Abstract

We demonstrate the ability to non-invasively and quantitatively image lymphatic architecture and contractile function using dynamic near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with injection of indocyanine green in normal and transgenic mice. Unlike normal mice, which showed well defined lymphatic drainage patterns and orthograde propagation of contraction waves, we observed tortuous and mispatterned lymphatic vessels and persistent retrograde lymph flow in mice with deficiency in Prox1, a transcription factor essential for lymphatic vascular development. NIR fluorescence imaging provides a method for quantifying lymphatic function for future studies designed to discern differences in lymphatic function in murine models of human lymphatic disease.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. Tammela and K. Alitalo, “Lymphangiogenesis: Molecular mechanisms and future promise,” Cell 140(4), 460–476 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Wang and G. Oliver, “Current views on the function of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease,” Genes Dev. 24(19), 2115–2126 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Craandijk and C. A. Van Beek, “Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography of the choroid,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60(5), 377–385 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. R. Cherrick, S. W. Stein, C. M. Leevy, and C. S. Davidson, “Indocyanine green: observations on its physical properties, plasma decay, and hepatic extraction,” J. Clin. Invest. 39(4), 592–600 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
    [PubMed]
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  16. K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. T. Wigle and G. Oliver, “Prox1 function is required for the development of the murine lymphatic system,” Cell 98(6), 769–778 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. O. Smith, “Lymphatic contractility; a possible intrinsic mechanism of lymphatic vessels for the transport of lymph,” J. Exp. Med. 90(5), 497–509 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med. 43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  22. A. A. Gashev, M. J. Davis, and D. C. Zawieja, “Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct,” J. Physiol. 540(Pt 3), 1023–1037 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  23. D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  24. N. G. McHale and M. K. Meharg, “Co-ordination of pumping in isolated bovine lymphatic vessels,” J. Physiol. 450, 503–512 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  25. J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. N. Benoit, “Relationships between lymphatic pump flow and total lymph flow in the small intestine,” Am. J. Physiol. 261(6 Pt 2), H1970–H1978 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  27. M. J. Crowe, P. Y. von der Weid, J. A. Brock, and D. F. Van Helden, “Co-ordination of contractile activity in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics,” J. Physiol. 500(Pt 1), 235–244 (1997).
    [PubMed]

2011 (1)

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

2010 (5)

T. Tammela and K. Alitalo, “Lymphangiogenesis: Molecular mechanisms and future promise,” Cell 140(4), 460–476 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and G. Oliver, “Current views on the function of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease,” Genes Dev. 24(19), 2115–2126 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med. 43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. A. Gashev, M. J. Davis, and D. C. Zawieja, “Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct,” J. Physiol. 540(Pt 3), 1023–1037 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. T. Wigle and G. Oliver, “Prox1 function is required for the development of the murine lymphatic system,” Cell 98(6), 769–778 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. J. Crowe, P. Y. von der Weid, J. A. Brock, and D. F. Van Helden, “Co-ordination of contractile activity in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics,” J. Physiol. 500(Pt 1), 235–244 (1997).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

N. G. McHale and M. K. Meharg, “Co-ordination of pumping in isolated bovine lymphatic vessels,” J. Physiol. 450, 503–512 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. N. Benoit, “Relationships between lymphatic pump flow and total lymph flow in the small intestine,” Am. J. Physiol. 261(6 Pt 2), H1970–H1978 (1991).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

A. Craandijk and C. A. Van Beek, “Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography of the choroid,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60(5), 377–385 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

G. R. Cherrick, S. W. Stein, C. M. Leevy, and C. S. Davidson, “Indocyanine green: observations on its physical properties, plasma decay, and hepatic extraction,” J. Clin. Invest. 39(4), 592–600 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949 (1)

R. O. Smith, “Lymphatic contractility; a possible intrinsic mechanism of lymphatic vessels for the transport of lymph,” J. Exp. Med. 90(5), 497–509 (1949).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, K. E.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldrich, M. B.

Alitalo, K.

T. Tammela and K. Alitalo, “Lymphangiogenesis: Molecular mechanisms and future promise,” Cell 140(4), 460–476 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, M. A.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benoit, J. N.

J. N. Benoit, “Relationships between lymphatic pump flow and total lymph flow in the small intestine,” Am. J. Physiol. 261(6 Pt 2), H1970–H1978 (1991).
[PubMed]

Bernas, M. J.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanchard, D. K.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonefas, E.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, K.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brock, J. A.

M. J. Crowe, P. Y. von der Weid, J. A. Brock, and D. F. Van Helden, “Co-ordination of contractile activity in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics,” J. Physiol. 500(Pt 1), 235–244 (1997).
[PubMed]

Brooks, B. P.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bueler, H.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caulder, M. S.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

Cherrick, G. R.

G. R. Cherrick, S. W. Stein, C. M. Leevy, and C. S. Davidson, “Indocyanine green: observations on its physical properties, plasma decay, and hepatic extraction,” J. Clin. Invest. 39(4), 592–600 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, S. B.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, G. L.

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Covington, K. R.

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

Craandijk, A.

A. Craandijk and C. A. Van Beek, “Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography of the choroid,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60(5), 377–385 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, M. J.

M. J. Crowe, P. Y. von der Weid, J. A. Brock, and D. F. Van Helden, “Co-ordination of contractile activity in guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics,” J. Physiol. 500(Pt 1), 235–244 (1997).
[PubMed]

Dagenais, S. L.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darne, C.

Davidson, C. S.

G. R. Cherrick, S. W. Stein, C. M. Leevy, and C. S. Davidson, “Indocyanine green: observations on its physical properties, plasma decay, and hepatic extraction,” J. Clin. Invest. 39(4), 592–600 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. L.

D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
[PubMed]

Davis, M. J.

A. A. Gashev, M. J. Davis, and D. C. Zawieja, “Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct,” J. Physiol. 540(Pt 3), 1023–1037 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dillard, M. E.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, J. B.

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichmann, A.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elledge, R.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, R. P.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrell, R. E.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fife, C. E.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finegold, D. N.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, R. E.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gashev, A. A.

A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Gashev, M. J. Davis, and D. C. Zawieja, “Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct,” J. Physiol. 540(Pt 3), 1023–1037 (2002).
[PubMed]

Glover, T. W.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granger, H. J.

D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
[PubMed]

Greiner, S. T.

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilloid, R.

Harvey, N. L.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinds, W. M.

D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hirschi, K.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houston, J. P.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoy, S.

Jackson, D.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. G.

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, N. C.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jussila, L.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karila, K. A.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karkkainen, M. J.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpanen, T.

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauppinen, R.

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, S.

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kettunen, M. I.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kriederman, B. M.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubo, H.

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Functional lymphatic imaging in tumor-bearing mice,” J. Immunol. Methods 360(1-2), 167–172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Noninvasive quantitative imaging of lymph function in mice,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(4), 219–232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, G. A.

A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrence, E. C.

M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leevy, C. M.

G. R. Cherrick, S. W. Stein, C. M. Leevy, and C. S. Davidson, “Indocyanine green: observations on its physical properties, plasma decay, and hepatic extraction,” J. Clin. Invest. 39(4), 592–600 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, F.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, M. T.

B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mäkinen, T.

T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, M. V.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maus, E. A.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
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Moore, J. E.

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
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B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
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T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
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Y. Wang and G. Oliver, “Current views on the function of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease,” Genes Dev. 24(19), 2115–2126 (2010).
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N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Wigle and G. Oliver, “Prox1 function is required for the development of the murine lymphatic system,” Cell 98(6), 769–778 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
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T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. J. Karkkainen, A. Saaristo, L. Jussila, K. A. Karila, E. C. Lawrence, K. Pajusola, H. Bueler, A. Eichmann, R. Kauppinen, M. I. Kettunen, S. Yla-Herttuala, D. N. Finegold, R. E. Ferrell, and K. Alitalo, “A model for gene therapy of human hereditary lymphedema,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(22), 12677–12682 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampath, L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
[PubMed]

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I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
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J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Adams, S. Ke, S. Kwon, F. Liang, Z. Fan, Y. Lu, K. Hirschi, M. E. Mawad, M. A. Barry, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Comparison of visible and near-infrared wavelength-excitable fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging of cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
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I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
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A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
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K. E. Adams, J. C. Rasmussen, C. Darne, I. C. Tan, M. B. Aldrich, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, R. Guilloid, S. Hoy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Direct evidence of lymphatic function improvement after advanced pneumatic compression device treatment of lymphedema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 114–125 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, S. Kwon, C. E. Fife, E. A. Maus, L. A. Smith, K. R. Covington, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Human lymphatic architecture and dynamic transport imaged using near-infrared fluorescence,” Transl Oncol 3(6), 362–372 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. C. Rasmussen, I. C. Tan, M. V. Marshall, C. E. Fife, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 74–82 (2009).
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I.-C. Tan, E. A. Maus, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, K. E. Adams, C. E. Fife, L. A. Smith, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Assessment of lymphatic contractile function after manual lymphatic drainage using near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Arch. Phys. Ment. Rehabil. 92, 756–764.e1 (2011)

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C. Tsopelas and R. Sutton, “Why certain dyes are useful for localizing the sentinel lymph node,” J. Nucl. Med. 43(10), 1377–1382 (2002).
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R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
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A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
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Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and G. Oliver, “Current views on the function of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease,” Genes Dev. 24(19), 2115–2126 (2010).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
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J. T. Wigle and G. Oliver, “Prox1 function is required for the development of the murine lymphatic system,” Cell 98(6), 769–778 (1999).
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B. M. Kriederman, T. L. Myloyde, M. H. Witte, S. L. Dagenais, C. L. Witte, M. Rennels, M. J. Bernas, M. T. Lynch, R. P. Erickson, M. S. Caulder, N. Miura, D. Jackson, B. P. Brooks, and T. W. Glover, “FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 12(10), 1179–1185 (2003).
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N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
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T. Mäkinen, L. Jussila, T. Veikkola, T. Karpanen, M. I. Kettunen, K. J. Pulkkanen, R. Kauppinen, D. G. Jackson, H. Kubo, S. Nishikawa, S. Ylä-Herttuala, and K. Alitalo, “Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis with resulting lymphedema in transgenic mice expressing soluble VEGF receptor-3,” Nat. Med. 7(2), 199–205 (2001).
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Zawieja, D. C.

A. A. Gashev, W. Wang, G. A. Laine, R. H. Stewart, and D. C. Zawieja, “Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics,” Lymphat. Res. Biol. 5(2), 71–80 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Dixon, S. T. Greiner, A. A. Gashev, G. L. Cote, J. E. Moore, and D. C. Zawieja, “Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics,” Microcirculation 13(7), 597–610 (2006).
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A. A. Gashev, M. J. Davis, and D. C. Zawieja, “Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct,” J. Physiol. 540(Pt 3), 1023–1037 (2002).
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D. C. Zawieja, K. L. Davis, R. Schuster, W. M. Hinds, and H. J. Granger, “Distribution, propagation, and coordination of contractile activity in lymphatics,” Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2), H1283–H1291 (1993).
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Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

R. Sharma, W. Wang, J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, J. P. Houston, K. E. Adams, A. Cameron, S. Ke, S. Kwon, M. E. Mawad, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative imaging of lymph function,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 292(6), H3109–H3118 (2007).
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2599 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1664 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NIR fluorescence image (A, Media 1) of the lymphatics in a nude mouse and quantification of lymphatic contractile function after selection of 66 ROIs along the lymphatic vessel (B). A 3-D plot of fluorescent intensity as a function of time and distance (C) shows the propagation of the fluorescent packet along the lymphatic vessel (arrows). Plot of fluorescent intensity profiles for two ROIs (D) from which the distance between the ROIs and the time are obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 3-D plot of fluorescent intensity as a function of time and distance (B) after selecting 66 ROIs along the lymphatic vessel (A) shows propagating contraction waves in an orthograde direction (arrow). (C) Plot of fluorescent intensity profiles for four ROIs showing different patterns of propagating contraction waves in a collecting lymphatic vessel of a nude mouse. Asterisk denotes ILN and broken arrow ALN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overlay of white light and fluorescent images acquired by in vivo (A) and intravital (B) NIR fluorescent imaging after injection of ICG and a color image (C) after injection of EBD to a nude mouse. Asterisk denotes ILN. Arrows in A-C denote collecting lymphatic vessels. Scale: 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overlay (A) of white light and fluorescent images in a C57BL/6 mouse and a 3-D plot of the fluorescent intensity as a function of time and distance (B) showing the propagation of the fluorescent packet of lymph represented by the peak in fluorescence intensity (arrow). Asterisk denotes ILN.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Overlay of white light and fluorescent images in Prox1+/− mice depicting abnormal lymphatic drainage patterns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overlay (A) of white light and fluorescent images (B, Media 2) and quantification of abnormal lymphatic contractile function of Prox1+/− mice. Double arrows denote a tortuous collecting lymphatic vessel. (C) A 3-D plot of the fluorescent intensity as a function of time and distance. Arrow in C denotes orthograde propagating contraction wave, whereas broken arrow denotes retrograde propagating contraction wave. (D) Plot of fluorescent intensity profiles for four ROIs from which the distance between the ROIs and the transit time (Δt1 and Δt2) are obtained.

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