Abstract

A simple and efficient templating method in combination with hot embossing technique is developed for fabricating large-area two-dimensional (2D) microlens arrays (MLAs) with uniform shape. By utilizing a modified microchannel method, a 2D large-area hexagonal close-packed (HCP) array of silica colloidal microspheres is prepared and serves as a template in the following hot embossing treatment to create a polycarbonate (PC) microcavity array. Then, with the obtained PC microcavity structure serving as a mold, a hot embossing process is applied to finally achieve a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) MLA. The effect of annealing time during the mold preparation process on the dimensions and shapes of the prepared microlens is investigated. The imaging performances of the prepared PC concave microcavities and PMMA convex microlenses are characterized by carrying out projection experiments. Our method provides a rapid and low cost approach to prepare large-area MLAs.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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2008

J. J. Yang, C. F. Chen, and Y. S. Liao, Opt. Commun. 281, 474 (2008).

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

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R. F. Shyu, H. Yang, W.-R. Tsai, and J.-C. Tsai, Microsyst. Technol. 13, 1601 (2007).

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 201 (2007).

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J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

J. Arai, H. Kawai, and F. Okano, Appl. Opt. 45, 9066 (2006).

2005

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).

M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

S. A. Hutcheson and G. B. McKenna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 076103 (2005).

C.-J. Ke, X.-J. Yi, J.-J. Lai, and S.-H. Chen, Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 135 (2005).

2004

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277 (2004).

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

W. Moench and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 330 (2004).

R. Shogenji, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, and J. Tanida, Appl. Opt. 43, 1355 (2004).

Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, and S.-T. Wu, Appl. Opt. 43, 3656 (2004).

2003

J. H. Teichroeb and J. A. Forrest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016104 (2003).

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

C.-P. Lin, H. Yang, and C.-K. Chao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 775 (2003).

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

2002

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693 (2002).

X. C. Yuan, W. Yu, N. Ngo, and W. Cheong, Opt. Express 10, 303 (2002).

2001

H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 26, 157 (2001).

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, Science 291, 453 (2001).

Y. Fu and N. K. A. Bryan, Opt. Eng. 40, 1433 (2001).

1999

F. Beinhorn, J. Lhlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, Appl. Phys. A 68, 709 (1999).

T. Hirai and S. Hayashi, Colloids Surf. A 153, 503 (1999).

1994

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 10, 2790 (1994).

1990

M. C. Hutley, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253 (1990).

Arai, J.

Arimoto, H.

Arnold, L.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Bauerle, D.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693 (2002).

Beinhorn, F.

F. Beinhorn, J. Lhlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, Appl. Phys. A 68, 709 (1999).

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, Science 291, 453 (2001).

Biebuyck, H. A.

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 10, 2790 (1994).

Boccaletti, A.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Bryan, N. K. A.

Y. Fu and N. K. A. Bryan, Opt. Eng. 40, 1433 (2001).

Chan, C.

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

Chao, C.-K.

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277 (2004).

C.-P. Lin, H. Yang, and C.-K. Chao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 775 (2003).

Chen, C. F.

J. J. Yang, C. F. Chen, and Y. S. Liao, Opt. Commun. 281, 474 (2008).

Chen, M.-F.

M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

Chen, S.-H.

C.-J. Ke, X.-J. Yi, J.-J. Lai, and S.-H. Chen, Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 135 (2005).

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

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J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

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M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

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P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, Science 291, 453 (2001).

Cui, J.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Dejonghe, J.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Denk, R.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693 (2002).

Dong, H.

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

Dong, L.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 201 (2007).

Fang, Z. P.

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

Forrest, J. A.

J. H. Teichroeb and J. A. Forrest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016104 (2003).

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and N. K. A. Bryan, Opt. Eng. 40, 1433 (2001).

Gillet, S.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Hayashi, S.

T. Hirai and S. Hayashi, Colloids Surf. A 153, 503 (1999).

He, P.-S.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).

Hirai, T.

T. Hirai and S. Hayashi, Colloids Surf. A 153, 503 (1999).

Horville, D.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Huang, Y.-P.

Hutcheson, S. A.

S. A. Hutcheson and G. B. McKenna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 076103 (2005).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253 (1990).

Javidi, B.

Jiang, H.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 201 (2007).

Jiang, P.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, Science 291, 453 (2001).

Jiang, Y.

C. J. Tang and Y. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1062 (2009).

Kawai, H.

Ke, C.-J.

C.-J. Ke, X.-J. Yi, J.-J. Lai, and S.-H. Chen, Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 135 (2005).

Kim, J.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Kitamura, Y.

Labeyrie, A.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Lai, J.-J.

C.-J. Ke, X.-J. Yi, J.-J. Lai, and S.-H. Chen, Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 135 (2005).

Lardiere, O.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Lee, B.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Lhlemann, J.

F. Beinhorn, J. Lhlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, Appl. Phys. A 68, 709 (1999).

Li, T.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Li, Y.

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

Liao, Y. S.

J. J. Yang, C. F. Chen, and Y. S. Liao, Opt. Commun. 281, 474 (2008).

Lin, C.-P.

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277 (2004).

C.-P. Lin, H. Yang, and C.-K. Chao, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 775 (2003).

Lin, K. L.

M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

Liu, G.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Liu, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Luther, K.

F. Beinhorn, J. Lhlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, Appl. Phys. A 68, 709 (1999).

McKenna, G. B.

S. A. Hutcheson and G. B. McKenna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 076103 (2005).

Meng, T.

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

Ming, N.

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

Miyatake, S.

Moench, W.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 330 (2004).

Ngo, N.

Ning, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Oh, K.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Okano, F.

Pan, C. T.

M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

Piglmayer, K.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693 (2002).

Qin, L.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Quan, C.

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

Reading, L.

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

Riaud, P.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Schmitt, J.

S. Gillet, P. Riaud, O. Lardiere, J. Dejonghe, J. Schmitt, L. Arnold, A. Boccaletti, D. Horville, and A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 393 (2003).

Shen, S. C.

M.-C. Chou, C. T. Pan, S. C. Shen, M.-F. Chen, K. L. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, Sens. Actuators A 118, 298 (2005).

Shen, S.-C.

H. Yang, C.-K. Chao, C.-P. Lin, and S.-C. Shen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 14, 277 (2004).

Sheng, P.

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

Shi, J.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Shi, J.-X.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).

Shieh, H.-P. D.

Shimomura, M.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, Langmuir 21, 1709 (2005).

Shin, W.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Shogenji, R.

Shyu, R. F.

R. F. Shyu, H. Yang, W.-R. Tsai, and J.-C. Tsai, Microsyst. Technol. 13, 1601 (2007).

Sohn, L.-B.

J. K. Kim, J. Kim, K. Oh, L.-B. Sohn, W. Shin, H. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 21 (2009).

Sridharamurthy, S. S.

S. S. Sridharamurthy, L. Dong, and H. Jiang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 201 (2007).

Sun, J.

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

Sun, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Tang, C.

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

Tang, C. J.

C. J. Tang and Y. Jiang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 29, 1062 (2009).

Tanida, J.

Tay, C. J.

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

Teichroeb, J. H.

J. H. Teichroeb and J. A. Forrest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016104 (2003).

Troe, J.

F. Beinhorn, J. Lhlemann, K. Luther, and J. Troe, Appl. Phys. A 68, 709 (1999).

Tsai, J.-C.

R. F. Shyu, H. Yang, W.-R. Tsai, and J.-C. Tsai, Microsyst. Technol. 13, 1601 (2007).

Tsai, W.-R.

R. F. Shyu, H. Yang, W.-R. Tsai, and J.-C. Tsai, Microsyst. Technol. 13, 1601 (2007).

Wang, L.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

Wang, S. H.

C. Quan, S. H. Wang, C. J. Tay, L. Reading, and Z. P. Fang, Opt. Commun. 225, 223 (2003).

Wang, W.

W. Wang and C. Zhou, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 2869 (2009).

Wang, Y.

J.-H. Zhu, J.-X. Shi, Y. Wang, and P.-S. He, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 19, 443 (2006).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Ning, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Li, J. Cui, G. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, and L. Wang, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1963 (2009).

J. Sun, Y. Li, H. Dong, P. Zhan, C. Tang, M. Zhu, and Z. Wang, Adv. Mater. 20, 123 (2008).

M. Zhu, Y. Li, T. Meng, P. Zhan, J. Sun, J. Wu, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, Langmuir 22, 7248 (2006).

Z. Chen, P. Zhan, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, W. Zhang, N. Ming, C. Chan, and P. Sheng, Adv. Mater. 16, 417 (2004).

Whitesides, G. M.

H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, Langmuir 10, 2790 (1994).

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