Abstract

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has a broad application prospect in the field of tumor detection owing to its ultrahigh detective sensitivity. However, SERS analysis of serum remain a challenge in terms of repeatability and stability due to the maldistribution of the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)-serum. With the aim to make up for this shortcoming, we report a new method for obtaining stable serum Raman signals utilizing the ordered arrays of pyramidal silicon (PSi) and Ag-NPs. We prove the practicability of this method by detecting the samples of serum from 50 lung cancer patients and 50 normal healthy people. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the serum SERS spectra shows that the spectral data of the two sample groups can form obvious and completely separated clusters. The receiver operating characteristic curve provides the sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90%) from the PCA-LDA method. This research indicates that a stable and label-free analysis technique of serum SERS based on Ag-NPs/PSi and PCA-LDA is promising for noninvasive lung cancer diagnoses.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

D. Ma, C. Huang, J. Zheng, J. Tang, J. Li, J. Yang, and R. Yang, “Quantitative detection of exosomal microRNA extracted from human blood based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 101, 167–173 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jiang, X. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Jin, “The construction of silver aggregate with inbuilt Raman molecule and gold nanowire forest in SERS-based immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 105–114 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

X.-P. Wang, B. Walkenfort, M. König, L. König, S. Kasimir-Bauer, and S. Schlücker, “Fast and reproducible iSERS microscopy of single HER2-positive breast cancer cells using gold nanostars as SERS nanotags,” Faraday Discuss. 205, 377–386 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hernández-Arteaga, J. J. Z. Nava, E. S. Kolosovas-Machuca, J. J. Velázquez-Salazar, E. Vinogradova, M. José-Yacamán, and H. R. Navarro-Contreras, “Diagnosis of breast cancer by analysis of sialic acid concentrations in human saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles,” Nano Res. 10(11), 3662–3670 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

W. Liu, H. Wang, J. Du, and C. Jing, “Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 97, 70–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. P. K. S. A. Jayanthi, A. B. Das, and U. Saxena, “Recent advances in biosensor development for the detection of cancer biomarkers,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 91, 15–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Wang, J. D. Doerksen, S. Kang, D. Walsh, Q. Yang, D. Hong, and J. T. Liu, “Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” Small 12(40), 5612–5621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, S. Z. Jiang, Y. Y. Huo, A. H. Liu, S. C. Xu, X. Y. Liu, Z. C. Sun, Y. Y. Xu, Z. Li, and B. Y. Man, “SERS detection of R6G based on a novel graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/silicon pyramid arrays structure,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24811–24821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, L. Zhang, and J. Zhou, “Silver nanocube-mediated sensitive immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering assisted by etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(22), 5893–5900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, J. Liu, Z.-W. Fu, and D. Qin, “Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(23), 8153–8156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bai, J. Sun, R. Che, L. Xu, C. Yin, Z. Guo, and N. Gu, “Controllable preparation of core-shell Au-Ag nanoshuttles with improved refractive index sensitivity and SERS activity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(5), 3331–3340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W.-C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

W. Lu, Y. Luo, G. Chang, and X. Sun, “Synthesis of functional SiO2-coated graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles for H2O2 and glucose detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(12), 4791–4797 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA: Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self‐assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

F. Zhang, G. B. Braun, Y. Shi, Y. Zhang, X. Sun, N. O. Reich, D. Zhao, and G. Stucky, “Fabrication of Ag@SiO(2)@Y(2)O(3):Er nanostructures for bioimaging: tuning of the upconversion fluorescence with silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(9), 2850–2851 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neng, M. H. Harpster, H. Zhang, J. O. Mecham, W. C. Wilson, and P. A. Johnson, “A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(3), 1009–1015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Barhoumi and N. J. Halas, “Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(37), 12792–12793 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Berrington de Gonzalez, C. D. Berg, K. Visvanathan, and M. Robson, “Estimated risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from mammographic screening for young BRCA mutation carriers,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101(3), 205–209 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Han, X. Yan, R. Dong, G. Ban, and K. Li, “Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS),” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

X. W. Shen, C. Z. Huang, and Y. F. Li, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of glucose in the serum samples of diabetes sufferers based on the redox reaction of chlorauric acid,” Talanta 72(4), 1432–1437 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H.-S. Lai, J.-C. Lee, P.-H. Lee, S.-T. Wang, and W.-J. Chen, “Plasma free amino acid profile in cancer patients,” Semin. Cancer Biol. 15(4), 267–276 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. A. Obuchowski, M. L. Lieber, and F. H. Wians., “ROC curves in clinical chemistry: uses, misuses, and possible solutions,” Clin. Chem. 50(7), 1118–1125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. I. O. M. Sciences, “International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects,” Bull. Med. Ethics 17(182), 17–23 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Bird, T. W. Wallace, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Analysis of cancers missed at screening mammography,” Radiology 184(3), 613–617 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguilar, Z. P.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, M.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akins, D. L.

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anwar, S.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, T.

T. Bai, J. Sun, R. Che, L. Xu, C. Yin, Z. Guo, and N. Gu, “Controllable preparation of core-shell Au-Ag nanoshuttles with improved refractive index sensitivity and SERS activity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(5), 3331–3340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ban, G.

H. Han, X. Yan, R. Dong, G. Ban, and K. Li, “Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS),” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barhoumi, A.

A. Barhoumi and N. J. Halas, “Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(37), 12792–12793 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates-Albers, L. M.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beitler, J. J.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, C. D.

A. Berrington de Gonzalez, C. D. Berg, K. Visvanathan, and M. Robson, “Estimated risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from mammographic screening for young BRCA mutation carriers,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101(3), 205–209 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berrington de Gonzalez, A.

A. Berrington de Gonzalez, C. D. Berg, K. Visvanathan, and M. Robson, “Estimated risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from mammographic screening for young BRCA mutation carriers,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101(3), 205–209 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilal, M.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birchall, M.

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird, R. E.

R. E. Bird, T. W. Wallace, and B. C. Yankaskas, “Analysis of cancers missed at screening mammography,” Radiology 184(3), 613–617 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brackett, D. J.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, G. B.

F. Zhang, G. B. Braun, Y. Shi, Y. Zhang, X. Sun, N. O. Reich, D. Zhao, and G. Stucky, “Fabrication of Ag@SiO(2)@Y(2)O(3):Er nanostructures for bioimaging: tuning of the upconversion fluorescence with silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(9), 2850–2851 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

W. Lu, Y. Luo, G. Chang, and X. Sun, “Synthesis of functional SiO2-coated graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles for H2O2 and glucose detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(12), 4791–4797 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Che, R.

T. Bai, J. Sun, R. Che, L. Xu, C. Yin, Z. Guo, and N. Gu, “Controllable preparation of core-shell Au-Ag nanoshuttles with improved refractive index sensitivity and SERS activity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(5), 3331–3340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-J.

H.-S. Lai, J.-C. Lee, P.-H. Lee, S.-T. Wang, and W.-J. Chen, “Plasma free amino acid profile in cancer patients,” Semin. Cancer Biol. 15(4), 267–276 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. G.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Cleary, J.

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cushing, S. K.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, A. B.

V. S. P. K. S. A. Jayanthi, A. B. Das, and U. Saxena, “Recent advances in biosensor development for the detection of cancer biomarkers,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 91, 15–23 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, B. B.

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doerksen, J. D.

Y. W. Wang, J. D. Doerksen, S. Kang, D. Walsh, Q. Yang, D. Hong, and J. T. Liu, “Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” Small 12(40), 5612–5621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, R.

H. Han, X. Yan, R. Dong, G. Ban, and K. Li, “Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS),” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

W. Liu, H. Wang, J. Du, and C. Jing, “Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 97, 70–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, C.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eom, G.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Evans, R.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, C.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Z.-W.

Y. Yang, J. Liu, Z.-W. Fu, and D. Qin, “Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(23), 8153–8156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, L. F.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, N.

T. Bai, J. Sun, R. Che, L. Xu, C. Yin, Z. Guo, and N. Gu, “Controllable preparation of core-shell Au-Ag nanoshuttles with improved refractive index sensitivity and SERS activity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(5), 3331–3340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Bai, J. Sun, R. Che, L. Xu, C. Yin, Z. Guo, and N. Gu, “Controllable preparation of core-shell Au-Ag nanoshuttles with improved refractive index sensitivity and SERS activity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(5), 3331–3340 (2014).
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A. Barhoumi and N. J. Halas, “Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(37), 12792–12793 (2010).
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Han, F.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, H.

H. Han, X. Yan, R. Dong, G. Ban, and K. Li, “Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS),” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanas, J. S.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanas, R. J.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, W.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harpster, M. H.

J. Neng, M. H. Harpster, H. Zhang, J. O. Mecham, W. C. Wilson, and P. A. Johnson, “A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(3), 1009–1015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
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Hernández-Arteaga, A.

A. Hernández-Arteaga, J. J. Z. Nava, E. S. Kolosovas-Machuca, J. J. Velázquez-Salazar, E. Vinogradova, M. José-Yacamán, and H. R. Navarro-Contreras, “Diagnosis of breast cancer by analysis of sialic acid concentrations in human saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles,” Nano Res. 10(11), 3662–3670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hocker, J. R.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
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Hong, D.

Y. W. Wang, J. D. Doerksen, S. Kang, D. Walsh, Q. Yang, D. Hong, and J. T. Liu, “Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” Small 12(40), 5612–5621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

D. Ma, C. Huang, J. Zheng, J. Tang, J. Li, J. Yang, and R. Yang, “Quantitative detection of exosomal microRNA extracted from human blood based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 101, 167–173 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Z.

X. W. Shen, C. Z. Huang, and Y. F. Li, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of glucose in the serum samples of diabetes sufferers based on the redox reaction of chlorauric acid,” Talanta 72(4), 1432–1437 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
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Huang, Y.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, Y. Y.

Hwang, A.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
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V. S. P. K. S. A. Jayanthi, A. B. Das, and U. Saxena, “Recent advances in biosensor development for the detection of cancer biomarkers,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 91, 15–23 (2017).
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G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Jiang, S.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
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Jiang, S. Z.

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, X. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Jin, “The construction of silver aggregate with inbuilt Raman molecule and gold nanowire forest in SERS-based immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 105–114 (2018).
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T. Jiang, L. Zhang, and J. Zhou, “Silver nanocube-mediated sensitive immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering assisted by etched silicon nanowire arrays,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(22), 5893–5900 (2014).
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T. Jiang, X. Wang, J. Zhou, and H. Jin, “The construction of silver aggregate with inbuilt Raman molecule and gold nanowire forest in SERS-based immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 105–114 (2018).
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W. Liu, H. Wang, J. Du, and C. Jing, “Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 97, 70–74 (2017).
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Johnson, H.

R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

J. Neng, M. H. Harpster, H. Zhang, J. O. Mecham, W. C. Wilson, and P. A. Johnson, “A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(3), 1009–1015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Hernández-Arteaga, J. J. Z. Nava, E. S. Kolosovas-Machuca, J. J. Velázquez-Salazar, E. Vinogradova, M. José-Yacamán, and H. R. Navarro-Contreras, “Diagnosis of breast cancer by analysis of sialic acid concentrations in human saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles,” Nano Res. 10(11), 3662–3670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

Y. W. Wang, J. D. Doerksen, S. Kang, D. Walsh, Q. Yang, D. Hong, and J. T. Liu, “Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” Small 12(40), 5612–5621 (2016).
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Kang, Y.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA: Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self‐assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
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X.-P. Wang, B. Walkenfort, M. König, L. König, S. Kasimir-Bauer, and S. Schlücker, “Fast and reproducible iSERS microscopy of single HER2-positive breast cancer cells using gold nanostars as SERS nanotags,” Faraday Discuss. 205, 377–386 (2017).
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N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
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X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Kim, H.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Ultrasensitive chemical analysis by Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 99(10), 2957–2976 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolosovas-Machuca, E. S.

A. Hernández-Arteaga, J. J. Z. Nava, E. S. Kolosovas-Machuca, J. J. Velázquez-Salazar, E. Vinogradova, M. José-Yacamán, and H. R. Navarro-Contreras, “Diagnosis of breast cancer by analysis of sialic acid concentrations in human saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles,” Nano Res. 10(11), 3662–3670 (2017).
[Crossref]

König, L.

X.-P. Wang, B. Walkenfort, M. König, L. König, S. Kasimir-Bauer, and S. Schlücker, “Fast and reproducible iSERS microscopy of single HER2-positive breast cancer cells using gold nanostars as SERS nanotags,” Faraday Discuss. 205, 377–386 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, M.

X.-P. Wang, B. Walkenfort, M. König, L. König, S. Kasimir-Bauer, and S. Schlücker, “Fast and reproducible iSERS microscopy of single HER2-positive breast cancer cells using gold nanostars as SERS nanotags,” Faraday Discuss. 205, 377–386 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuang, H.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupiec, T. C.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, H.-S.

H.-S. Lai, J.-C. Lee, P.-H. Lee, S.-T. Wang, and W.-J. Chen, “Plasma free amino acid profile in cancer patients,” Semin. Cancer Biol. 15(4), 267–276 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, F.

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lander, T. J.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lankford, J.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. C.

W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-C.

H.-S. Lai, J.-C. Lee, P.-H. Lee, S.-T. Wang, and W.-J. Chen, “Plasma free amino acid profile in cancer patients,” Semin. Cancer Biol. 15(4), 267–276 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Lee, P.-H.

H.-S. Lai, J.-C. Lee, P.-H. Lee, S.-T. Wang, and W.-J. Chen, “Plasma free amino acid profile in cancer patients,” Semin. Cancer Biol. 15(4), 267–276 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerner, M. R.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, M. M.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, A.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

D. Ma, C. Huang, J. Zheng, J. Tang, J. Li, J. Yang, and R. Yang, “Quantitative detection of exosomal microRNA extracted from human blood based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 101, 167–173 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

H. Han, X. Yan, R. Dong, G. Ban, and K. Li, “Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS),” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, L.-J.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

X. W. Shen, C. Z. Huang, and Y. F. Li, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of glucose in the serum samples of diabetes sufferers based on the redox reaction of chlorauric acid,” Talanta 72(4), 1432–1437 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, S. Z. Jiang, Y. Y. Huo, A. H. Liu, S. C. Xu, X. Y. Liu, Z. C. Sun, Y. Y. Xu, Z. Li, and B. Y. Man, “SERS detection of R6G based on a novel graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/silicon pyramid arrays structure,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24811–24821 (2015).
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Lieber, M. L.

N. A. Obuchowski, M. L. Lieber, and F. H. Wians., “ROC curves in clinical chemistry: uses, misuses, and possible solutions,” Clin. Chem. 50(7), 1118–1125 (2004).
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Lightfoot, S. A.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, E. K.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Lin, D.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
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J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
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J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W.-C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A. H.

Liu, C.-H.

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Y. Yang, J. Liu, Z.-W. Fu, and D. Qin, “Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(23), 8153–8156 (2014).
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Liu, J. T.

Y. W. Wang, J. D. Doerksen, S. Kang, D. Walsh, Q. Yang, D. Hong, and J. T. Liu, “Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles,” Small 12(40), 5612–5621 (2016).
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Liu, K.-K.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
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Liu, M.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA: Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self‐assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, H. Wang, J. Du, and C. Jing, “Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 97, 70–74 (2017).
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Liu, X. Y.

Liu, Y.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
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R. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. Rong, B. Xiu, X. Yang, C. Wang, W. Hao, Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, C. Duan, K. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Fan, Y. Zhao, H. Johnson, Y. Huang, X. Feng, X. Xu, H. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Non-invasive detection of hepatocellular carcinoma serum metabolic profile through surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 12(8), 2475–2484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
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W. Lu, Y. Luo, G. Chang, and X. Sun, “Synthesis of functional SiO2-coated graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles for H2O2 and glucose detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(12), 4791–4797 (2011).
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C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
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J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
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Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
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W. Lu, Y. Luo, G. Chang, and X. Sun, “Synthesis of functional SiO2-coated graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Ag nanoparticles for H2O2 and glucose detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(12), 4791–4797 (2011).
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D. Ma, C. Huang, J. Zheng, J. Tang, J. Li, J. Yang, and R. Yang, “Quantitative detection of exosomal microRNA extracted from human blood based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 101, 167–173 (2018).
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M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
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M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, J. Lankford, Z. P. Aguilar, D. Ma, and N. Wu, “Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications,” Nanotechnology 23(11), 115501 (2012).
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Ma, W.

L. Tang, S. Li, F. Han, L. Liu, L. Xu, W. Ma, H. Kuang, A. Li, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 71, 7–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, B.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Man, B. Y.

Mao, X.

S. He, K.-K. Liu, S. Su, J. Yan, X. Mao, D. Wang, Y. He, L.-J. Li, S. Song, and C. Fan, “Graphene-based high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active platform for sensitive and multiplex DNA detection,” Anal. Chem. 84(10), 4622–4627 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
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Mecham, J. O.

J. Neng, M. H. Harpster, H. Zhang, J. O. Mecham, W. C. Wilson, and P. A. Johnson, “A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(3), 1009–1015 (2010).
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J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
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Moon, J.

G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, H. Y. Son, Y. Choi, J. Moon, D. Kim, M. Lee, E. K. Lim, and J. Jeong, “Nanogap‐Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor for Ultrasensitive Telomerase Activity Detection: Application to Gastric and Breast Cancer Tissues Diagnosis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(37), (2017).

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
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A. Hernández-Arteaga, J. J. Z. Nava, E. S. Kolosovas-Machuca, J. J. Velázquez-Salazar, E. Vinogradova, M. José-Yacamán, and H. R. Navarro-Contreras, “Diagnosis of breast cancer by analysis of sialic acid concentrations in human saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles,” Nano Res. 10(11), 3662–3670 (2017).
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Neng, J.

J. Neng, M. H. Harpster, H. Zhang, J. O. Mecham, W. C. Wilson, and P. A. Johnson, “A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(3), 1009–1015 (2010).
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Nie, S.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
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N. A. Obuchowski, M. L. Lieber, and F. H. Wians., “ROC curves in clinical chemistry: uses, misuses, and possible solutions,” Clin. Chem. 50(7), 1118–1125 (2004).
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D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, X. Zheng, Y. Su, Y. Chen, Z. Huang, X. Lin, F. Lan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Label-free serum ribonucleic acid analysis for colorectal cancer detection by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 067003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond.) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petros, W. P.

M. Li, S. K. Cushing, J. Zhang, S. Suri, R. Evans, W. P. Petros, L. F. Gibson, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and N. Wu, “Three-dimensional hierarchical plasmonic nano-architecture enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering immunosensor for cancer biomarker detection in blood plasma,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4967–4976 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyton, M. D.

J. R. Hocker, M. D. Peyton, M. R. Lerner, S. L. Mitchell, S. A. Lightfoot, T. J. Lander, L. M. Bates-Albers, N. T. Vu, R. J. Hanas, T. C. Kupiec, D. J. Brackett, and J. S. Hanas, “Serum discrimination of early-stage lung cancer patients using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Lung Cancer 74(2), 206–211 (2011).
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W. R. Premasiri, J. C. Lee, and L. D. Ziegler, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(31), 9376–9386 (2012).
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Prudente, R.

C.-H. Liu, B. B. Das, W. L. Sha Glassman, G. C. Tang, K. M. Yoo, H. R. Zhu, D. L. Akins, S. S. Lubicz, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, and et al.., “Raman, fluorescence, and time-resolved light scattering as optical diagnostic techniques to separate diseased and normal biomedical media,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16(2), 187–209 (1992).
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Qi, J.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W.-C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
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Qin, D.

Y. Yang, J. Liu, Z.-W. Fu, and D. Qin, “Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(23), 8153–8156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, H.

C. Zhang, B. Man, S. Jiang, C. Yang, M. Liu, C. Chen, S. Xu, H. Qiu, and Z. Li, “SERS detection of low-concentration adenosine by silver nanoparticles on silicon nanoporous pyramid arrays structure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 347, 668–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, S.

D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raja, B.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W.-C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
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Rehman, A.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
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Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
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Reich, N. O.

F. Zhang, G. B. Braun, Y. Shi, Y. Zhang, X. Sun, N. O. Reich, D. Zhao, and G. Stucky, “Fabrication of Ag@SiO(2)@Y(2)O(3):Er nanostructures for bioimaging: tuning of the upconversion fluorescence with silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(9), 2850–2851 (2010).
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Saleem, M.

M. Saleem, M. Bilal, S. Anwar, A. Rehman, and M. Ahmed, “Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035602 (2013).
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V. S. P. K. S. A. Jayanthi, A. B. Das, and U. Saxena, “Recent advances in biosensor development for the detection of cancer biomarkers,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 91, 15–23 (2017).
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X.-P. Wang, B. Walkenfort, M. König, L. König, S. Kasimir-Bauer, and S. Schlücker, “Fast and reproducible iSERS microscopy of single HER2-positive breast cancer cells using gold nanostars as SERS nanotags,” Faraday Discuss. 205, 377–386 (2017).
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Shen, X. W.

X. W. Shen, C. Z. Huang, and Y. F. Li, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of glucose in the serum samples of diabetes sufferers based on the redox reaction of chlorauric acid,” Talanta 72(4), 1432–1437 (2007).
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D. Lin, J. Pan, H. Huang, G. Chen, S. Qiu, H. Shi, W. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Feng, and R. Chen, “Label-free blood plasma test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering for tumor stages detection in nasopharyngeal cancer,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4751 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

F. Zhang, G. B. Braun, Y. Shi, Y. Zhang, X. Sun, N. O. Reich, D. Zhao, and G. Stucky, “Fabrication of Ag@SiO(2)@Y(2)O(3):Er nanostructures for bioimaging: tuning of the upconversion fluorescence with silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(9), 2850–2851 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, W.-C.

J. Qi, J. Zeng, F. Zhao, S. H. Lin, B. Raja, U. Strych, R. C. Willson, and W.-C. Shih, “Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8521–8526 (2014).
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Shin, D. M.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J. C.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of circulating tumor cells in human peripheral blood using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, M.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA: Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self‐assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Son, H. Y.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of Ag-NPs on the silicon wafer. (b) The size distribution of 500 Ag-NPs counted from (a). SEM was carried out to investigate the surface morphology of the mixture of serum-Ag-NPs on the silicon wafer (c) and PSi substrate (d), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SERS spectra of R6G with the different concentrations from 10−5 M to 10−13 M detected on the Ag-NPs/PSi substrate. (b) The intensity of peaks at 613 cm−1 for R6G as a function of the molecular concentration. (c) SERS spectra of 30 random spots from R6G molecules (10−5 M) on Ag-NPs/PSi substrates. (d)-(f) Box plots of average and median concentrations of the peaks at 613, 774, and 1365 cm−1 from R6G (10−5 M) molecules based on Ag-NPs/PSi substrates.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The SERS spectrum of serum with added silver colloid on the PSi substrate (a) and silicon substrate (b). The Raman spectrum of serum sample without Ag sol (c). The Raman spectrum of Ag sol without serum sample (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized mean (mean ± SD) SERS spectra of a same serum sample on the PSi substrate (a) and silicon substrate(b), respectively. Normalized mean (mean ± SD) SERS spectra of lung cancer and normal serum samples on the PSi substrate (c). Difference spectrum calculated from the mean SERS spectra of normal and cancer serum samples (bottom in (c)). The shaded part represents the standard deviations of the mean value. Plot shows the intensity value of the selected peaks with the most distinguishable differences between normal human serum and lung cancer serum (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cumulative variance as a function of the number of PCs for PCA. (b) The plot of the first two principal component (PC1, PC2) for the normal group (red triangles) vs. the lung cancer group (black circles). (c) A plot of the two principal component (PC1, PC6) for the normal group (red triangles) vs. the lung cancer group (black circles).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scatter plots of the linear discriminant scores belonging to the normal (red triangles) and lung cancer samples (black circles), calculated from the data sets of serum SERS.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The ROC curve of the discrimination result for the PCA-LDA-based SERS spectral classification. The AUC for PCA-LDA is 0.992.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The UV/visible absorption spectra of the Ag-NPs, serum, and serum-Ag-NPs mixture. (b) SEM image of the surface morphology of Ag-NPs on the PSi substrate. (c) Raman spectrum of R6G (10−2 M) on the silicon wafer. (d) Spectral images of Ag sol mixed with serum in different ratios.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Clinical information of lung cancer patients and normal human volunteers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 SERS peak positions and tentative vibrational mode assignment.

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