Abstract

A novel MEMS variable optical attenuator (VOA), which has completely different attenuation mechanism from those in literatures, is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. The basic operation principle is that the optical power coupled between two initially aligned single-mode fibers will be continuously attenuated while the end of one of the fibers is deflected from the initial position. A micromachined solenoid type inductor with a U-shaped permalloy magnetic core is used to attract the deflectable fiber that has a permalloy coat on its end. To fabricate the multi-layer three-dimensional inductive component, a new UV-LIGA process for thick photoresists is developed, combining advantages of both SU-8 and AZ-4000series photoresists. The inductive component is approximately 1.7 mm×1.3 mm×50 ?m in size and has a low resistance value (~2.1 ?). The whole size of the VOA before packaging is 30 mm×2 mm×0.6 mm. The first prototype shows less then 3-dB insertion loss at 0-dB attenuation and nearly 40-dB attenuation range with less than 20 mW electrical input power at wavelength 1550 nm.

© 2005 Chinese Optics Letters

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).
  2. S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).
  3. C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).
  4. H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).
  5. S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 3, 240 (2000).
  6. B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).
  7. J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).
  8. T. M. Liakopoulos and C. H. Ahn, Sensors and Actuators A 77, 66 (1999).
  9. C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

2000 (3)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 3, 240 (2000).

B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).

C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

1999 (5)

T. M. Liakopoulos and C. H. Ahn, Sensors and Actuators A 77, 66 (1999).

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Ahn, C. H.

T. M. Liakopoulos and C. H. Ahn, Sensors and Actuators A 77, 66 (1999).

Aksyuk, V.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Andersen, B. M.

B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).

Barber, B.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Bishop, D.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Choi, W.

C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

Chun, K.

C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

Debeda, H.

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

Fairchild, S.

B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).

Ford, J. E.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Freyhold, T. V.

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Goossen, K. W.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Greywall, D. S.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Griss, P.

C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).

Jin, Y.-S.

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

Lee, S.-S.

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

Liakopoulos, T. M.

T. M. Liakopoulos and C. H. Ahn, Sensors and Actuators A 77, 66 (1999).

Marxer, C.

C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).

Mohr, J.

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

Nam, C.

C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

Riza, N. A.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 3, 240 (2000).

Rooij, N. F. de

C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).

Ruel, R.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Son, Y.-S.

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

Stulz, L.

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 3, 240 (2000).

Thorsten, N.

B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).

Walker, J. A.

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Wallrabe, V.

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

Wongelink, J.

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

Yoo, T. K.

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System (1)

H. Debeda, T. V. Freyhold, J. Mohr, V. Wallrabe, and J. Wongelink, IEEE J. of Microelectromechnical System 8, 258 (1999).

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Giles, V. Aksyuk, B. Barber, R. Ruel, L. Stulz, and D. Bishop, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. 5, 18 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Jin, Y.-S. Son, and T. K. Yoo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590 (1999).

C. Marxer, P. Griss, and N. F. de Rooij, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technology (1)

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, D. S. Greywall, and K. W. Goossen, J. Lightwave Technology 16, 1663 (1998).

Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and N. A. Riza, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 3, 240 (2000).

B. M. Andersen, S. Fairchild, and N. Thorsten, MEMS variable optical attenuator for DWDM optical amplifiers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2, 260 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Nam, W. Choi, and K. Chun, Proc. SPIE 4230, 10 (2000).

Sensors and Actuators A (1)

T. M. Liakopoulos and C. H. Ahn, Sensors and Actuators A 77, 66 (1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.