In this paper, we have studied electrode bend effects on electrical characteristics of the modulator in the three aspects, which are arc length, characteristic impedance, and loss, applying the model in Ref.  and the finite element method (FEM). The results have shown that the effect only caused by the characteristic impedance is necessarily considered while its deviation is large, but others are negligible as we design a practical device. Finally, some transmission characteristics of coplanar line with different arc length of the bend have been tested, and the measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical analyses.
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