Abstract

Two comprehensive evaluation metrics, image perceptual quality based on target detectability (PQTD) and perceptual quality based on scene understanding (PQSU), are proposed to measure image quality for visible and infrared color fusion images of typical scenes. A psychophysical experiment is performed to explore the relationship between conventional quality attributes and the proposed evaluation metrics. The prediction models for PQTD and PQSU are derived by multiple linear regression statistical analyses. Results show that the variation of PQTD can be predicted by sharpness and perceptual contrast between the target and background, and that color harmony and sharpness can predict PQSU. The proposed evaluation metrics and their prediction models provide a foundation for further developing objective quality evaluation of color fusion images.

© 2012 Chinese Optics Letters

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  2. S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).
  3. M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).
  4. X. Gu, S. Sun, and J. Fang, Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, 274 (2007).
  5. E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).
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  7. A. Toet and E. M. Franken, Displays 24, 25 (2003).
  8. J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).
  9. W. K. Krebs and M. J. Sinai, Human Factors 44, 257 (2002).
  10. P. G. Engeldrum, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 446 (2004).
  11. S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).
  12. Y. Yuan, J. Zhang, B. Chang, H. Xu, and Y. Han, Chin. Opt. Lett. 9, 011101 (2011).
  13. J. Shi, W. Jin, L. Wang, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of Infrared Components and Their Applications (ed.) 594 (2005).
  14. J. Caviedes and F. Oberti, Signal Process: Image Communication 19, 147 (2004).
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  16. A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 479 (2003).
  17. S. Guan and P. Hung, Color Res. Appl. 35, 213 (2010).
  18. K. E. Burchett, Color Res. Appl. 27, 28 (2002).
  19. L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).
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  23. A. Toet and J. Walraven, Opt. Eng. 35, 650 (1996).
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  26. L. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Jin, S. Shi, and S. Wang, in Proceedings of Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition 65671G1 (2007).
  27. S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).
  28. S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 66230B (2008).
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  35. H. Arnkil, in Proceedings of Interim Meeting of the International Colour Association 15 (2008).

2011 (2)

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

Y. Yuan, J. Zhang, B. Chang, H. Xu, and Y. Han, Chin. Opt. Lett. 9, 011101 (2011).

2010 (4)

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

S. Guan and P. Hung, Color Res. Appl. 35, 213 (2010).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

2009 (1)

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

2008 (2)

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. Caviedes and F. Oberti, Signal Process: Image Communication 19, 147 (2004).

P. G. Engeldrum, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 446 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. Toet and E. M. Franken, Displays 24, 25 (2003).

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 479 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. E. Burchett, Color Res. Appl. 27, 28 (2002).

W. K. Krebs and M. J. Sinai, Human Factors 44, 257 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, Color Res. Appl. 26, 278 (2001).

1999 (2)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, Color Res. Appl. 24, 52 (1999).

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

1997 (1)

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

1996 (2)

R. S. Berns, Displays 16, 173 (1996).

A. Toet and J. Walraven, Opt. Eng. 35, 650 (1996).

Albregtsen, F.

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, Displays 16, 173 (1996).

Blommaert, F. J. J.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, Color Res. Appl. 24, 52 (1999).

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, Color Res. Appl. 26, 278 (2001).

Bonnier, N.

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

Burchett, K. E.

K. E. Burchett, Color Res. Appl. 27, 28 (2002).

Calabria, A. J.

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 479 (2003).

Cao, L.

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

Carrick, J. E.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Caviedes, J.

J. Caviedes and F. Oberti, Signal Process: Image Communication 19, 147 (2004).

Chang, B.

Choi, S. Y.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

Chong, P.

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

DeFord, W. K. Krebs and J. K.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

Engeldrum, P. G.

P. G. Engeldrum, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 446 (2004).

Essock, E. A.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

Fairchild, M. D.

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 479 (2003).

Fang, J.

Fay, D. A.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Franken, E. M.

A. Toet and E. M. Franken, Displays 24, 25 (2003).

Gove, A. N.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Gu, X.

Guan, S.

S. Guan and P. Hung, Color Res. Appl. 35, 213 (2010).

Han, Y.

Hardeberg, J. Y.

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

Huang, J.

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

Hung, P.

S. Guan and P. Hung, Color Res. Appl. 35, 213 (2010).

Jin, G.

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

Jin, W.

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).

Krebs, W. K.

W. K. Krebs and M. J. Sinai, Human Factors 44, 257 (2002).

Ling, Y.

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

Luo, M. R.

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

McCarley, J. S.

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

Minchew, C.

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

Oberti, F.

J. Caviedes and F. Oberti, Signal Process: Image Communication 19, 147 (2004).

Ou, L. C.

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

Pedersen, M.

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

Pointer, M. R.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

Racamato, J. P.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Rhodes, P. A.

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

Ridder, H. de

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, Color Res. Appl. 24, 52 (1999).

Savoye, E. D.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Seibert, M. C.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Shi, J.

J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).

Shi, S.

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

Sinai, M. J.

W. K. Krebs and M. J. Sinai, Human Factors 44, 257 (2002).

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

Sun, S.

Tarczali, T.

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, Color Res. Appl. 26, 278 (2001).

Toet, A.

A. Toet and E. M. Franken, Displays 24, 25 (2003).

A. Toet and J. Walraven, Opt. Eng. 35, 650 (1996).

Walraven, J.

A. Toet and J. Walraven, Opt. Eng. 35, 650 (1996).

Wang, L.

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).

Waxman, A. M.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Xu, H.

Yendrikhovskij, S. N.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, Color Res. Appl. 24, 52 (1999).

Yin, S.

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

Zhao, Y.

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

Acta Photonica Sinica (1)

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, Acta Photonica Sinica 39, 553 (2010).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (5)

S. Guan and P. Hung, Color Res. Appl. 35, 213 (2010).

K. E. Burchett, Color Res. Appl. 27, 28 (2002).

L. C. Ou, P. Chong, M. R. Luo, and C. Minchew, Color Res. Appl. 36, 355 (2011).

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, Color Res. Appl. 24, 52 (1999).

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, Color Res. Appl. 26, 278 (2001).

Displays (2)

R. S. Berns, Displays 16, 173 (1996).

A. Toet and E. M. Franken, Displays 24, 25 (2003).

Human Factors (2)

W. K. Krebs and M. J. Sinai, Human Factors 44, 257 (2002).

E. A. Essock, M. J. Sinai, J. S. McCarley, W. K. Krebs and J. K. DeFord, Human Factors 41, 438 (1999).

Infrared Physics &; Technology (1)

S. Yin, L. Cao, Y. Ling, and G. Jin, Infrared Physics &; Technology 53, 146 (2010).

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

M. Pedersen, N. Bonnier, J. Y. Hardeberg, and F. Albregtsen, J. Electron. Imaging 19, 011016 (2010).

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (3)

S. Y. Choi, M. R. Luo, M. R. Pointer, and P. A. Rhodes, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 25, 040904 (2008).

P. G. Engeldrum, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 446 (2004).

A. J. Calabria and M. D. Fairchild, J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 479 (2003).

J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves (1)

J. Shi, W. Jin, and L. Wang, J. Infrared and Millimeter Waves 24, 236 (2005).

J. Optoelectron. Laser (1)

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, J. Optoelectron. Laser 20, 1552 (2009).

Neural Networks (1)

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, D. A. Fay, J. P. Racamato, J. E. Carrick, M. C. Seibert, and E. D. Savoye, Neural Networks 10, 1 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Toet and J. Walraven, Opt. Eng. 35, 650 (1996).

Signal Process: Image Communication (1)

J. Caviedes and F. Oberti, Signal Process: Image Communication 19, 147 (2004).

Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. (1)

L. Wang, S. Shi, W. Jin, S. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and J. Huang, Trans. Beijing Institute of Technol. 28, 1 (2008).

Other (12)

L. Wang, Y. Zhao, W. Jin, S. Shi, and S. Wang, in Proceedings of Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition 65671G1 (2007).

S. Shi, L. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. Zhao, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 66230B (2008).

B. W. Keelana and E. W. Jin, in Proceedings of Image Quality and System Performance VI 72420Z-1 (2009).

Nigel J. W. Morris and S. Avidan, "Database of IR and visible image pairs", http://www.dgp.toronto.edu/nmorris/data/IRData/ (June 24, 2007).

ITU-R Recommendation BT.500-12, "Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of the television pictures," http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-BT.500-12-200909-I/en (September, 2006).

J. L. Rodgers and W. A. Nicewander, The American Statistician 42, 59 (1988). 7

N. R. Draper and H. Smith, Applied Regression Analysis (John Wiley &; Sons, Inc, New York, 1998).

H. Arnkil, in Proceedings of Interim Meeting of the International Colour Association 15 (2008).

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment (Morgan &; Claypool Publishers, USA, 2006).

A. Toet, N. Schoumans, and J. K. Ijspeert, in Proceedings of Fusion 2000, TUD3-17-TUD3-23 (2000).

J. Shi, W. Jin, L. Wang, and H. Chen, in Proceedings of Infrared Components and Their Applications (ed.) 594 (2005).

H. de Ridder, F. J. J. Blommaert, and E. A. Fedorovskaya, in Proceedings of Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display VI 51 (1995).

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