Abstract

A high-quality Cr<sup>3+</sup>:CdWO<sub>4</sub> single crystal at a size of approximately Φ 25 × 80 mm is grown using the Bridgman method with CdO, WO<sub>3</sub>, and Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> as raw materials and their molar ratio of 100:100:0.5. The temperature gradient of solid-liquid interface at growth is approximately 50 °C/cm and the growth rate is 0.05 mm/h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of different parts of the as-grown and O<sub>2</sub>-annealed crystals are investigated. Two strong broad optical absorption bands of about 472 and 708 nm are observed, and they are associated with the transitions <sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub>→<sup>4</sup>T<sub>1</sub> and <sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub>→<sup>4</sup>T<sub>2</sub>. The weak <sup>4</sup>T<sub>2</sub>→<sup>2</sup>E transition (the R-line) at 632 nm is also observed. The crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameters B and C are estimated to be 1 412.4, 776.8, and 3 427.6 cm<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, according to the absorption spectra and crystal-splitting theory. A broadband fluorescence at about 1 000 nm due to <sup>4</sup>T2→<sup>4</sup>A<sub>2</sub> transition is produced by exciting the samples at 675 nm. After being annealed in an O<sub>2</sub> atmosphere, the crystals become more transparent, while the effective light absorption of Cr<sup>3+</sup> ions is evidently enhanced and the emission intensity is also strengthened due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies in the CdWO<sub>4</sub> crystal after annealing.

© 2012 Chinese Optics Letters

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  1. D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).
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  16. L. Luo and Y. Wang, J. Quantum Electronics (in Chinese) 25, 166 (2008).
  17. V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).
  18. Y. Abraham, N. A. W. Holzwarth, and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1733 (2000).
  19. K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).
  20. Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, Laser & Optoelectronics Progress (in Chinese) 144, 50 (2007).
  21. M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).
  22. H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).
  23. W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1596 (1985).

2010 (4)

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

H. Teng, S. Zhou, H. Lin, T. Jia, X. Hou, and J. Wang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 414 (2010).

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

2009 (3)

A. Vedda, F. Moretti, and M. Fasoli, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045104 (2009).

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

2008 (5)

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

L. Luo and Y. Wang, J. Quantum Electronics (in Chinese) 25, 166 (2008).

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, and M. G. Brik, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 29 (2008).

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, Laser & Optoelectronics Progress (in Chinese) 144, 50 (2007).

2005 (2)

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

2004 (2)

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

2003 (2)

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

2001 (1)

K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. Abraham, N. A. W. Holzwarth, and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1733 (2000).

1998 (1)

I. Sokolska and S. Kuck, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 1695 (1998).

1985 (1)

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1596 (1985).

.Zhang, J

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

Abraham, Y.

Y. Abraham, N. A. W. Holzwarth, and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1733 (2000).

Alfano, R. R.

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

Belletti, A.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, and M. G. Brik, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 29 (2008).

Brik, M. G.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, and M. G. Brik, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 29 (2008).

Bykov, A. B.

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

Cavalli, E.

E. Cavalli, A. Belletti, and M. G. Brik, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 29 (2008).

Chen, H.

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

Chen, W.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Chirila, M. M.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Choo, C.-K.

K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).

Cybinska, J.

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

Diaz, F.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

Fasoli, M.

A. Vedda, F. Moretti, and M. Fasoli, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045104 (2009).

Foise, J. W.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Fu, X.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Fuks, H.

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

Garces, N. Y.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Giles, N. C.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Grencewicz, K.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Guell, F.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Guzik, M.

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

Halliburton, L. E.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Hang, Y.

Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, Laser & Optoelectronics Progress (in Chinese) 144, 50 (2007).

Holzwarth, N. A. W.

Y. Abraham, N. A. W. Holzwarth, and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1733 (2000).

Hou, X.

Huber, G.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1596 (1985).

Jia, T.

Jiang, C.

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

Kaczmarek, S. M.

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

Kolbe, W.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1596 (1985).

Kuck, S.

I. Sokolska and S. Kuck, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 1695 (1998).

Li, D.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Liang, Z.

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

Lin, H.

Long, X.

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

Luo, L.

L. Luo and Y. Wang, J. Quantum Electronics (in Chinese) 25, 166 (2008).

Massons, J.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Mateos, X.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Matkovskii, A.

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

Moretti, F.

A. Vedda, F. Moretti, and M. Fasoli, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045104 (2009).

Murphy, H. J.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Nakata, R.

K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).

Nie, Q.

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

Nikolov, I.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Nikolov, V.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Novosad, S.

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

Ohga, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).

Owen, S.

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

Peshev, P.

I. Nikolov, X. Mateos, F. Guell, J. Massons, V. Nikolov, P. Peshev, and F. Diaz, Opt. Mater. 25, 53 (2004).

Petermann, K.

W. Kolbe, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1596 (1985).

Petricevic, V.

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

Polosan, S.

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

Shao, Y.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Sharonov, M.Y.

M.Y. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1044 (2003).

Shen, Q.

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

Sokolska, I.

I. Sokolska and S. Kuck, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 54, 1695 (1998).

Solskii, I.

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

Song, H.

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

Sugak, D.

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

Sun, M.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Ohga, C.-K. Choo, and R. Nakata, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5369 (2001).

Teng, H.

Thomas, E. A.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Tomaszewicz, E.

M. Guzik, E. Tomaszewicz, S. M. Kaczmarek, J. Cybinska, and H. Fuks, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 1902 (2010).

Tsuboi, T.

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

Vedda, A.

A. Vedda, F. Moretti, and M. Fasoli, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045104 (2009).

Wang, G.

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

G. Wang, X. Long, L. Zhang, G. Wang, S. Polosan, and T. Tsuboi, J. Lumin. 128, 1556 (2008).

Wang, H.

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

Wang, J.

H. Teng, S. Zhou, H. Lin, T. Jia, X. Hou, and J. Wang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 414 (2010).

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

Wang, S.

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

Wang, T.

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

Wang, Y.

L. Luo and Y. Wang, J. Quantum Electronics (in Chinese) 25, 166 (2008).

Wicks, C.

N. Y. Garces, M. M. Chirila, H. J. Murphy, J. W. Foise, E. A. Thomas, C. Wicks, K. Grencewicz, L. E. Halliburton, and N. C. Giles, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64, 1195 (2003).

Williams, R. T.

Y. Abraham, N. A. W. Holzwarth, and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1733 (2000).

Xia, H.

H. Xia, J. Wang, H. Wang, J .Zhang, Y. Zhang, and H. Song, Rare Metals. (in Chinese) 29, 181 (2005).

H. Xia, H. Song, J. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Q. Nie, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 199 (2005).

Xiao, G.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

Xiao, H.

H. Chen, Q. Shen, Q. Fang, H. Xiao, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, J. Synthetic Crystals (in Chinese) 39, 829 (2010).

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

Xu, C. F.

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

Xu, F.

Q. Fang, H. Chen, F. Xu, S. Wang, Z. Liang, and C. Jiang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 1071 (2010).

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

Xu, J.

Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, Laser & Optoelectronics Progress (in Chinese) 144, 50 (2007).

Yakovyna, V.

V. Yakovyna, A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, I. Solskii, and S. Novosad, Radiat. Meas. 38, 403 (2004).

Yang, P.

H. Chen, H. Xiao, F. Xu, C. F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Inorganic Materials (in Chinese) 24, 1036 (2009).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Cryst. Growth 310, 521 (2008).

H. Xiao, H. Chen, F. Xu, C. Jiang, and P. Yang, J. Chin. Ceramic Soc. (in Chinese) 36, 617 (2008).

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, J. Xu, and Y. Hang, Laser & Optoelectronics Progress (in Chinese) 144, 50 (2007).

Ye, D.

D. Ye, D. Li, W. Chen, Y. Shao, G. Xiao, M. Sun, and X. Fu, Res. Chem. Intermed. 35, 675 (2009).

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