Abstract

Astigmatism is inevitable and inherent to progressive addition lenses (PALs), which are typically distributed in the lateral areas on both sides of the progressive corridor. In this study, we took into account the spectacle frame for the customized freeform PAL design with the variational-difference numerical approach. The PAL surface with minimized astigmatism, approximately equal to 84% of the added power, was numerically resolved without expending the zone for clear vision. We validated our approach by experimentally demonstrating the procedure from tool path generation to surface power measurement, thus providing an efficient solution to the personalization of astigmatism-minimized PAL design and manufacture.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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