Abstract

The flashlamp-pumped, solid-state, pulsed, mid-infrared, holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) has been the clinical gold standard laser for lithotripsy for over the past two decades. However, while the holmium laser is the dominant laser technology in ureteroscopy because it efficiently ablates all urinary stone types, this mature laser technology has several fundamental limitations. Alternative, mid-IR laser technologies, including a thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 and 1940 nm), a thulium:YAG laser (λ = 2010 nm), and an erbium:YAG laser (λ = 2940 nm) have also been explored for lithotripsy. The capabilities and limitations of these mid-IR lasers are reviewed in the context of the quest for an ideal laser lithotripsy system capable of providing both rapid and safe ablation of urinary stones.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (14)

P. Kronenberg and B. Somani, “Advances in lasers for the treatment of stones–a systematic review,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 19(6), 1– 11 (2018).

N. M. Fried and P. B. Irby, “Advances in laser technology and fiber optic delivery systems for use in lithotripsy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. ( June), 8 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Scanning electron microscopy of real and artificial kidney stones before and after Thulium fiber laser ablation in air and water,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680G), 1–11 (2018).

M. R. Humphreys, O. D. Shah, M. Monga, Y. H. Chang, A. E. Krambeck, R. L. Sur, N. L. Miller, B. E. Knudsen, B. H. Eisner, B. R. Matlaga, and B. H. Chew, “Dusting versus basketing during – which technique is more efficacious? A prospective multicenter trial from the EDGE research consortium,” J. Urol. 199(5), 1272–1276 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Matlaga, B. Chew, B. Eisner, M. Humphreys, B. Knudsen, A. Krambeck, D. Lange, M. Lipkin, N. L. Miller, M. Monga, V. Pais, R. L. Sur, and O. Shah, “Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy: a review of dusting vs fragmentation with extraction,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Wollin, E. C. Carlos, W. R. Tom, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Effect of laser settings and irrigation rates on ureteral temperature during holmium laser lithotripsy, an in vitro model,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 59–63 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Stern and M. Monga, “The Moses holmium system - time is money,” Can. J. Urol. 25(3), 9313–9316 (2018).
[PubMed]

C. Wilson, J. D. Kennedy, P. Irby, and N. Fried, “Miniature ureteroscope distal tip designs for potential use in thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Hardy, D. A. Gonzalez, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using a compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680O), 1–5 (2018).

A. Gross, B. Becker, M. Taratkin, D. Enikeev, L. Rapoport, and C. Netsch, “Wavelength and pulse shape effects on stone fragmentation of laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 199(4S), e293–e294 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Yaroslavsky, V. Vinnichenko, T. McNeill, A. Novoselteva, I. Perchuk, A. Vybornov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Optimization of a novel Tm fiber laser lithotripter in terms of stone ablation efficiency and retropulsion reduction,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680H), 1–9 (2018).

A. G. Martov, D. V. Ergakov, M. A. Guseinov, A. S. Andronov, S. V. Dutov, V. A. Vinnichenko, and A. A. Kovalenko, “[Initial experience in clinical application of thulium laser con7act lithotripsy for transurethral treatment of urolithiasis],” Urologiia Mar 2018(1), 112–120 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ergakov, A. G. Martov, and M. Guseynov, “The comparative clinical study of Ho:YAG and superpulse Tm fiber laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 17(2), e1391 (2018).

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (14)

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, A. Vinarov, L. Rapoport, M. Enikeev, N. Grigoriev, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, M. Taratkin, and V. Zamyatina, “Comparison between the possibilities of holmium and thulium laser in lithotripsy in vitro,” Eur. Urol. 16(3), 391 (2017).

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, I. Yaroslaksy, A. Vinarov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, and V. V. Vinnichenko, “Comparative in vitro study of Ho:YAG and Tm fiber laser lithotripters in dusting mode of operation,” J. Urol. 197 (4S), e815 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

L. A. Hardy, J. D. Kennedy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Analysis of thulium fiber laser induced bubble dynamics for ablation of kidney stones,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1240–1249 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Wollin, A. Ackerman, C. Yang, T. Chen, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Variable pulse duration from a new Holmium:YAG laser: the effect on stone comminution, fiber tip degradation, and retropulsion dusting model,” Urology 103, 47–51 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of stone fragmentation when using various settings with modern variable pulse holmium lasers,” J. Endourol. 31(10), 1067–1072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of holmium lasers: evidence for shorter fragmentation time and decreased retropulsion using a modern variable-pulse laser,” Urology 107, 37–42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Aldoukhi, K. R. Ghani, T. L. Hall, and W. W. Roberts, “Thermal response to high-power holmium laser lithotripsy,” J. Endourol. 31(12), 1308–1312 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Elhilali, S. Badaan, A. Ibrahim, and S. Andonian, “Use of the Moses technology to improve holmium laser lithotripsy outcomes: a preclinical study,” J. Endourol. 31(6), 598–604 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Klaver, T. de Boorder, A. I. Rem, T. M. T. W. Lock, and H. J. Noordmans, “In vitro comparison of renal stone laser treatment using fragmentation and popcorn technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(7), 698–704 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Emiliani, M. Talso, S. Y. Cho, M. Baghdadi, S. Mahmoud, H. Pinheiro, and O. Traxer, “Optimal settings for the noncontact Holmium:YAG stone fragmentation popcorn technique,” J. Urol. 198(3), 702–706 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Santiago, A. B. Hollander, S. D. Soni, R. E. Link, and W. A. Mayer, “To dust or not to dust: a systematic review of ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy techniques,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 18(4), 32 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Aldoukhi, W. W. Roberts, T. L. Hall, and K. R. Ghani, “Holmium laser lithotripsy in the new stone age: dust or bust?” Front Surg 29(4), 57 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

A. Fahmy, M. Youssif, H. Rhashad, S. Orabi, and I. Mokless, “Extractable fragment versus dusting during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy in children: prospective randomized study,” J. Pediatr. Urol. 12(4), 254e1 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Butticè, T. E. Sener, S. Proietti, L. Dragos, T. Tefik, S. Doizi, and O. Traxer, “Temperature changes inside the kidney: what happens during Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet laser usage?” J. Endourol. 30(5), 574–579 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kronenberg and O. Traxer, “MP22–13 “Burst laser lithotripsy - a novel lithotripsy mode,” J. Urol. 195(4), e258 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Pal, A. Ghosh, R. Sen, and A. Pal, “Continuous-wave and quasi-continuous wave thulium-doped all-fiber laser: implementation on kidney stone fragmentations,” Appl. Opt. 55(23), 6151–6155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Wilson, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Microscopic analysis of laser-induced proximal fiber tip damage during Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” Opt. Eng. 55(4), 046102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

C. R. Wilson, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Collateral damage to the ureter and Nitinol stone baskets during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(5), 403–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Wilson, T. C. Hutchens, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “A miniaturized, 1.9-French integrated optical fiber and stone basket for use in Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Endourol. 29(10), 1110–1114 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bader, T. Pongratz, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and R. Sroka, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 471–477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, G. Scheib, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and M. J. Bader, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: treatment aspects on the single-pulse level,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 479–485 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhang, D. Rajabhandharaks, J. R. Xuan, H. Wang, R. W. J. Chia, T. Hasenberg, and H. W. Kang, “Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Dauw, L. Simeon, A. F. Alruwaily, F. Sanguedolce, J. M. Hollingsworth, W. W. Roberts, G. J. Faerber, J. S. Wolf, and K. R. Ghani, “Contemporary practice patterns of flexible ureteroscopy for treating renal stones: results of a worldwide survey,” J. Endourol. 29(11), 1221–1230 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Molina, I. N. Silva, R. Donalisio da Silva, D. Gustafson, D. Sehrt, and F. J. Kim, “Influence of saline on temperature profile of laser lithotripsy activation,” J. Endourol. 29(2), 235–239 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. D. Scales, J. C. Lai, A. W. Dick, J. M. Hanley, J. van Meijgaard, C. M. Setodji, C. S. Saigal, and Urologic Diseases in America Project, “Comparative effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for treating patients with kidney stones,” JAMA Surg. 149(7), 648–653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Rapid Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy at pulse rates up to 500 Hz using a stone basket,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902604 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. L. Blackmon, T. C. Hutchens, L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-µm-core silica optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Cordes, F. Nguyen, B. Lange, R. Brinkmann, and D. Jocham, “Damage of stone baskets by endourologic lithotripters: a laboratory study of 5 lithotripters and 4 basket types,” Adv. Urol. 2013, 632790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Hecht and J. S. Wolf., “Techniques for holmium laser lithotripsy of intrarenal calculi,” Urology 81(2), 442–445 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, J. A. Stafford, B. P. Schmidt, and J. D. Wells, “In vitro testing of dual-mode thulium microsurgical laser,” Proc. SPIE 8207, 820711 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sea, L. M. Jonat, B. H. Chew, J. Qiu, B. Wang, J. Hoopman, T. Milner, and J. M. Teichman, “Optimal power settings for Holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 187(3), 914–919 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. J. Bader, C. Gratzke, V. Hecht, B. Schlenker, M. Seitz, O. Reich, C. G. Stief, and R. Sroka, “Impact of collateral damage to endourologic tools during laser lithotripsy--in vitro comparison of three different clinical laser systems,” J. Endourol. 25(4), 667–672 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cordes, B. Lange, D. Jocham, and I. Kausch, “Destruction of stone extraction basket during an in vitro lithotripsy--a comparison of four lithotripters,” J. Endourol. 25(8), 1359–1362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Knudsen, R. Pedro, B. Hinck, and M. Monga, “Durability of reusable holmium:YAG laser fibers: a multicenter study,” J. Urol. 185(1), 160–163 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Hendow, R. Romero, S. A. Shakir, and P. T. Guerreiro, “Percussion drilling of metals using bursts of nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10221–10231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of holmium:YAG and thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: ablation thresholds, ablation rates, and retropulsion effects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 071403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Qiu, J. Teichman, T. Wang, B. Elmaanaoui, D. Gamez, and T. E. Milner, “Comparison of fluoride and sapphire optical fibers for Er: YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 277–283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using tapered fibers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 45–50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, J. M. Teichman, T. Wang, J. Neev, R. D. Glickman, K. F. Chan, and T. E. Milner, “Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 028001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “N. M, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 435–440 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. J. Marks, A. C. Mues, B. E. Knudsen, and J. M. H. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy proximal fiber failures from laser and fiber mismatch,” Urology 71(6), 1049–1051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Chawla, M. F. Chang, A. Chang, J. Lenoir, and D. H. Bagley, “Effectiveness of high-frequency holmium:YAG laser stone fragmentation: the “popcorn effect”,” J. Endourol. 22(4), 645–650 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Kalra, N. B. Le, and D. Bagley, “Effect of pulse width on object movement in vitro using holmium:YAG laser,” J. Endourol. 21(2), 228–231 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. W. Kang, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, J. Kim, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion on pulse duration during Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 762–772 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Raif, M. Vardi, O. Nahlieli, and I. Gannot, “An Er:YAG laser endoscopic fiber delivery system for lithotripsy of salivary stones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 580–587 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(1), 39–51 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Honeck, G. Wendt-Nordahl, A. Häcker, P. Alken, and T. Knoll, “Risk of collateral damage to endourologic tools by holmium:YAG laser energy,” J. Endourol. 20(7), 495–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

N. M. Fried, “High-power laser vaporization of the canine prostate using a 110 W Thulium fiber laser at 1.91 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(1), 52–56 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: an in vitro analysis of stone fragmentation using a modulated 110-watt Thulium fiber laser at 1.94 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(1), 53–58 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Marguet, J. C. Sung, W. P. Springhart, J. O. L’Esperance, S. Zhou, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “In vitro comparison of stone retropulsion and fragmentation of the frequency doubled, double pulse nd:yag laser and the holmium:yag laser,” J. Urol. 173(5), 1797–1800 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: Urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).

2004 (6)

P. F. Schofield, K. S. Knight, J. A. M. van der Houwen, and E. Valsami-Jones, “The role of hydrogen bonding in the thermal expansion and dehydration of brushite, di-calcium phosphate dihydrate,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 31(9), 606–624 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and N. M. Fried, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers,” J. Endourol. 18(9), 830–835 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Joseph, P. Allen, D. Negus, and J. Hobart, “A new and improved vitreoretinal erbium:YAG laser scalpel: long-term morphologic characteristics of retinal-choroidal injury,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(4), 304–315 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Biomech. Eng. 126(4), 506–515 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Griffin, “Fiber optics for destroying kidney stones,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 44–47 (2004).

O. A. Nazif, J. M. H. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, and A. J. Welch, “Review of laser fibers: a practical guide for urologists,” J. Endourol. 18(9), 818–829 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. M. Teichman, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, and A. J. Welch, “Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 169(3), 881–885 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler, and P. Drlik, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2431–2435 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roggan, U. Bindig, W. Wäsche, and F. Zgoda, “Action mechanisms of laser radiation in biological tissues,” Applied Laser Medicine 3, 87 (2003)

2002 (4)

B. I. Lange, T. Brendel, and G. Hüttmann, “Temperature dependence of light absorption in water at holmium and thulium laser wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5797–5803 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol. 168(2), 436–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, P. Schmidt, and B. Flucke, “Minimization of thermomechanical side effects in IR ablation by use of multiply q-switched laser pulses,” Med. Laser Appl. 17(1), 15–20 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

J. M. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165(3), 876–879 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, “Potential applications of the erbium:YAG laser in endourology,” J. Endourol. 15(9), 889–894 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Motley, N. Dalrymple, C. Keesling, J. Fischer, and W. Harmon, “Hounsfield unit density in the determination of urinary stone composition,” Urology 58(2), 170–173 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “A perspective on laser lithotripsy: the fragmentation processes,” J. Endourol. 15(3), 257–273 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, J. M. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto, E. D. Jansen, and A. J. Welch, “Free electron laser lithotripsy: threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourol. 14(2), 161–167 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with a continuous wave 3-mcm fibre laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(5), 491–495 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Laser-tissue interaction with a high-power 2-microm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(5), 407–413 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, T. Arai, S. Sato, M. Ishihara, and M. Kikuchi, “High-power continuous-wave 3- and 2-µm cascade Ho3+:ZBLAN fiber laser and its medical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 936–943 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Majaron, P. Plestenjak, and M. Lukac, “Thermo-mechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 71–80 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. F. Chan, G. J. Vassar, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, S. T. Weintraub, and A. J. Welch, “Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: A dominant photothermal ablative mechanism with chemical decomposition of urinary calculi,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(1), 22–37 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. Fried, M. Zuerlein, J. D. B. Featherstone, W. Seka, C. Duhn, and S. M. McCormack, “IR laser ablation of dental enamel: mechanistic dependence on the primary absorber,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 852–856 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. D. White, M. E. Moran, C. J. Calvano, A. Borhan-Manesh, and B. A. Mehlhaff, “Evaluation of retropulsion caused by holmium:YAG laser with various power settings and fibers,” J. Endourol. 12(2), 183–186 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. S. Freiha, R. D. Glickman, and J. M. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG laser-induced damage to guidewires: experimental study,” J. Endourol. 11(5), 331–336 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, and A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(3), 278–293 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. Bagley and M. Erhard, “Use of the holmium laser in the upper urinary tract,” Tech. Urol. 1(1), 25–30 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. P. Cummins and J. T. Walsh., “Erbium laser ablation: the effect of dynamic optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(16), 1988–1990 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

K. T. Schomacker, Y. Domankevitz, T. J. Flotte, and T. F. Deutsch, “Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 141–151 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Struve and G. Huber, “Properties and medical applications of near-IR solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. IV 1(C7), 3–6 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. M. Wilson, “Clinical and laboratory approaches for evaluation of nephrolithiasis,” J. Urol. 141(3), 770–774 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, A. N. Rusk, and D. Williams, “Influence of temperature on the spectrum of water,” JOSA 62(9), 1103–1108 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abdelshehid, C.

D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abourbih, S. R.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ackerman, A.

D. A. Wollin, A. Ackerman, C. Yang, T. Chen, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Variable pulse duration from a new Holmium:YAG laser: the effect on stone comminution, fiber tip degradation, and retropulsion dusting model,” Urology 103, 47–51 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlering, M.

D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akopyan, G.

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
[Crossref]

Albala, D. M.

C. G. Marguet, J. C. Sung, W. P. Springhart, J. O. L’Esperance, S. Zhou, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “In vitro comparison of stone retropulsion and fragmentation of the frequency doubled, double pulse nd:yag laser and the holmium:yag laser,” J. Urol. 173(5), 1797–1800 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aldoukhi, A. H.

A. H. Aldoukhi, K. R. Ghani, T. L. Hall, and W. W. Roberts, “Thermal response to high-power holmium laser lithotripsy,” J. Endourol. 31(12), 1308–1312 (2017).
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A. H. Aldoukhi, W. W. Roberts, T. L. Hall, and K. R. Ghani, “Holmium laser lithotripsy in the new stone age: dust or bust?” Front Surg 29(4), 57 (2017).
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A. H. Aldoukhi, T. L. Hall, K. R. Ghani, A. D. Maxwell, B. MacConaghy, and W. W. Roberts, “Calyceal fluid temperature during high-power holmium laser lithotripsy in an in vivo porcine model,” J. Endourol.In press.

Ali, S.

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alken, P.

P. Honeck, G. Wendt-Nordahl, A. Häcker, P. Alken, and T. Knoll, “Risk of collateral damage to endourologic tools by holmium:YAG laser energy,” J. Endourol. 20(7), 495–497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, P.

D. P. Joseph, P. Allen, D. Negus, and J. Hobart, “A new and improved vitreoretinal erbium:YAG laser scalpel: long-term morphologic characteristics of retinal-choroidal injury,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(4), 304–315 (2004).
[PubMed]

Alruwaily, A. F.

C. A. Dauw, L. Simeon, A. F. Alruwaily, F. Sanguedolce, J. M. Hollingsworth, W. W. Roberts, G. J. Faerber, J. S. Wolf, and K. R. Ghani, “Contemporary practice patterns of flexible ureteroscopy for treating renal stones: results of a worldwide survey,” J. Endourol. 29(11), 1221–1230 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alsyouf, M.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altshuler, G.

I. Yaroslavsky, V. Vinnichenko, T. McNeill, A. Novoselteva, I. Perchuk, A. Vybornov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Optimization of a novel Tm fiber laser lithotripter in terms of stone ablation efficiency and retropulsion reduction,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680H), 1–9 (2018).

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, A. Vinarov, L. Rapoport, M. Enikeev, N. Grigoriev, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, M. Taratkin, and V. Zamyatina, “Comparison between the possibilities of holmium and thulium laser in lithotripsy in vitro,” Eur. Urol. 16(3), 391 (2017).

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, I. Yaroslaksy, A. Vinarov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, and V. V. Vinnichenko, “Comparative in vitro study of Ho:YAG and Tm fiber laser lithotripters in dusting mode of operation,” J. Urol. 197 (4S), e815 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

Alyaev, Y.

A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

Amanatides, L.

W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andonian, S.

M. M. Elhilali, S. Badaan, A. Ibrahim, and S. Andonian, “Use of the Moses technology to improve holmium laser lithotripsy outcomes: a preclinical study,” J. Endourol. 31(6), 598–604 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andronov, A. S.

A. G. Martov, D. V. Ergakov, M. A. Guseinov, A. S. Andronov, S. V. Dutov, V. A. Vinnichenko, and A. A. Kovalenko, “[Initial experience in clinical application of thulium laser con7act lithotripsy for transurethral treatment of urolithiasis],” Urologiia Mar 2018(1), 112–120 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, T.

T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, T. Arai, S. Sato, M. Ishihara, and M. Kikuchi, “High-power continuous-wave 3- and 2-µm cascade Ho3+:ZBLAN fiber laser and its medical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 936–943 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arai, Y.

Arakeri, N. V.

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Biomech. Eng. 126(4), 506–515 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. M. Teichman, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, and A. J. Welch, “Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 169(3), 881–885 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arenas, J. L.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asshauer, T.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, and A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(3), 278–293 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badaan, S.

M. M. Elhilali, S. Badaan, A. Ibrahim, and S. Andonian, “Use of the Moses technology to improve holmium laser lithotripsy outcomes: a preclinical study,” J. Endourol. 31(6), 598–604 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, M. J.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, G. Scheib, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and M. J. Bader, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: treatment aspects on the single-pulse level,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 479–485 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bader, T. Pongratz, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and R. Sroka, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 471–477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bader, C. Gratzke, V. Hecht, B. Schlenker, M. Seitz, O. Reich, C. G. Stief, and R. Sroka, “Impact of collateral damage to endourologic tools during laser lithotripsy--in vitro comparison of three different clinical laser systems,” J. Endourol. 25(4), 667–672 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baghdadi, M.

E. Emiliani, M. Talso, S. Y. Cho, M. Baghdadi, S. Mahmoud, H. Pinheiro, and O. Traxer, “Optimal settings for the noncontact Holmium:YAG stone fragmentation popcorn technique,” J. Urol. 198(3), 702–706 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagley, D.

P. Kalra, N. B. Le, and D. Bagley, “Effect of pulse width on object movement in vitro using holmium:YAG laser,” J. Endourol. 21(2), 228–231 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bagley and M. Erhard, “Use of the holmium laser in the upper urinary tract,” Tech. Urol. 1(1), 25–30 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bagley, D. H.

S. N. Chawla, M. F. Chang, A. Chang, J. Lenoir, and D. H. Bagley, “Effectiveness of high-frequency holmium:YAG laser stone fragmentation: the “popcorn effect”,” J. Endourol. 22(4), 645–650 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldwin, D. D.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, B.

A. Gross, B. Becker, M. Taratkin, D. Enikeev, L. Rapoport, and C. Netsch, “Wavelength and pulse shape effects on stone fragmentation of laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 199(4S), e293–e294 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bell, J. R.

J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of stone fragmentation when using various settings with modern variable pulse holmium lasers,” J. Endourol. 31(10), 1067–1072 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of holmium lasers: evidence for shorter fragmentation time and decreased retropulsion using a modern variable-pulse laser,” Urology 107, 37–42 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bindig, U.

A. Roggan, U. Bindig, W. Wäsche, and F. Zgoda, “Action mechanisms of laser radiation in biological tissues,” Applied Laser Medicine 3, 87 (2003)

Blackmon, R. L.

R. L. Blackmon, T. C. Hutchens, L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-µm-core silica optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 011004 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of holmium:YAG and thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: ablation thresholds, ablation rates, and retropulsion effects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 071403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using tapered fibers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 45–50 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borhan-Manesh, A.

M. D. White, M. E. Moran, C. J. Calvano, A. Borhan-Manesh, and B. A. Mehlhaff, “Evaluation of retropulsion caused by holmium:YAG laser with various power settings and fibers,” J. Endourol. 12(2), 183–186 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borin, J.

D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borst, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 258–268 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brendel, T.

Brinkmann, R.

J. Cordes, F. Nguyen, B. Lange, R. Brinkmann, and D. Jocham, “Damage of stone baskets by endourologic lithotripters: a laboratory study of 5 lithotripters and 4 basket types,” Adv. Urol. 2013, 632790 (2013).
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Butticè, S.

S. Butticè, T. E. Sener, S. Proietti, L. Dragos, T. Tefik, S. Doizi, and O. Traxer, “Temperature changes inside the kidney: what happens during Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet laser usage?” J. Endourol. 30(5), 574–579 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calhoun, E. A.

M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: Urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).

Calvano, C. J.

M. D. White, M. E. Moran, C. J. Calvano, A. Borhan-Manesh, and B. A. Mehlhaff, “Evaluation of retropulsion caused by holmium:YAG laser with various power settings and fibers,” J. Endourol. 12(2), 183–186 (1998).
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Carlos, E. C.

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S. N. Chawla, M. F. Chang, A. Chang, J. Lenoir, and D. H. Bagley, “Effectiveness of high-frequency holmium:YAG laser stone fragmentation: the “popcorn effect”,” J. Endourol. 22(4), 645–650 (2008).
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D. Pal, A. Paul, N. K. Shekhar, S. D. Chowdhury, R. Sen, K. Chatterjee, and A. Pal, “COM stone dusting and soft tissue ablation with Q-switched thulium fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.Epub (2018).

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G. Motley, N. Dalrymple, C. Keesling, J. Fischer, and W. Harmon, “Hounsfield unit density in the determination of urinary stone composition,” Urology 58(2), 170–173 (2001).
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C. A. Dauw, L. Simeon, A. F. Alruwaily, F. Sanguedolce, J. M. Hollingsworth, W. W. Roberts, G. J. Faerber, J. S. Wolf, and K. R. Ghani, “Contemporary practice patterns of flexible ureteroscopy for treating renal stones: results of a worldwide survey,” J. Endourol. 29(11), 1221–1230 (2015).
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Duhn, C.

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P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, I. Yaroslaksy, A. Vinarov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, and V. V. Vinnichenko, “Comparative in vitro study of Ho:YAG and Tm fiber laser lithotripters in dusting mode of operation,” J. Urol. 197 (4S), e815 (2017).
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P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, I. Yaroslaksy, A. Vinarov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, and V. V. Vinnichenko, “Comparative in vitro study of Ho:YAG and Tm fiber laser lithotripters in dusting mode of operation,” J. Urol. 197 (4S), e815 (2017).
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P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, A. Vinarov, L. Rapoport, M. Enikeev, N. Grigoriev, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, M. Taratkin, and V. Zamyatina, “Comparison between the possibilities of holmium and thulium laser in lithotripsy in vitro,” Eur. Urol. 16(3), 391 (2017).

V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

Enikeev, M.

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, A. Vinarov, L. Rapoport, M. Enikeev, N. Grigoriev, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, M. Taratkin, and V. Zamyatina, “Comparison between the possibilities of holmium and thulium laser in lithotripsy in vitro,” Eur. Urol. 16(3), 391 (2017).

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D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
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Fischer, J.

G. Motley, N. Dalrymple, C. Keesling, J. Fischer, and W. Harmon, “Hounsfield unit density in the determination of urinary stone composition,” Urology 58(2), 170–173 (2001).
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K. T. Schomacker, Y. Domankevitz, T. J. Flotte, and T. F. Deutsch, “Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 141–151 (1991).
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D. Fried, M. Zuerlein, J. D. B. Featherstone, W. Seka, C. Duhn, and S. M. McCormack, “IR laser ablation of dental enamel: mechanistic dependence on the primary absorber,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 127–129, 852–856 (1998).
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C. Wilson, J. D. Kennedy, P. Irby, and N. Fried, “Miniature ureteroscope distal tip designs for potential use in thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 1–9 (2018).
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L. A. Hardy, D. A. Gonzalez, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using a compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680O), 1–5 (2018).

L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Scanning electron microscopy of real and artificial kidney stones before and after Thulium fiber laser ablation in air and water,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680G), 1–11 (2018).

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L. A. Hardy, D. A. Gonzalez, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using a compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680O), 1–5 (2018).

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L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Rapid Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy at pulse rates up to 500 Hz using a stone basket,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902604 (2014).
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L. A. Hardy, D. A. Gonzalez, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using a compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680O), 1–5 (2018).

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[Crossref]

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K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, J. M. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto, E. D. Jansen, and A. J. Welch, “Free electron laser lithotripsy: threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourol. 14(2), 161–167 (2000).
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Jelinkova, H.

Jiang, R.

D. A. Wollin, W. R. Tom, R. Jiang, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “An in vitro evaluation of laser settings and location in the efficiency of the popcorn effect,” Urolithiasis epub (2018).

Jocham, D.

J. Cordes, F. Nguyen, B. Lange, R. Brinkmann, and D. Jocham, “Damage of stone baskets by endourologic lithotripters: a laboratory study of 5 lithotripters and 4 basket types,” Adv. Urol. 2013, 632790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cordes, B. Lange, D. Jocham, and I. Kausch, “Destruction of stone extraction basket during an in vitro lithotripsy--a comparison of four lithotripters,” J. Endourol. 25(8), 1359–1362 (2011).
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J. Sea, L. M. Jonat, B. H. Chew, J. Qiu, B. Wang, J. Hoopman, T. Milner, and J. M. Teichman, “Optimal power settings for Holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 187(3), 914–919 (2012).
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D. P. Joseph, P. Allen, D. Negus, and J. Hobart, “A new and improved vitreoretinal erbium:YAG laser scalpel: long-term morphologic characteristics of retinal-choroidal injury,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(4), 304–315 (2004).
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W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
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Kalra, P.

P. Kalra, N. B. Le, and D. Bagley, “Effect of pulse width on object movement in vitro using holmium:YAG laser,” J. Endourol. 21(2), 228–231 (2007).
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W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
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K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol. 168(2), 436–441 (2002).
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J. M. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165(3), 876–879 (2001).
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J. J. Zhang, D. Rajabhandharaks, J. R. Xuan, H. Wang, R. W. J. Chia, T. Hasenberg, and H. W. Kang, “Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (2015).
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H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(1), 39–51 (2006).
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H. W. Kang, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, J. Kim, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion on pulse duration during Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 762–772 (2006).
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Kasai, T.

Kausch, I.

J. Cordes, B. Lange, D. Jocham, and I. Kausch, “Destruction of stone extraction basket during an in vitro lithotripsy--a comparison of four lithotripters,” J. Endourol. 25(8), 1359–1362 (2011).
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H. W. Kang, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, J. Kim, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion on pulse duration during Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 762–772 (2006).
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H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Biomech. Eng. 126(4), 506–515 (2004).
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H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. M. Teichman, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, and A. J. Welch, “Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 169(3), 881–885 (2003).
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P. Klaver, T. de Boorder, A. I. Rem, T. M. T. W. Lock, and H. J. Noordmans, “In vitro comparison of renal stone laser treatment using fragmentation and popcorn technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(7), 698–704 (2017).
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Klimov, R.

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M. R. Humphreys, O. D. Shah, M. Monga, Y. H. Chang, A. E. Krambeck, R. L. Sur, N. L. Miller, B. E. Knudsen, B. H. Eisner, B. R. Matlaga, and B. H. Chew, “Dusting versus basketing during – which technique is more efficacious? A prospective multicenter trial from the EDGE research consortium,” J. Urol. 199(5), 1272–1276 (2018).
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A. J. Marks, A. C. Mues, B. E. Knudsen, and J. M. H. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy proximal fiber failures from laser and fiber mismatch,” Urology 71(6), 1049–1051 (2008).
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Kohler, O.

Korolev, D.

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
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A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

Koukiou, G.

W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
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Kovalenko, A.

V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

Kovalenko, A. A.

A. G. Martov, D. V. Ergakov, M. A. Guseinov, A. S. Andronov, S. V. Dutov, V. A. Vinnichenko, and A. A. Kovalenko, “[Initial experience in clinical application of thulium laser con7act lithotripsy for transurethral treatment of urolithiasis],” Urologiia Mar 2018(1), 112–120 (2018).
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Krambeck, A.

B. R. Matlaga, B. Chew, B. Eisner, M. Humphreys, B. Knudsen, A. Krambeck, D. Lange, M. Lipkin, N. L. Miller, M. Monga, V. Pais, R. L. Sur, and O. Shah, “Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy: a review of dusting vs fragmentation with extraction,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 1–6 (2018).
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Krambeck, A. E.

M. R. Humphreys, O. D. Shah, M. Monga, Y. H. Chang, A. E. Krambeck, R. L. Sur, N. L. Miller, B. E. Knudsen, B. H. Eisner, B. R. Matlaga, and B. H. Chew, “Dusting versus basketing during – which technique is more efficacious? A prospective multicenter trial from the EDGE research consortium,” J. Urol. 199(5), 1272–1276 (2018).
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P. Kronenberg and B. Somani, “Advances in lasers for the treatment of stones–a systematic review,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 19(6), 1– 11 (2018).

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C. G. Marguet, J. C. Sung, W. P. Springhart, J. O. L’Esperance, S. Zhou, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “In vitro comparison of stone retropulsion and fragmentation of the frequency doubled, double pulse nd:yag laser and the holmium:yag laser,” J. Urol. 173(5), 1797–1800 (2005).
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Lai, J. C.

C. D. Scales, J. C. Lai, A. W. Dick, J. M. Hanley, J. van Meijgaard, C. M. Setodji, C. S. Saigal, and Urologic Diseases in America Project, “Comparative effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for treating patients with kidney stones,” JAMA Surg. 149(7), 648–653 (2014).
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Lange, B.

J. Cordes, F. Nguyen, B. Lange, R. Brinkmann, and D. Jocham, “Damage of stone baskets by endourologic lithotripters: a laboratory study of 5 lithotripters and 4 basket types,” Adv. Urol. 2013, 632790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cordes, B. Lange, D. Jocham, and I. Kausch, “Destruction of stone extraction basket during an in vitro lithotripsy--a comparison of four lithotripters,” J. Endourol. 25(8), 1359–1362 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lange, B. I.

Lange, D.

B. R. Matlaga, B. Chew, B. Eisner, M. Humphreys, B. Knudsen, A. Krambeck, D. Lange, M. Lipkin, N. L. Miller, M. Monga, V. Pais, R. L. Sur, and O. Shah, “Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy: a review of dusting vs fragmentation with extraction,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 1–6 (2018).
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S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
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Le, N. B.

P. Kalra, N. B. Le, and D. Bagley, “Effect of pulse width on object movement in vitro using holmium:YAG laser,” J. Endourol. 21(2), 228–231 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. W. Kang, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, J. Kim, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion on pulse duration during Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 762–772 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(1), 39–51 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Biomech. Eng. 126(4), 506–515 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. M. Teichman, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, and A. J. Welch, “Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 169(3), 881–885 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol. 168(2), 436–441 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lekarev, V.

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

Lenoir, J.

S. N. Chawla, M. F. Chang, A. Chang, J. Lenoir, and D. H. Bagley, “Effectiveness of high-frequency holmium:YAG laser stone fragmentation: the “popcorn effect”,” J. Endourol. 22(4), 645–650 (2008).
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Li, R.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liatsikos, E.

W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lightfoot, M.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
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Link, R. E.

J. E. Santiago, A. B. Hollander, S. D. Soni, R. E. Link, and W. A. Mayer, “To dust or not to dust: a systematic review of ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy techniques,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 18(4), 32 (2017).
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Lipkin, M.

B. R. Matlaga, B. Chew, B. Eisner, M. Humphreys, B. Knudsen, A. Krambeck, D. Lange, M. Lipkin, N. L. Miller, M. Monga, V. Pais, R. L. Sur, and O. Shah, “Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy: a review of dusting vs fragmentation with extraction,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 1–6 (2018).
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Lipkin, M. E.

D. A. Wollin, E. C. Carlos, W. R. Tom, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Effect of laser settings and irrigation rates on ureteral temperature during holmium laser lithotripsy, an in vitro model,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 59–63 (2018).
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D. A. Wollin, A. Ackerman, C. Yang, T. Chen, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Variable pulse duration from a new Holmium:YAG laser: the effect on stone comminution, fiber tip degradation, and retropulsion dusting model,” Urology 103, 47–51 (2017).
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D. A. Wollin, W. R. Tom, R. Jiang, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “An in vitro evaluation of laser settings and location in the efficiency of the popcorn effect,” Urolithiasis epub (2018).

Lock, T. M. T. W.

P. Klaver, T. de Boorder, A. I. Rem, T. M. T. W. Lock, and H. J. Noordmans, “In vitro comparison of renal stone laser treatment using fragmentation and popcorn technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(7), 698–704 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukac, M.

B. Majaron, P. Plestenjak, and M. Lukac, “Thermo-mechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 71–80 (1999).
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A. H. Aldoukhi, T. L. Hall, K. R. Ghani, A. D. Maxwell, B. MacConaghy, and W. W. Roberts, “Calyceal fluid temperature during high-power holmium laser lithotripsy in an in vivo porcine model,” J. Endourol.In press.

Mahmoud, S.

E. Emiliani, M. Talso, S. Y. Cho, M. Baghdadi, S. Mahmoud, H. Pinheiro, and O. Traxer, “Optimal settings for the noncontact Holmium:YAG stone fragmentation popcorn technique,” J. Urol. 198(3), 702–706 (2017).
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Majaron, B.

B. Majaron, P. Plestenjak, and M. Lukac, “Thermo-mechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 71–80 (1999).
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Maldonado, J.

R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
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Marguet, C. G.

C. G. Marguet, J. C. Sung, W. P. Springhart, J. O. L’Esperance, S. Zhou, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “In vitro comparison of stone retropulsion and fragmentation of the frequency doubled, double pulse nd:yag laser and the holmium:yag laser,” J. Urol. 173(5), 1797–1800 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, A. J.

A. J. Marks, A. C. Mues, B. E. Knudsen, and J. M. H. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy proximal fiber failures from laser and fiber mismatch,” Urology 71(6), 1049–1051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martov, A. G.

A. G. Martov, D. V. Ergakov, M. A. Guseinov, A. S. Andronov, S. V. Dutov, V. A. Vinnichenko, and A. A. Kovalenko, “[Initial experience in clinical application of thulium laser con7act lithotripsy for transurethral treatment of urolithiasis],” Urologiia Mar 2018(1), 112–120 (2018).
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D. Ergakov, A. G. Martov, and M. Guseynov, “The comparative clinical study of Ho:YAG and superpulse Tm fiber laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 17(2), e1391 (2018).

Matlaga, B. R.

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J. J. Zhang, D. Rajabhandharaks, J. R. Xuan, H. Wang, R. W. J. Chia, T. Hasenberg, and H. W. Kang, “Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (2015).
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V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

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A. Roggan, U. Bindig, W. Wäsche, and F. Zgoda, “Action mechanisms of laser radiation in biological tissues,” Applied Laser Medicine 3, 87 (2003)

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J. J. Zhang, D. Rajabhandharaks, J. R. Xuan, H. Wang, R. W. J. Chia, T. Hasenberg, and H. W. Kang, “Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

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Applied Laser Medicine (1)

A. Roggan, U. Bindig, W. Wäsche, and F. Zgoda, “Action mechanisms of laser radiation in biological tissues,” Applied Laser Medicine 3, 87 (2003)

Biophoton. Int. (1)

S. Griffin, “Fiber optics for destroying kidney stones,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 44–47 (2004).

Can. J. Urol. (1)

K. L. Stern and M. Monga, “The Moses holmium system - time is money,” Can. J. Urol. 25(3), 9313–9316 (2018).
[PubMed]

Curr. Urol. Rep. (2)

J. E. Santiago, A. B. Hollander, S. D. Soni, R. E. Link, and W. A. Mayer, “To dust or not to dust: a systematic review of ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy techniques,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 18(4), 32 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kronenberg and B. Somani, “Advances in lasers for the treatment of stones–a systematic review,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 19(6), 1– 11 (2018).

Eur. Urol. (1)

P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, A. Vinarov, L. Rapoport, M. Enikeev, N. Grigoriev, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, M. Taratkin, and V. Zamyatina, “Comparison between the possibilities of holmium and thulium laser in lithotripsy in vitro,” Eur. Urol. 16(3), 391 (2017).

Front Surg (1)

A. H. Aldoukhi, W. W. Roberts, T. L. Hall, and K. R. Ghani, “Holmium laser lithotripsy in the new stone age: dust or bust?” Front Surg 29(4), 57 (2017).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Rapid Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy at pulse rates up to 500 Hz using a stone basket,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902604 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. J. Scott, C. M. Cilip, and N. M. Fried, “N. M, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary stones through small-core optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 435–440 (2009).
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T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, T. Arai, S. Sato, M. Ishihara, and M. Kikuchi, “High-power continuous-wave 3- and 2-µm cascade Ho3+:ZBLAN fiber laser and its medical applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 936–943 (1999).
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J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion dynamics on fiber size and radiant exposure during Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Biomech. Eng. 126(4), 506–515 (2004).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

C. Wilson, J. D. Kennedy, P. Irby, and N. Fried, “Miniature ureteroscope distal tip designs for potential use in thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(7), 1–9 (2018).
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J. J. Zhang, D. Rajabhandharaks, J. R. Xuan, H. Wang, R. W. J. Chia, T. Hasenberg, and H. W. Kang, “Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 128001 (2015).
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J. Qiu, J. M. Teichman, T. Wang, J. Neev, R. D. Glickman, K. F. Chan, and T. E. Milner, “Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 028001 (2010).
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R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028002 (2012).
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R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of holmium:YAG and thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: ablation thresholds, ablation rates, and retropulsion effects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 071403 (2011).
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J. Biophotonics (2)

J. Qiu, J. Teichman, T. Wang, B. Elmaanaoui, D. Gamez, and T. E. Milner, “Comparison of fluoride and sapphire optical fibers for Er: YAG laser lithotripsy,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 277–283 (2010).
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L. A. Hardy, J. D. Kennedy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Analysis of thulium fiber laser induced bubble dynamics for ablation of kidney stones,” J. Biophotonics 10(10), 1240–1249 (2017).
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J. Endourol. (25)

O. A. Nazif, J. M. H. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, and A. J. Welch, “Review of laser fibers: a practical guide for urologists,” J. Endourol. 18(9), 818–829 (2004).
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J. Cordes, B. Lange, D. Jocham, and I. Kausch, “Destruction of stone extraction basket during an in vitro lithotripsy--a comparison of four lithotripters,” J. Endourol. 25(8), 1359–1362 (2011).
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C. R. Wilson, T. C. Hutchens, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “A miniaturized, 1.9-French integrated optical fiber and stone basket for use in Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Endourol. 29(10), 1110–1114 (2015).
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M. D. White, M. E. Moran, C. J. Calvano, A. Borhan-Manesh, and B. A. Mehlhaff, “Evaluation of retropulsion caused by holmium:YAG laser with various power settings and fibers,” J. Endourol. 12(2), 183–186 (1998).
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W. Kamal, P. Kallidonis, G. Koukiou, L. Amanatides, V. Panagopoulos, P. Ntasiotis, and E. Liatsikos, “Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers: a clinical practice – oriented study,” J. Endourol. 30(11), 1145–1149 (2016).
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N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
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M. J. Bader, C. Gratzke, V. Hecht, B. Schlenker, M. Seitz, O. Reich, C. G. Stief, and R. Sroka, “Impact of collateral damage to endourologic tools during laser lithotripsy--in vitro comparison of three different clinical laser systems,” J. Endourol. 25(4), 667–672 (2011).
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G. S. Freiha, R. D. Glickman, and J. M. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG laser-induced damage to guidewires: experimental study,” J. Endourol. 11(5), 331–336 (1997).
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P. Honeck, G. Wendt-Nordahl, A. Häcker, P. Alken, and T. Knoll, “Risk of collateral damage to endourologic tools by holmium:YAG laser energy,” J. Endourol. 20(7), 495–497 (2006).
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J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of stone fragmentation when using various settings with modern variable pulse holmium lasers,” J. Endourol. 31(10), 1067–1072 (2017).
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D. S. Finley, J. Petersen, C. Abdelshehid, M. Ahlering, D. Chou, J. Borin, L. Eichel, E. McDougall, and R. V. Clayman, “Effect of holmium:YAG laser pulse width on lithotripsy retropulsion in vitro,” J. Endourol. 19(8), 1041–1044 (2005).
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P. Kalra, N. B. Le, and D. Bagley, “Effect of pulse width on object movement in vitro using holmium:YAG laser,” J. Endourol. 21(2), 228–231 (2007).
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M. M. Elhilali, S. Badaan, A. Ibrahim, and S. Andonian, “Use of the Moses technology to improve holmium laser lithotripsy outcomes: a preclinical study,” J. Endourol. 31(6), 598–604 (2017).
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N. M. Fried, “Potential applications of the erbium:YAG laser in endourology,” J. Endourol. 15(9), 889–894 (2001).
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Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and N. M. Fried, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers,” J. Endourol. 18(9), 830–835 (2004).
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R. Li, D. Ruckle, M. Keheila, J. Maldonado, M. Lightfoot, M. Alsyouf, A. Yeo, S. R. Abourbih, G. Olgin, J. L. Arenas, and D. D. Baldwin, “High-frequency dusting versus conventional holmium laser lithotripsy for intrarenal and ureteral calculi,” J. Endourol. 31(3), 272–277 (2017).
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C. A. Dauw, L. Simeon, A. F. Alruwaily, F. Sanguedolce, J. M. Hollingsworth, W. W. Roberts, G. J. Faerber, J. S. Wolf, and K. R. Ghani, “Contemporary practice patterns of flexible ureteroscopy for treating renal stones: results of a worldwide survey,” J. Endourol. 29(11), 1221–1230 (2015).
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B. R. Matlaga, B. Chew, B. Eisner, M. Humphreys, B. Knudsen, A. Krambeck, D. Lange, M. Lipkin, N. L. Miller, M. Monga, V. Pais, R. L. Sur, and O. Shah, “Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy: a review of dusting vs fragmentation with extraction,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 1–6 (2018).
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S. N. Chawla, M. F. Chang, A. Chang, J. Lenoir, and D. H. Bagley, “Effectiveness of high-frequency holmium:YAG laser stone fragmentation: the “popcorn effect”,” J. Endourol. 22(4), 645–650 (2008).
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W. R. Molina, I. N. Silva, R. Donalisio da Silva, D. Gustafson, D. Sehrt, and F. J. Kim, “Influence of saline on temperature profile of laser lithotripsy activation,” J. Endourol. 29(2), 235–239 (2015).
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S. Butticè, T. E. Sener, S. Proietti, L. Dragos, T. Tefik, S. Doizi, and O. Traxer, “Temperature changes inside the kidney: what happens during Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet laser usage?” J. Endourol. 30(5), 574–579 (2016).
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A. H. Aldoukhi, K. R. Ghani, T. L. Hall, and W. W. Roberts, “Thermal response to high-power holmium laser lithotripsy,” J. Endourol. 31(12), 1308–1312 (2017).
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D. A. Wollin, E. C. Carlos, W. R. Tom, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Effect of laser settings and irrigation rates on ureteral temperature during holmium laser lithotripsy, an in vitro model,” J. Endourol. 32(1), 59–63 (2018).
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K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, J. M. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto, E. D. Jansen, and A. J. Welch, “Free electron laser lithotripsy: threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourol. 14(2), 161–167 (2000).
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K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, “A perspective on laser lithotripsy: the fragmentation processes,” J. Endourol. 15(3), 257–273 (2001).
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J. Pediatr. Urol. (1)

A. Fahmy, M. Youssif, H. Rhashad, S. Orabi, and I. Mokless, “Extractable fragment versus dusting during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy in children: prospective randomized study,” J. Pediatr. Urol. 12(4), 254e1 (2016).
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J. Phys. IV (1)

B. Struve and G. Huber, “Properties and medical applications of near-IR solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. IV 1(C7), 3–6 (1991).
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J. Urol. (16)

C. G. Marguet, J. C. Sung, W. P. Springhart, J. O. L’Esperance, S. Zhou, P. Zhong, D. M. Albala, and G. M. Preminger, “In vitro comparison of stone retropulsion and fragmentation of the frequency doubled, double pulse nd:yag laser and the holmium:yag laser,” J. Urol. 173(5), 1797–1800 (2005).
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A. Gross, B. Becker, M. Taratkin, D. Enikeev, L. Rapoport, and C. Netsch, “Wavelength and pulse shape effects on stone fragmentation of laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 199(4S), e293–e294 (2018).
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P. Glybochko, G. Altshuler, I. Yaroslaksy, A. Vinarov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, A. Dymov, R. Sukhanov, and V. V. Vinnichenko, “Comparative in vitro study of Ho:YAG and Tm fiber laser lithotripters in dusting mode of operation,” J. Urol. 197 (4S), e815 (2017).
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A. Dymov, P. Glybochko, Y. Alyaev, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, V. Zamyatina, N. Sorokin, D. Enikeev, V. Lekarev, A. Proskura, and A. Koshkarev, “Thulium lithotripsy: from experiment to clinical practice,” J. Urol. 197(4S), 11 (2017)

D. Ergakov, A. G. Martov, and M. Guseynov, “The comparative clinical study of Ho:YAG and superpulse Tm fiber laser lithotripters,” J. Urol. 17(2), e1391 (2018).

O. Traxer, L. Rapoport, D. Tsarichenko, A. Dymov, D. Enikeev, N. Sorokin, S. Ali, G. Akopyan, D. Korolev, A. Proskura, V. Lekarev, and R. Klimov, “First clinical study on superpulse thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 199 (4S), e321–e322 (2018).
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M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: Urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).

D. M. Wilson, “Clinical and laboratory approaches for evaluation of nephrolithiasis,” J. Urol. 141(3), 770–774 (1989).
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M. R. Humphreys, O. D. Shah, M. Monga, Y. H. Chang, A. E. Krambeck, R. L. Sur, N. L. Miller, B. E. Knudsen, B. H. Eisner, B. R. Matlaga, and B. H. Chew, “Dusting versus basketing during – which technique is more efficacious? A prospective multicenter trial from the EDGE research consortium,” J. Urol. 199(5), 1272–1276 (2018).
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E. Emiliani, M. Talso, S. Y. Cho, M. Baghdadi, S. Mahmoud, H. Pinheiro, and O. Traxer, “Optimal settings for the noncontact Holmium:YAG stone fragmentation popcorn technique,” J. Urol. 198(3), 702–706 (2017).
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K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol. 168(2), 436–441 (2002).
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P. Kronenberg and O. Traxer, “MP22–13 “Burst laser lithotripsy - a novel lithotripsy mode,” J. Urol. 195(4), e258 (2016).
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J. M. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, and A. J. Welch, “Erbium: YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165(3), 876–879 (2001).
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H. Lee, R. T. Ryan, J. M. Teichman, J. Kim, B. Choi, N. V. Arakeri, and A. J. Welch, “Stone retropulsion during holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 169(3), 881–885 (2003).
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J. Sea, L. M. Jonat, B. H. Chew, J. Qiu, B. Wang, J. Hoopman, T. Milner, and J. M. Teichman, “Optimal power settings for Holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 187(3), 914–919 (2012).
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B. E. Knudsen, R. Pedro, B. Hinck, and M. Monga, “Durability of reusable holmium:YAG laser fibers: a multicenter study,” J. Urol. 185(1), 160–163 (2011).
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JAMA Surg. (1)

C. D. Scales, J. C. Lai, A. W. Dick, J. M. Hanley, J. van Meijgaard, C. M. Setodji, C. S. Saigal, and Urologic Diseases in America Project, “Comparative effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for treating patients with kidney stones,” JAMA Surg. 149(7), 648–653 (2014).
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JOSA (1)

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, A. N. Rusk, and D. Williams, “Influence of temperature on the spectrum of water,” JOSA 62(9), 1103–1108 (1972).
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Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (16)

M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, T. A. King, and P. Sloan, “Laser-tissue interaction with a continuous wave 3-mcm fibre laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(5), 491–495 (2000).
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S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
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M. C. Pierce, S. D. Jackson, M. R. Dickinson, and T. A. King, “Laser-tissue interaction with a high-power 2-microm fiber laser: preliminary studies with soft tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(5), 407–413 (1999).
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N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: an in vitro analysis of stone fragmentation using a modulated 110-watt Thulium fiber laser at 1.94 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(1), 53–58 (2005).
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K. T. Schomacker, Y. Domankevitz, T. J. Flotte, and T. F. Deutsch, “Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 141–151 (1991).
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N. M. Fried, “High-power laser vaporization of the canine prostate using a 110 W Thulium fiber laser at 1.91 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(1), 52–56 (2005).
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R. L. Blackmon, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using tapered fibers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 45–50 (2010).
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C. R. Wilson, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Collateral damage to the ureter and Nitinol stone baskets during thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(5), 403–410 (2015).
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H. W. Kang, H. Lee, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, J. Kim, and A. J. Welch, “Dependence of calculus retropulsion on pulse duration during Ho: YAG laser lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 762–772 (2006).
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H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(1), 39–51 (2006).
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J. Raif, M. Vardi, O. Nahlieli, and I. Gannot, “An Er:YAG laser endoscopic fiber delivery system for lithotripsy of salivary stones,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(6), 580–587 (2006).
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E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, and A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 258–268 (1994).
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P. Klaver, T. de Boorder, A. I. Rem, T. M. T. W. Lock, and H. J. Noordmans, “In vitro comparison of renal stone laser treatment using fragmentation and popcorn technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 49(7), 698–704 (2017).
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V. Zamyatina, D. Enikeev, A. Dymov, N. Sorokin, V. Minaev, I. Yaroslavsky, A. Kovalenko, A. Vinarov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Super pulse thulium fiber laser for lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48, 10 (2016).

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, and A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18(3), 278–293 (1996).
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K. F. Chan, G. J. Vassar, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, S. T. Weintraub, and A. J. Welch, “Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: A dominant photothermal ablative mechanism with chemical decomposition of urinary calculi,” Lasers Surg. Med. 25(1), 22–37 (1999).
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Med. Laser Appl. (1)

A. Vogel, P. Schmidt, and B. Flucke, “Minimization of thermomechanical side effects in IR ablation by use of multiply q-switched laser pulses,” Med. Laser Appl. 17(1), 15–20 (2002).
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Nat. Rev. Urol. (1)

N. M. Fried and P. B. Irby, “Advances in laser technology and fiber optic delivery systems for use in lithotripsy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. ( June), 8 (2018).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

D. P. Joseph, P. Allen, D. Negus, and J. Hobart, “A new and improved vitreoretinal erbium:YAG laser scalpel: long-term morphologic characteristics of retinal-choroidal injury,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(4), 304–315 (2004).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

R. L. Blackmon, T. C. Hutchens, L. A. Hardy, C. R. Wilson, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones using a 50-µm-core silica optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 011004 (2014).
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C. R. Wilson, L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Microscopic analysis of laser-induced proximal fiber tip damage during Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” Opt. Eng. 55(4), 046102 (2016).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Miner. (1)

P. F. Schofield, K. S. Knight, J. A. M. van der Houwen, and E. Valsami-Jones, “The role of hydrogen bonding in the thermal expansion and dehydration of brushite, di-calcium phosphate dihydrate,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 31(9), 606–624 (2004).
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Proc. SPIE (4)

L. A. Hardy, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Scanning electron microscopy of real and artificial kidney stones before and after Thulium fiber laser ablation in air and water,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680G), 1–11 (2018).

L. A. Hardy, D. A. Gonzalez, P. B. Irby, and N. M. Fried, “Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using a compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680O), 1–5 (2018).

I. Yaroslavsky, V. Vinnichenko, T. McNeill, A. Novoselteva, I. Perchuk, A. Vybornov, G. Altshuler, and V. Gapontsev, “Optimization of a novel Tm fiber laser lithotripter in terms of stone ablation efficiency and retropulsion reduction,” Proc. SPIE 10468(104680H), 1–9 (2018).

M. D. Keller, J. A. Stafford, B. P. Schmidt, and J. D. Wells, “In vitro testing of dual-mode thulium microsurgical laser,” Proc. SPIE 8207, 820711 (2012).
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Tech. Urol. (1)

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Urologiia Mar (1)

A. G. Martov, D. V. Ergakov, M. A. Guseinov, A. S. Andronov, S. V. Dutov, V. A. Vinnichenko, and A. A. Kovalenko, “[Initial experience in clinical application of thulium laser con7act lithotripsy for transurethral treatment of urolithiasis],” Urologiia Mar 2018(1), 112–120 (2018).
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Urology (5)

G. Motley, N. Dalrymple, C. Keesling, J. Fischer, and W. Harmon, “Hounsfield unit density in the determination of urinary stone composition,” Urology 58(2), 170–173 (2001).
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A. J. Marks, A. C. Mues, B. E. Knudsen, and J. M. H. Teichman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy proximal fiber failures from laser and fiber mismatch,” Urology 71(6), 1049–1051 (2008).
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D. A. Wollin, A. Ackerman, C. Yang, T. Chen, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “Variable pulse duration from a new Holmium:YAG laser: the effect on stone comminution, fiber tip degradation, and retropulsion dusting model,” Urology 103, 47–51 (2017).
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J. R. Bell, K. L. Penniston, and S. Y. Nakada, “In vitro comparison of holmium lasers: evidence for shorter fragmentation time and decreased retropulsion using a modern variable-pulse laser,” Urology 107, 37–42 (2017).
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S. L. Hecht and J. S. Wolf., “Techniques for holmium laser lithotripsy of intrarenal calculi,” Urology 81(2), 442–445 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Urol. (2)

M. J. Bader, T. Pongratz, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and R. Sroka, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 471–477 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, G. Scheib, W. Khoder, C. G. Stief, T. Herrmann, U. Nagele, and M. J. Bader, “Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: treatment aspects on the single-pulse level,” World J. Urol. 33(4), 479–485 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

D. Trost, “Laser pulse format for penetrating an absorbing fluid,” U.S. Patent #5,321,715 1994.

J. Tracey, G. Gagin, D. Morhardt, J. Hollingsworth, and K. R. Ghani, “Ureteroscopic high-frequency dusting utilizing a 120-W holmium laser,” J. Endourol. Epub (2018)

D. A. Wollin, W. R. Tom, R. Jiang, W. N. Simmons, G. M. Preminger, and M. E. Lipkin, “An in vitro evaluation of laser settings and location in the efficiency of the popcorn effect,” Urolithiasis epub (2018).

A. H. Aldoukhi, T. L. Hall, K. R. Ghani, A. D. Maxwell, B. MacConaghy, and W. W. Roberts, “Calyceal fluid temperature during high-power holmium laser lithotripsy in an in vivo porcine model,” J. Endourol.In press.

S. Hein, R. Petzold, M. Schoenthaler, U. Wetterauer, and A. Miernik, “Thermal effects of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: real-time evaluation in an in vitro model,” World J. Urol. ePub (2018)

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D. Pal, A. Paul, N. K. Shekhar, S. D. Chowdhury, R. Sen, K. Chatterjee, and A. Pal, “COM stone dusting and soft tissue ablation with Q-switched thulium fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.Epub (2018).

M. E. Mayo, “Interaction of laser radiation with urinary calculi,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Science, Security and Resilience, United Kingdom, Cranfield University (2009).

R. L. Blackmon, “Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy,” Ph.D. Thesis. University of North Carolina at Charlotte (2013).

Dornier website ( https://dornier.com/products/dornier-medilas-h-140/ ).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photographs and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of uric acid (UA) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones before and after laser ablation with Thulium fiber laser in air and water mediums. Direct absorption of IR laser energy by stone in air results in a change from native state to more amorphous state with fusion of stone material, while absorption of IR energy by water contained in pores along stone surface may result in thermal expansion and production of cracks (shown by arrows), contributing to ablation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Multiple approaches to pulsed laser lithotripsy have been utilized, including (a) short pulse (250-350 µs) for fragmentation, (b) long pulse (up to 1200 µs) to reduce stone retropulsion, (c) double-pulse delivery (2 x 350 µs), (d) delivery of pulse trains for a factor of 2 times increase in ablation rates, and (e) “Moses Tech” involving delivery of a low energy, short duration pulse to create a vapor bubble immediately followed by a higher energy, longer duration pulse for more efficient stone ablation, with reduced stone retropulsion as well.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spatial beam profiles of (a) Holmium:YAG laser and (b) Thulium fiber laser. The multimodal Holmium laser beam prevents focusing down to small spots for coupling into fibers less than 200 µm. The TFL beam has been coupled into fibers as small as 50 µm core.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of temporal beam profiles of short-pulse, flashlamp-pumped, solid-state, Holmium:YAG laser (red) and the diode-pumped, Thulium fiber laser (blue). The greater amount of energy contained in the initial spike of the Holmium temporal beam profile contributes to the initial vapor bubble expansion and collapse and consequently greater stone retropulsion observed with the Holmium laser than with the Thulium fiber laser.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Next generation (circa 2016) of compact, air-cooled, tabletop 500 W peak power, 1940 nm Thulium fiber laser sitting on top of (b) first generation, water-cooled 100 W peak power, 1908 nm Thulium fiber laser (circa 2004).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Thermal and mechanical properties of urinary stone compositions [14,15].

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Table 2 Low / high water absorption coefficients and optical penetration depths in water at mid-IR wavelengths [22–26].

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Table 3 Major Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy operation modes [5].

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Table 4 Specifications of low and high power, clinical and experimental 2 µm laser lithotripsy sources.

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Table 5 Advantages and disadvantages of mid-IR lasers for lithotripsy.

Equations (1)

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Δ T = μ a ( λ ) H 0 ρ c p e μ a ( λ ) z

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