Abstract

Clinical applications of photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for detection of circulating tumor cells in deep blood vessels are hindered by laser beam scattering, that result in loss of PAFC sensitivity and resolution. We demonstrate biocompatible and rapid optical clearing (OC) of skin to minimize light scattering and thus, increase optical resolution and sensitivity of PAFC. OC effect was achieved in 20 min by sequent skin cleaning, microdermabrasion, and glycerol application enhanced by massage and sonophoresis. Using 0.8 mm mouse skin layer over a blood vessel in vitro phantom we demonstrated 1.6-fold decrease in laser spot blurring accompanied by 1.6-fold increase in PA signal amplitude from blood background. As a result, peak rate for B16F10 melanoma cells in blood flow increased 1.7-fold. By using OC we also demonstrated the feasibility of PA contrast improvement for human hand veins.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) is a clinically relevant tool for noninvasive enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cancer stem cells, pathogens, clots, and abnormal blood cells [14]. Recently, PAFC entered clinical trials to demonstrate noninvasive label-free enumeration of pigmented circulating melanoma cells directly in human blood circulatory. In vivo PAFC dramatically increases chances of rare CTC detection by analyzing a large volume of blood (up to 1-2 L) flowing through a large deep vein. However, efficient delivery of laser energy into deep vessels is hindered by significant light scattering in skin. The use of near infrared lasers for PA detection of melanoma CTCs made it possible to minimize absorption and scattering background in skin [2] and to reduce blood background absorption of laser light as hemoglobin absorption of 1060 nm light is very low. Nevertheless, further reduction of light scattering is required to increase laser fluence inside blood vessel through improved laser beam focusing in deep tissues to enhance PAFC sensitivity, while maintaining or decreasing patient laser exposure.

During last thirty years various methods of tissue optical clearing (OC) based on changing of tissue scattering properties have been proposed [57]. Most of these techniques are based on topical application, injection or enhanced transepidermal delivery of clearing chemical agents [58], mechanical compression [5, 6, 9, 10], and photodynamic or photothermal clearing of the skin among many other [11]. Exogenous hyperosmotic chemicals, referred to as OC agents, penetrating into tissues replace water and improve matching of refractive index between scatterers, for example, collagen fibrils, cell organelles, and interstitial fluids or cytoplasm. Tissue dehydration also results in more regular and homogeneous packing of scatterers and less tissue layer thickness.

We demonstrated first applications of OC to enhance sensitivity of photothermal (PT) and PA detection methods for in vitro and in vivo flow cytometry and improve imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) [1216]. Specifically, OC efficiency was compared for 5 min administration of 40%-glucose, 100%-DMSO, and 80%-glycerol. It was demonstrated that glycerol significantly decreased laser beam blurring in skin and lymph node tissues. In vitro OC with 80%-glycerol allowed label-free imaging of a fresh node at the cellular level, localization of immune related, metastatic, and other cells (e.g., lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and melanoma cells) and of surrounding microstructures (e.g., afferent lymph vessel, subcapsular and transverse sinuses, the medulla, a reticular meshwork, follicles, and the venous vessels). Recently, OC using glycerol solution was demonstrated as an efficient way to enhance sensitivity and resolution of PA microscopy [17].

The list of typical agents used for OC of skin and other tissues includes: glycerol, glucose, dextrose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol, xylitol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) [57, 1822]. The substances are often used together with chemical or physical enhancers to increase diffusion across stratum corneum and other skin layers. Among chemical enhancers there are dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, oleic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, azone, and thiazone (benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-2-butyl-1,1-dioxide). Some agents, such as DMSO and PEG, can be used both as OC agents and enhancers. Glycerol is one of the most effective and safe agents broadly used for OC of skin [58, 1320, 23, 24]. However, its slow diffusion in skin is its major disadvantage. Typically OC takes more than an hour [5,6], but it can be accelerated with chemical or physical enhancers. Another popular agent, DMSO, has extremely high permeability and high refraction index making it efficient both as OC agent and penetration enhancer [14, 16 ,18, 2426]. However, despite a long history of its use in different medications and ointments, its use was significantly restricted [26]. Also, ethanol is commonly used as skin cleaner and enhancer of OC agents’ permeability. At high concentration it creates pores in epidermal membrane and, thus, enhance skin permeability [27, 28].

Penetration of OC agents through skin barrier may be enhanced by physical or chemical removing of the upper layer of stratum corneum. Such protocols are widely used in cosmetology, tattoo removal, topical drug delivery, and research [2956]. This includes microdermabrasion, chemical peeling, cosmetic emery boards, the use of wax strip, different sticky tapes, and salts. Microdermabrasion is more often used prior to laser treatment [2935]. There are more than thirty chemical peels for dermatology and cosmetology, and more than ten of them are applied together with lasers [3640]. Diffusion through skin may be enhanced by sonophoresis (phonophoresis), electrophoresis (iontophoresis), external pressure, and massage [20, 4146]. The major advantage of these methods is considerable reduction of treatment time from hours down to several ten minutes [41, 4756]. Skin optoporation based on fractional tissue ablation with pulsed lamp or Er:YAG laser radiation was reported to considerably enhance epidermal permeability for OC agents and nanoparticles [5759]. Similar effects were observed for preliminary skin laser treatment (laser-phoresis) [60].

In this paper we study the efficiency of OC technique using a combination of various approaches to enhance detection sensitivity of PAFC. Specifically, we applied following sequent procedures: alcohol skin cleaning, microdermabrasion removal of topical skin level, and glycerol application enhanced by massage and sonophoresis. The reduction in light scattering and improvements in laser beam propagation were demonstrated that resulted in improvement of PA detection of melanoma cells using in vitro phantom of a blood vessel. We also demonstrate clinical perspectives of OC technique for PA assessment of veins in human hand.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Experimental setup

PAFC setup was built on the basis of Yb-fiber laser YLPM-0.3-A1-60-18 (IPG Photonics Corp.) having 1060 nm wavelength, pulse repetition rate of 10-600 kHz, and pulse duration of 0.8-10 ns, (Fig. 1(d)). A red 635 nm pilot laser CPS180 (Thorlabs, Inc.) was added through 757 nm dichroic mirror (Semrock, Inc). Laser radiation was focused into the sample by an assembly of aspheric (C560TME-C) and cylindrical (LJ1310-L1-C) lenses (Thorlabs Inc.) resulting in a tight focal spot of 7 × 680 μm at a working distance of 4 mm in air. Laser power was controlled in real time by power meter PM100USB with S302C head (Thorlabs, Inc.). A mechanical chopper MC2000 (Thorlabs, Inc.) was introduced into the system to provide pulse repetition rates below 10 kHz, in particular 1 kHz. 1060 nm laser provided energy of 240 μJ/pulse after focusing optics. Fast photodetector PDA10A (Thorlabs, Inc.) with 150 MHz bandwidth was used to trigger data acquisition hardware. Dimensions of the laser spot were controlled using Xli DX-2M camera (Brunel Microscopes, Ltd, UK).

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic representation of PAFC principles of melanoma cell detection in deep blood vessels with a focused US transducer. (b) Schematics and (c) photo of in vitro phantom of blood vessel with mouse skin covering the tube. (d) Optical scheme.

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Laser-induced acoustic waves were detected using a custom cylindrical 28-µm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrasound (US) focused transducer with broadband frequency response, 0.2-32 MHz. The transducer was mounted on an independent XYZ-stage to allow micrometer-precision adjustment of its position. Cylindrical geometry of the transducer surface was custom designed to provide PA signal acquisition across the capillary from a minimal blood volume (acoustic resolution PAFC). At focal distance of 8 mm its acoustic resolution was 40 × 1100 µm along the short and long axes, respectively. Axial resolution was estimated as 20 µm. The transducer signals were pre-amplified using 20 dB amplifier (0.05-100 MHz bandwidth, AH-2010-100, Onda Corp.) attached to the transducer and amplified by a second amplifier (40dB, 0.2-40 MHz, 5678, Olympus-NDT Corp.). The signals were recorded using a high-speed digitizer (ATS9350, Alazar Technologies, Inc.) on a Precision T3500 workstation (Dell, Inc.) under control of MATLAB (MathWorks, Inc.) based software.

2.2. In vitro phantom

In vitro phantom (Fig. 1) was developed for PAFC study of OC agents. The system included a blood vessel phantom (i.d. 0.8 mm, glass tube, Corning, Inc) under a layer of mouse skin (~830 μm thick). Fresh whole mouse blood (~1.7mL total volume, 3.2% sodium citrate) was pumped through the tube by a variable-flow peristaltic pump, model 13-876-1 (Fisher Scientific, Inc.) at linear flow velocity of 10.6 mm/s. US gel (Aquasonic Clear, Parker Labs, Inc.) was used for acoustic coupling between PAFC system and the phantom, while both the focusing optics and transducer immersed into the gel. To reduce the chance of air bubbles being trapped in the gel, it was centrifuged at 500 rpm for 5 min. Acoustic mismatch between the glass tube and medium around it was minimized by selecting tube with thin (100 µm) walls. Moreover, this mismatch was reducing PA signal from both blood and CTCs, thus marginally affecting PAFC sensitivity.

2.3. Cell models

B16F10 melanoma cells (ATCC, CRL 6475) were grown in 5% CO2, at 37 °C, as a monolayer in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) with 10% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen) on T75 flasks (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). Media were replaced every 3-4 days. Cells rinsed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were harvested using Versene (Invitrogen). Cells were centrifuged (10 min, 300 × g) and washed three times with PBS. Final cell concentration in suspension was ~3 × 106 cells/mL. Cell viability, in (96%) was ensured using Trypan Blue staining.

2.4. Animal and human studies

PAFC experiments were performed whole blood samples (total volume of around 1.7 mL) withdrawn from donor mice right before the experiment (terminal blood collection) and stabilized with 3.2% Sodium Citrate solution. Animals in this study were used in accordance with protocols approved by the UAMS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Nude nu/nu mice weighing 20–25 g, was purchased from Harlan Sprague-Dawley (Indianapolis, IN). Blood samples were spiked with B16F10 melanoma cells at a final concentration of 200 cells/mL. For a 0.8mm i.d. of tube and linear flow velocity of 10.6 mm/s the blood volume rate was ~0.32mL/min. Thus, total number of melanoma cells under the laser beam was ~64 cells/min.

OC efficiency was tested in healthy human volunteers in accordance with protocols approved by UAMS Institutional Review Board. PA signals were acquired from dorsum of the left hand before and after OC treatment. Photo and US images (M7, Mindray DS USA, Inc.) of the treated area were also acquired to further characterize changes in skin parameters.

2.5. Skin optical cleaning procedure

The OC technique consisted of the following. First, skin was wiped using medical 95% ethyl alcohol (190 proof) for 2 min. Second, top skin layer was removed by using a professional grade Diamond Microdermabrasion Machine for 4 min (NV-07D, HealthAndMed, Corp.). Third, 99% glycerol (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.) was topically applied to the skin followed by a manual massage for 4 min, and then sonophoresis (Sonicator 740, Metter Electronics, Corp.) for 10 min. Total duration of skin OC was about 20 min.

2.6. Data processing

Each measurement and procedure was performed three times, and the average for all three experiments was used. Peak (cell) count data (M counts) presented as M±M. MATLAB (MathWorks, Inc.) was used for all the statistical calculations.

3. Results

At the first stage, we measured total light transmission of a skin before and after OC procedure. In this case only the photons being able to penetrate the skin were accounted for. On average, light transmission for 1060 nm laser beam through 830 µm skin layer was 38 ± 4%, and 25 ± 5% for a double layer of skin. After OC procedure, light transmission increased to 42 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% levels for single and double skin layers, respectively. Such marginal increase in transmittance is consistent with the data reported in literature [6, 15] and we expected a small influence of laser light transmission on PA contrast of the vessels. A decrease in total absorption is most probably due to lower loss of energy through scattering, but other issues like skin thinning and dehydration may also have an effect [57]. We also note that selected high quality US gel used for acoustic coupling in PAFC was not producing any beam blurring if there were no trapped air bubbles in the laser path.

Second, the influence of skin layer on laser beam spot size (i.e. beam blurring) was analyzed by direct imaging of the focal spot after 830 µm layer of skin (Fig. 2(a)). Typical images of the focal spots before and after OC are presented in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). As in the case of sample transmission (Fig. 3(a)), laser beam spot size decreased from 96 × 850 μm down to 68 × 760 μm, before and after OC, respectively (Fig. 3(b)). Similar effects were observed for single and double layers of skin. Thus, OC of 830 µm layer of skin resulted in spot width decrease by 30%, or ~1.4-fold; and length decrease by 11%, or ~1.1-fold. We associate this improvement with better matching of the refractive index inside the skin, and with certain tissue dehydration leading to better ordering scatterers resulting in increased mean free path for the photons in the tissues [15]. The total decrease of laser beam spot area was around 37%, or ~1.6-fold. Hence, one can expect an increase in beam fluence of ~1.6-fold as all the energy is concentrated in a smaller area. To prove that reduced light attenuation and minimized beam blurring are indeed increasing PAFC sensitivity, we performed in flow measurements using our phantom model. First, PA signals were acquired for whole blood in the phantom vessel before and after OC treatment of the skin. We observed an increase in PA signal amplitude of the blood in the vessel in the range of 1.2-1.8 folds with an average of ~1.6-fold or 60%. However, we should note that efficiency of skin clearing slightly varied across the sample. Typical PAFC traces for blood samples before and after OC are presented in Fig. 3(c).

 

Fig. 2 (a) Monitoring of optical skin clearing using transmission imaging of the laser beam passing 830 µm skin layer. Typical images (b) and (c) of the laser beam spot before and after OC of the skin presented as a heatmap of irradiation intensity.

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Fig. 3 Optical properties of skin layer after clearing: (a) transmission and (b) width of laser focal spot before and after OC. Solid curves represent best fit trends: power for (a) and polynomial for (b). (c) The increase in PA signal amplitude of whole blood in a phantom model before and after OC of the skin layer.

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The effect of OC on sensitivity of CTC counting was demonstrated by label-free PA enumeration of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in flow vessel phantom. Peak rate (amount of cells detected per one minute) and PA peak amplitudes were analyzed. As some melanoma cells have very low pigmentation and cannot be detected using PAFC even using very high laser energy, we used relative cell count and discussed a relative peak rate increase after OC compared to initial findings. OC of the skin layer increased the peak rate (Figs. 4(a) and 4(b)) from 12 cells/min up to 21 cells/min after the treatment, i.e. an increase of ~1.7-fold. OC also resulted in appearance of much higher number of PA signals with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to experiments with unconditioned skin. Hence, with the use of a simple OC skin conditioning it is possible to increase either PAFC detection sensitivity or reduce laser exposure of the patient, as beam blurring in light scattering tissues is reduced. According to our data (Fig. 4(c)), around 1.6-fold decrease in laser pulse energy is possible without affecting the sensitivity of PAFC melanoma detection. Peak rate curve reaches maximum that indicates that almost every pigmented cell can be detected after OC.

 

Fig. 4 OC improvement of PAFC detection sensitivity for B16F10 melanoma cells enumeration in skin covered flow in vitro phantom. Typical PAFC traces for melanoma cells in flow (a) before and (b) after OC of skin. (c) Dependence of peak rate on the laser pulse energy before and after OC of skin. Data points were fitted using a sigmoid curve.

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To demonstrate that the same OC techniques may be readily translated into clinical practice, we compared PA signals from hand veins of 4 healthy human volunteers before and after local OC. For monitoring we selected a conveniently located branch of Cephalic vein on the dorsum of a left hand. PA signals were acquired prior to OC and right after it. To minimize influence of the PAFC probe positioning error we acquired PA signals from several locations along the vessels and compared the average PA signal, before and after the treatment. On average PA signal amplitude was increased by 20-40% depending on the location of tested area (Figs. 5(b) and 5(c)). PA traces were acquired at 0, 30, and 60 min after OC procedure. In the time frame considered we observed no significant decrease in PA signal amplitude, i.e. no increase in the light scattering of the tissues. We hypothesize here that the US gel used during PAFC procedures may have a certain OC effect as was demonstrated earlier [5, 6, 15], and it maintains the efficacy of OC procedure. We should note that OC not only directly increased PA signal amplitude, but it also reduced the low frequency component of PA waveforms that we associated with PA and pyroelectric effects of the scattered light, (Fig. 5(b)). Local skin conditioning resulted in a slightly higher visibility of the selected vessel, simplifying initial PAFC system positioning, (Fig. 5(a)). A mild erythema (skin redness) was observed on skin after the OC procedure and most probably was caused by microdermabrasion and massage. Topical application of glycerol alone did not cause any skin redness. However, erythema did not affect PA measurements and usually disappeared 3-10 min after treatment. US imaging was used to identify parameters of the selected vein and of the skin layer over it. US imaging did not reveal any significant (>100 µm) differences in the size of the vein or in the thickness of skin after OC procedure, that previously were reported for some OC techniques [5, 6]. Average skin thickness for this location on a human hand was in the range of 0.95-1.3 mm that confirms adequacy of the selected phantom model.

 

Fig. 5 OC for human skin. (a) Visual contrast of the vein. (b) Typical changes in PA signal waveform. (c) Typical PAFC traces for a vein in human hand before and after OC. (d) US characterization of the selected vein.

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4. Discussion

PAFC enumeration of rare circulating objects in blood flow, including tumor cells, blood clots and other objects requires analysis of large blood volumes to increase chances of detection. However, light delivery into deep large vessels with high flow rate allowing examination of large blood volume at shorter time poses a problem that is not significant for superficial capillaries: light attenuation and scattering by skin and tissues. Here, we tested clinically relevant procedures for optical skin conditioning designed to decrease laser beam scattering and blurring by skin to increase sensitivity of PAFC without increasing laser exposure. We show here that it is better laser focusing in deep tissues that increases PAFC sensitivity.

Taking into account the feature of PAFC’s optical and acoustic schematics, PAFC can be defined as optical-resolution PAFC (OR-PAFC) and acoustic-resolution PAFC (AR-PAFC) [14]. In OR-PAFC, resolution is determined by optical parameters, in particular, the minimal width of a focused linear laser beam. Due to strong light scattering in tissue, the high spatial resolution at the level of 5-10 µm can be achieved in superficial 30-50 µm in diameter vessels at a low depth of 0.1-0.2 mm only. In AR-PAFC, in deeper tissue with strong light scattering, the resolution depends upon US focal parameters (e.g., 20-100-µm at a frequency of 10-50 MHz, respectively). We emphasize here that OC effects preferentially improve resolution of OR-PAFC and sensitivity of AR-PAFC.

Compared to our previous studies [1216], where various OC agents: 40%-glucose, 100%-DMSO, 80%-glycerol, were used to enhance optical imaging of cells and tissues and sensitivity of laser based PT and PA detection techniques, in the current work a novel OC procedure is designed specifically for PAFC monitoring of CTCs in superficial blood vessels of human patients. We demonstrated for the first time that a combination of several OC techniques (ethanol cleaning, microdermabrasion, glycerol application enhanced by massage and sonophoresis) allows several-folds improvement in the sensitivity of PAFC in a reasonable time convenient for cancer patients. Moreover, both laser fluence and beam quality inside blood vessel were significantly improved to allow label-free noninvasive PA detection of circulating melanoma cells throughout the whole vessel. We also note here, that OC opens a way for more efficient theranostics of circulating melanoma cells when cell detection is supplemented by killing it using high energy laser pulses [1, 15].

Our data indicated that the increase in sensitivity was related not to the overall increase in skin transmission (~2%) but to a dramatic laser beam blurring reduction that resulted in almost 40% laser spot area decrease for 830 μm skin layer. Our data correlated well with previously published results for OC using glycerol and mechanical compression [23] (2.5-fold improvement for 2 mm skin). Approximation of our data to a 2 mm skin layer (Fig. 3(b)), results in a similar 2.6-folds value. Notably, a combination of several techniques for skin conditioning including cleaning, top layer removal and glycerol penetration enhancement by massage and phonophoresis made it possible for us to achieve such results in only 20 min compared to more than 1 h reported for applying glycerol only, and 65-80 min for glycerol and 830 µm mouse skin (our preliminary data not reported here). Previously a 4h long glycerol exposure of mouse skin was reported to increase PA signal amplitude 3-folds [17]. Thus, rapid procedure demonstrated here has perspectives for future clinical use in PAFC as well as in other laser based modalities including PA microscopy, tomography, and imaging [61].

According to our data, the reduced blurring of laser beam increased laser fluence by ~60%. Given that acoustic resolution of the PAFC setup is better than optical, the increase in fluence was expected to proportionally increase PA signal of blood. Indeed, 1.6-folds PA signal increase perfectly matched calculated fluence increase. Thus, two opportunities arise: one can use PA signal increase to control the efficiency of OC procedures in non-transparent samples (bulk tissue samples), or to calculate laser fluence distribution deep inside the skin after OC.

PAFC monitoring is a non-invasive technique, thus power of excitation laser should remain safe and produce no adverse effects to human skin [62]. Our data presented in this paper shows that high efficiency of OC allows either to decrease (1.6-folds) laser energy while having the same sensitivity (Fig. 4(c)), or to increase detection sensitivity (1.7-folds) without increasing laser exposure. However, any further increase in PAFC sensitivity may be achieved only either through monitoring smaller sized shallow vessels (low total blood volume will limit PAFC sensitivity toward rare cells) or through OC procedures proposed here to improve laser delivery. We achieved this main goal of this work and demonstrated an increase in the sensitivity of PAFC label-free melanoma detection in a phantom of a human hand vein using a clinically relevant OC technique. For circulating B16F10 mouse melanoma cells we demonstrated higher detection sensitivity resulted in 1.7-fold cell count increase. This improvement is directly related to laser fluence increase as was described earlier [2]. We successfully tested the developed OC protocols with human volunteers and observed improvements in PA signal amplitude up to 40%. The OC effect remained in place for whole 1 h long PAFC procedure. Elimination of low frequency PA background was associated with scattered laser light reaching US transducer and generating both PA (high frequency) and pyroelectric (low frequency) signal components. In the absence of such background components, vessel identification using PA signature and PAFC alignment on the vessel were simplified.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the National Institute of Health grants R01EB000873, R01CA131164, R01EB009230, R21CA139373, and the National Science Foundation grant DBI-0852737. VTT was supported by RF President’s grant 1177.2012.2 “Scientific Schools”; Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 13-02-91176, and FiDiPro TEKES Program (40111/11), Finland. We thank I. Pelivanov (Univ. of Washington) for designing and manufacturing a custom focused cylindrical US transducer, and CytoWave Technologies, Inc. for providing US imaging system.

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29. A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(2), 117–124 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(1), 43–55 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012). [PubMed]  

39. R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J. 17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px. [PubMed]  

40. T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

43. X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

44. E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

45. J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

46. M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

47. V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

48. Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006). [CrossRef]  

49. J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

50. J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009). [CrossRef]  

51. J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

52. D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

53. C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

54. A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

55. K. Ariga, K. Kawakami, and J. P. Hill, “Emerging pressure-release materials for drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug. Deliv, (2013). http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/17425247.2013.819340

56. H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

57. V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

58. E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

59. E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

60. C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

61. Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

62. ANSI_Z136.1. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, Washington DC, 2007).

References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(2), 117–124 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(1), 43–55 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  40. T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  49. J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  51. J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  53. C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. K. Ariga, K. Kawakami, and J. P. Hill, “Emerging pressure-release materials for drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug. Deliv, (2013). http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/17425247.2013.819340
  56. H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  57. V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  59. E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  60. C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  61. Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  62. ANSI_Z136.1. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, Washington DC, 2007).

2014 (1)

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (11)

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Optical clearing-aided photoacoustic microscopy with enhanced resolution and imaging depth,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2592–2595 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods 57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J. 17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics 3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl. 23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrba, P. D.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics 3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al’kov, S. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexandru, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altshuler, G. B.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, A. W.

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J. 17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Baranov, S. A.

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl. 23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, E. F.

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boese, M.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brauer, J. A.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bui, A. K.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, Y. P.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chauhan, A.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chess, S.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Childs, J.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Childs, J. J.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. B.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, E. H.

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, W. S.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cottet, H.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeNoble, L. J.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolotov, L. E.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudelzak, J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, C. L.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J. Y.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. P.

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrara, K. W.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fite, B. Z.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, P. M.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods 57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavrilova, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl. 23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glaich, A. S.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goates, C. Y.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, D. J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, L. H.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, G. J.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregoriou, S.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, L.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hale, E. K.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirshburg, J.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C. H.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, M.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyacinth, L.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, A.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izquierdo-Román, A.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, B.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kabisov, R. K.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics 3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kar, H. K.

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Katsambas, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, T. M.

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauvar, A. N. B.

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, M. H.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J. 17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. K.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinnunen, M.

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kirillin, M. Y.

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics 3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knutson, K.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kokoska, M. S.

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kontochristopoulos, G.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korobko, A. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurihara-Bergstrom, T.

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, K.

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C. Y.

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. R.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. J.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Q.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M Kelly, K.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machida, Y.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackanos, M. A.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Z.

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslyakova, G. N.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClure, R. A.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCullough, J.

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menyaev, Y. A.

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyrueix, R.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nedosekin, D. A.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nesterov, A. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nogueira, E. M.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, L. M.

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, U.

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phelps, R. G.

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickett, P. M.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pouliquen, G.

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pravdin, A. B.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, E. V.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander, C. G.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakurai, H.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salavastru, C.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarimollaoglu, M.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savrasov, G. V.

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shashkov, E. V.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S. C.

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

Smirnov, M. Z.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, T.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spring, P. M.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoianovici, C.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabatadze, D.

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanghetti, E. A.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teodor, A.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trunina, N. A.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, R. Y.

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl. 23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, P.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vargas, G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasily, D. B.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vavouli, C.

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virostko, J.

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, W. C.

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.-H.

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, R. K.

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, R. A.

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yanina, I. Yu.

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.-H.

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zharov, V. P.

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods 57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for monitoring of circulating single cancer cells and contrast agents,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3623–3625 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, D. Zhu, R. Shi, and Q. Luo, “Optical clearing agents improve photoacoustic imaging in the optical diffusive regime,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4236–4239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubkova, E. A.

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

A. Ibrahim, R. Meyrueix, G. Pouliquen, Y. P. Chan, and H. Cottet, “Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(16), 5369–5379 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

J. Y. Fang, W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, Y. P. Fang, and C. H. Hu, “Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(1), 132–140 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Dermatol. (1)

E. F. Bernstein, “Laser treatment of tattoos,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(1), 43–55 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Plast. Surg. (1)

J. A. Brauer, U. Patel, and E. K. Hale, “Laser skin resurfacing, chemical peels, and other cutaneous treatments of the brow and upper lid,” Clin. Plast. Surg. 40(1), 91–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. P. Zharov, Y. A. Menyaev, R. K. Kabisov, S. V. Al’kov, A. V. Nesterov, and G. V. Savrasov, “Design and application of low-frequency ultrasound and its combination with laser radiation in surgery and therapy,” Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 29(3), 502–519 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

D. A. Nedosekin, M. Sarimollaoglu, J.-H. Ye, E. I. Galanzha, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo ultra-fast photoacoustic flow cytometry of circulating human melanoma cells using near-infrared high-pulse rate lasers,” Cytometry A 79(10), 825–833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Online J. (1)

R. H. Kim and A. W. Armstrong, “Current state of acne treatment: highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels,” Dermatol. Online J. 17(3), 2 (2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0t40h9px .
[PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

W. R. Lee, R. Y. Tsai, C. L. Fang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Microdermabrasion as a novel tool to enhance drug delivery via the skin: an animal study,” Dermatol. Surg. 32(8), 1013–1022 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical immersion clearing,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 7(6), 825–842 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front Oncol (1)

C. Y. Lai, B. Z. Fite, and K. W. Ferrara, “Ultrasonic enhancement of drug penetration in solid tumors,” Front Oncol 3, 204 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, “A clear vision for laser diagnostics (review),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1621–1628 (2007).
[Crossref]

Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. (1)

H. K. Kar, L. Gupta, and A. Chauhan, “A comparative study on efficacy of high and low fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and glycolic acid peel in melasma,” Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol. 78(2), 165–171 (2012).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Pharm. (1)

H. Sakurai, Y. Takahashi, and Y. Machida, “Influence of low-frequency massage device on transdermal absorption of ionic materials,” Int. J. Pharm. 305(1-2), 112–121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

T. M. Katz, A. S. Glaich, L. H. Goldberg, and P. M. Friedman, “595-nm long pulsed dye laser and 1450-nm diode laser in combination with intralesional triamcinolone/5-fluorouracil for hypertrophic scarring following a phenol peel,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 62(6), 1045–1049 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

X. Wen, S. L. Jacques, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “Enhanced optical clearing of skin in vivo and optical coherence tomography in-depth imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, P. M. Pickett, M. A. Mackanos, and J. Virostko, “Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041119 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, T. Son, E. H. Choi, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of optical skin clearing efficacy using a microneedle roller,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, A. A. Korobko, E. A. Zubkova, V. V. Tuchin, I. V. Yaroslavsky, and G. B. Altshuler, “Optical clearing of human skin: comparative study of permeability and dehydration of intact and photothermally perforated skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, L. E. Dolotov, G. N. Maslyakova, V. I. Kochubey, I. V. Yaroslavsky, G. B. Altshuler, and V. V. Tuchin, “Transcutaneous delivery of micro- and nanoparticles with laser microporation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, N. G. Khlebtsov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051503 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, M. Boese, P. Turner, and R. K. Wang, “Penetration kinetics of dimethyl sulphoxide and glycerol in dynamic optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 021105 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Yu. Yanina, N. A. Trunina, and V. V. Tuchin, “Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 111407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (3)

E. I. Galanzha, M. S. Kokoska, E. V. Shashkov, J. W. Kim, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo fiber-based multicolor photoacoustic detection and photothermal purging of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes targeted by nanoparticles,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 528–539 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wen, Z. Mao, Z. Han, V. V. Tuchin, and D. Zhu, “In vivo skin optical clearing by glycerol solutions: mechanism,” J. Biophotonics 3(1-2), 44–52 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Kirillin, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “In vivo study of the effect of mechanical compression on formation of OCT images of human skin,” J. Biophotonics 3(12), 752–758 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Dermatol. (1)

C. Vavouli, A. Katsambas, S. Gregoriou, A. Teodor, C. Salavastru, A. Alexandru, and G. Kontochristopoulos, “Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 12(3), 204–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. (2)

S. J. Lee, M. J. Choi, Z. Zheng, W. S. Chung, Y. K. Kim, and S. B. Cho, “Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 15(3), 150–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dudelzak, M. Hussain, R. G. Phelps, G. J. Gottlieb, and D. J. Goldberg, “Evaluation of histologic and electron microscopic changes after novel treatment using combined microdermabrasion and ultrasound-induced phonophoresis of human skin,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 10(4), 187–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

W. R. Lee, S. C. Shen, K.-H. Wang, C. H. Hu, and J. Y. Fang, “Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of vitamin C,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(5), 1118–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kinnunen and R. Myllylä, “Effect of glucose on photoacoustic signals at the wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm in pig blood and Intralipid,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2654–2661 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Zhu, K. V. Larin, Q. Luo, and V. V. Tuchin, “Recent progress in tissue optical clearing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 732–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

L. M. Oliveira, M. I. Carvalho, E. M. Nogueira, and V. V. Tuchin, “The characteristic time of glucose diffusion measured for muscle tissue at optical clearing,” Laser Phys. 23(7), 075606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (11)

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Rylander, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24(2), 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Rylander, T. E. Milner, S. A. Baranov, and J. S. Nelson, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing devices: enhancement of light penetration in ex vivo porcine skin and adipose tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(10), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weiss, E. V. Ross, E. A. Tanghetti, D. B. Vasily, J. J. Childs, M. Z. Smirnov, and G. B. Altshuler, “Characterization of an optimized light source and comparison to pulsed dye laser for superficial and deep vessel clearance,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(2), 92–98 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Bui, R. A. McClure, J. Chang, C. Stoianovici, J. Hirshburg, A. T. Yeh, and B. Choi, “Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 142–148 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kang, T. Son, J. Yoon, K. Kwon, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Evaluation of laser beam profile in soft tissue due to compression, glycerol, and micro-needling,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(8), 570–575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Izquierdo-Román, W. C. Vogt, L. Hyacinth, and C. G. Rylander, “Mechanical tissue optical clearing technique increases imaging resolution and contrast through ex vivo porcine skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(8), 814–823 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. B. Kauvar, “Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(2), 117–124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “A physical method to enhance transdermal delivery of a tissue optical clearing agent: combination of microneedling and sonophoresis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(5), 412–417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, B. Choi, S. Chess, K. M Kelly, J. McCullough, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical clearing of in vivo human skin: Implications for light-based diagnostic imaging and therapeutics,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34(2), 83–85 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Z. Zhi, V. V. Tuchin, Q. Luo, and D. Zhu, “Enhancement of skin optical clearing efficacy using photo-irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(2), 132–140 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, G. B. Altshuler, A. A. Gavrilova, A. B. Pravdin, D. Tabatadze, J. Childs, and I. V. Yaroslavsky, “Optical clearing of skin using flash lamp-induced enhancement of epidermal permeability,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(9), 824–836 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Laser Appl. (1)

E. A. Genina, A. N. Bashkatov, and V. V. Tuchin, “Effect of ethanol on the transport of methylene blue through stratum corneum,” Med. Laser Appl. 23(1), 31–38 (2008).
[Crossref]

Methods (1)

E. I. Galanzha and V. P. Zharov, “Photoacoustic flow cytometry,” Methods 57(3), 280–296 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Pharm. Res. (1)

T. Kurihara-Bergstrom, K. Knutson, L. J. DeNoble, and C. Y. Goates, “Percutaneous absorption enhancement of an ionic molecule by ethanol-water systems in human skin,” Pharm. Res. 7(7), 762–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

H. Zhong, Z. Guo, H. Wei, L. Guo, C. Wang, Y. He, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Synergistic effect of ultrasound and Thiazone-PEG 400 on human skin optical clearing in vivo,” Photochem. Photobiol. 86(3), 732–737 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. A. Menyaev and V. P. Zharov, “Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model,” Proc. SPIE 6087, 30–39 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Yoon, D. Park, T. Son, J. Seo, and B. Jung, “Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ultrasonics (1)

D. Park, H. Park, J. Seo, and S. Lee, “Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys,” Ultrasonics 54(1), 56–65 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Gastroenterol. (1)

E. I. Galanzha, V. V. Tuchin, and V. P. Zharov, “Advances in small animal mesentery models for in vivo flow cytometry, dynamic microscopy, and drug screening,” World J. Gastroenterol. 13(2), 192–218 (2007).
[PubMed]

Other (7)

R. Myllylä, Z. Zhao, and M. Kinnunen, “Pulsed photoacoustic techniques and glucose determination in human blood and tissue,” in Handbook of Optical Sensing of Glucose in Biological Fluids and Tissues, V.V. Tuchin, ed. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, 419–455, 2009).

M. Sarimollaoglu, D. A. Nedosekin, Y. A. Menyaev, M. A. Juratli, and V. P. Zharov, “Nonlinear photoacoustic signal amplification from single targets in absorption background,” Photoacoustics. doi 10.1016/j.pacs.2013.11.002.. (2013).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, PM166, Bellingham, WA, 2007).

V. V. Tuchin, Optical Clearing of Tissues and Blood (SPIE Press, PM154, Bellingham, WA, 2006).

M. Muir, “DMSO: Many Uses, Much Controversy,” http://www.dmso.org/articles/information/muir.htm
[Crossref]

K. Ariga, K. Kawakami, and J. P. Hill, “Emerging pressure-release materials for drug delivery,” Expert Opin. Drug. Deliv, (2013). http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/17425247.2013.819340

ANSI_Z136.1. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (American National Standards Institute, Washington DC, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic representation of PAFC principles of melanoma cell detection in deep blood vessels with a focused US transducer. (b) Schematics and (c) photo of in vitro phantom of blood vessel with mouse skin covering the tube. (d) Optical scheme.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Monitoring of optical skin clearing using transmission imaging of the laser beam passing 830 µm skin layer. Typical images (b) and (c) of the laser beam spot before and after OC of the skin presented as a heatmap of irradiation intensity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical properties of skin layer after clearing: (a) transmission and (b) width of laser focal spot before and after OC. Solid curves represent best fit trends: power for (a) and polynomial for (b). (c) The increase in PA signal amplitude of whole blood in a phantom model before and after OC of the skin layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OC improvement of PAFC detection sensitivity for B16F10 melanoma cells enumeration in skin covered flow in vitro phantom. Typical PAFC traces for melanoma cells in flow (a) before and (b) after OC of skin. (c) Dependence of peak rate on the laser pulse energy before and after OC of skin. Data points were fitted using a sigmoid curve.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 OC for human skin. (a) Visual contrast of the vein. (b) Typical changes in PA signal waveform. (c) Typical PAFC traces for a vein in human hand before and after OC. (d) US characterization of the selected vein.

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