser J. (in Chinese) 31, 36 (2010).

Statz, H.

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

Stedman, G. E.

G. E. Stedman, R. B. Hurst, and K. U. Schreiber, Opt. Commun. 279, 124 (2007).

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

G. E. Stedman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615 (1997).

Tang, J.

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

Tang, J. X.

R. Song, J. X. Tang, and J. Zhou, Laser J. (in Chinese) 31, 36 (2010).

Thirkettle, R. J.

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).

Vahala, K.

A. Yariv and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE19, 889 (1983).

Wang, Y.

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

Wright, D. N.

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

Wyss, C.P.

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE19, 889 (1983).

Yu, X.

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

Zhang, P.

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

Zhou, J.

R. Song, J. X. Tang, and J. Zhou, Laser J. (in Chinese) 31, 36 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. A. Dorshner, H. A. Haus, M. Holz, I. W. Smith, and H. Statz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE16, 1376 (1980).

A. Yariv and K. Vahala, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE19, 889 (1983).

J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) (1)

X. Long, X. Yu, P. Zhang, Y. Wang, and J. Tang, J. Chin. Iner. Technol. (in Chinese) 18, 149 (2010).

J. Guidance (1)

L. C. Ng and D. J. Pines, J. Guidance 201, 211 (1996).

J. Opt. (1)

M. Faucheux, D. Fayoux, and J. J. Roland, J. Opt. 19, 101 (1988).

Laser J. (in Chinese) (1)

R. Song, J. X. Tang, and J. Zhou, Laser J. (in Chinese) 31, 36 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. E. Stedman, R. B. Hurst, and K. U. Schreiber, Opt. Commun. 279, 124 (2007).

C.P. Wyss, D. N. Wright, B. T. King, D. P. McLeod, S. J. Cooper, and G. E. Stedman, Opt. Commun. 174, 181 (2000).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Schroer, H. Dahlmann, B. Huber, L. Schuse1e, F. Merkie, and M. Ravensbergen, Proc. SPIE 1585, 98 (1991).

J. E. Killpatric, Proc. SPIE 487, 85 (1984).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. E. Stedman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 615 (1997).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. W. Chow, J. Gea-Banacloche, L. M. Pedrotti, V. E. Sanders, W. Schleich, and M. O. Scully, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 61 (1985).

Other (2)

IEEE Std 647TM-2006, IEEE Stand Specification Format Guide and Test Procedure for Sing-Axis Laser Gyros, IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society, New York (2006).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Fifth Edition) (London, Oxford University Press, Inc 393-340) (1997).

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