Abstract

Steering accuracy is limited by the quantized phase modulation values and the number of phase pixels for spatial light modulators (SLMs). Conventional methods of beam steering lack optimum precision. In this letter, a beam steering approach based on horizontally moving phase steps is proposed. Compared with the conventional methods, this novel method is able to reduce the maximum normalized steering error in SLM significantly by a factor proportional to the number of pixels. In addition, steering errors of high steering angles can be drastically reduced by a factor proportional to the product of the number of pixels and the quantized phase levels; the number of high-precision steering angles increases with the number of pixels or the quantized phase levels increasing.

© 2010 Chinese Optics Letters

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L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

D. Engstrom, M. J. O'Callaghan, C. Walker, and M. A. Handschy, Appl. Opt. 48, 1721 (2009).

2008 (2)

D. Engstr¨om, J. Bengtsson, E. Eriksson, and M. Goksaor, Opt. Express 16, 18275 (2008).

C. Zhang and Z. Huang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1231 (2008).

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S. Christian, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, Opt. Express 13, 8678 (2005).

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

V. V. Nikulin and R. Khandekar, Proc. SPIE 5712, 37(2005).

2004 (2)

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 5162, 157 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Lee, J. W. Alexander, and G. Gerry, Proc. SPIE 4272, 104 (2001).

1999 (1)

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Agren, D.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Alexander, J. W.

S. Lee, J. W. Alexander, and G. Gerry, Proc. SPIE 4272, 104 (2001).

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Allard, L.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Anderson, J. E.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

Bengtsson, J.

Bos, P. J.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

Chen, C.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Christian, S.

Curtis, J. E.

Engstr¨om, D.

Engstrom, D.

D. Engstrom, M. J. O'Callaghan, C. Walker, and M. A. Handschy, Appl. Opt. 48, 1721 (2009).

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Eriksson, E.

Gerry, G.

S. Lee, J. W. Alexander, and G. Gerry, Proc. SPIE 4272, 104 (2001).

Goksaor, M.

Hallstig, E.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Handschy, M. A.

Hard, S.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Harris, S.

S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 5162, 157 (2003).

Hemmati, H.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Huang, Z.

C. Zhang and Z. Huang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1231 (2008).

Junique, S.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Khandekar, R.

V. V. Nikulin and R. Khandekar, Proc. SPIE 5712, 37(2005).

Kong, L.

L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. W. Alexander, and G. Gerry, Proc. SPIE 4272, 104 (2001).

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Lesh, J. R.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

McManamon, P. F.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

Miranda, F. A.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

Monacos, S.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Nikulin, V. V.

V. V. Nikulin and R. Khandekar, Proc. SPIE 5712, 37(2005).

Noharet, B.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

O'Callaghan, M. J.

Ohgren, J.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Pouch, J. J.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

Sj¨oqvist, L.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Song, Y.

L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

Spatz, J. P.

Walker, C.

Wang, B.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

Wang, Q.

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

Yan, T.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Yang, J.

L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

Yi, W.

L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang and Z. Huang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1231 (2008).

Zingales, S.

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) (1)

C. Zhang and Z. Huang, Acta Opt. Sin. (in Chinese) 28, 1231 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) (1)

L. Kong, W. Yi, J. Yang, and Y. Song, Chinese J. Lasers (in Chinese) 36, 1080 (2009).

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Hallstig, J. Ohgren, L. Allard, L. Sj¨oqvist, D. Engstrom, S. Hard, D. Agren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, and B. Noharet, Opt. Eng. 44, 045001 (2005).

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (6)

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5403, 782 (2004).

V. V. Nikulin and R. Khandekar, Proc. SPIE 5712, 37(2005).

C. Chen, J. W. Alexander, H. Hemmati, S. Monacos, T. Yan, S. Lee, J. R. Lesh, and S. Zingales, Proc. SPIE 3615, 142 (1999).

S. Lee, J. W. Alexander, and G. Gerry, Proc. SPIE 4272, 104 (2001).

S. Harris, Proc. SPIE 5162, 157 (2003).

X. Wang, B. Wang, P. F. McManamon, J. J. Pouch, F. A. Miranda, J. E. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, Proc. SPIE 5553, 46 (2004).

Other (5)

Y. Suzuki, in Proceedings of CLEO 2009 1312 (2009).

T. Mengual, B. Vidal, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, J. Marti, L. Jofre, I. McKenzie, and J. M. Cura, in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC JThAT1 (2008).

J. D. Schmidt, M. R. Whiteley, M. E. Goda, and B. D. Duncan, in Proceeding of IEEE Aerospace Conference (2006).

R. A. Wilson, P. Sample, A. Johnstone, and M. F. Lewis, in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics 23 (2000).

S. G. Latham, M. A. W. Powell, W. A. Crossland, N. Collings, and R. C. Chittick, in Proceedings of IEE Colloquium on Optical Interconnects 16, 14/1 (1988).

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