Abstract

We use the nonlinear coupled-mode theory to theoretically investigate second-harmonic generation (SHG) in subwavelength x-cut and z-cut lithium niobate (LN) thin-film waveguides and derive the analytical formula to calculate SHG efficiency in x-cut and z-cut LN thin-film waveguides explicitly. Under the scheme of optimal modal phase matching (MPM), two types of LN thin films can achieve highly efficient frequency doubling of a 1064 nm laser with a comparable conversion efficiency due to very consistent modal field distribution of the fundamental wave and second-harmonic wave with efficient overlap between them. Such a robust MPM for high-efficiency SHG in both the subwavelength x-cut and z-cut LN thin-film waveguides is further confirmed in a broad wavelength range, which might facilitate design and application of micro–nano nonlinear optical devices based on the subwavelength LN thin film.

© 2021 Chinese Laser Press

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