Abstract

For prostate cancer (PCa) patients, radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the only curative surgical option. To date, there is no clinical technique allowing for real-time assessment of surgical margins to minimize the extent of residual cancer. Here, we present a tissue interrogation technique using a dual excitation wavelength Raman spectroscopy system capable of sequentially acquiring fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HWN) Raman spectra. Results demonstrate the ability of the system to detect PCa in post-prostatectomy specimens. In total, 477 Raman spectra were collected from 18 human prostate slices. Each area measured with Raman spectroscopy was characterized as either normal or cancer based on histopathological analyses, and each spectrum was classified based on supervised learning using support vector machines (SVMs). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, FP (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89) had slightly superior cancer detection capabilities compared with HWN (AUC = 0.86). Optimal performance resulted from combining the spectral information from FP and HWN (AUC = 0.91), suggesting that the use of these two spectral regions may provide complementary molecular information for PCa detection. The use of leave-one-(spectrum)-out (LOO) or leave-one-patient-out (LOPO) cross-validation produced similar classification results when combining FP with HWN. Our findings suggest that the application of machine learning using multiple data points from the same patient does not result in biases necessarily impacting the reliability of the classification models.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, M. Pinto, F. Picot, M.-A. Tremblay, S. Obaid, E. Marple, K. Urmey, D. Trudel, G. Soulez, M.-C. Guiot, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “A new method using Raman spectroscopy for in vivo targeted brain cancer tissue biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

M. Jermyn, J. Mercier, K. Aubertin, J. Desroches, K. Urmey, J. Karamchandiani, E. Marple, M.-C. Guiot, F. Leblond, and K. Petrecca, “Highly accurate detection of cancer in situ with intraoperative, label-free, multimodal optical spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 77(14), 3942–3950 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia during clinical gastroscopy,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 9(6), 476–483 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, W. Zheng, C. M. Lim, and Z. Huang, “Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3705–3715 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, K. Mok, C. Lemieux-Leduc, J. Mercier, K. St-Arnaud, K. Urmey, M.-C. Guiot, E. Marple, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Characterization of a Raman spectroscopy probe system for intraoperative brain tissue classification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2380–2397 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Huang, S. Wu, M. Chen, L. Sun, Y. Li, M. Huang, S. Huang, Z. Xu, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Study of both fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy of pathological nasopharyngeal tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46(6), 537–544 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12957 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. S. Talari, Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 50(1), 46–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sharma, E. Marple, J. Reichenberg, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and characterization of a novel multimodal fiber-optic probe and spectroscopy system for skin cancer applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(8), 083101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Silberstein and J. A. Eastham, “Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy,” Indian J. Urol. 30(4), 423–428 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy can detect and monitor cancer at cellular level: analysis of resistant and sensitive subtypes of testicular cancer cell lines,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 47(7), 571–581 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. Magi-Galluzzi, A. J. Evans, B. Delahunt, J. I. Epstein, D. F. Griffiths, T. H. van der Kwast, R. Montironi, T. M. Wheeler, J. R. Srigley, L. L. Egevad, and P. A. Humphrey, “International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease,” Mod. Pathol. 24(1), 26–38 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ashton, K. Lau, C. L. Winder, and R. Goodacre, “Raman spectroscopy: lighting up the future of microbial identification,” Future Microbiol. 6(9), 991–997 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the stomach: identification of Helicobacter-pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia,” Int. J. Cancer 126(8), 1920–1927 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Strope and G. L. Andriole, “Prostate cancer screening: current status and future perspectives,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 7(9), 487–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Wright, B. L. Dalkin, L. D. True, W. J. Ellis, J. L. Stanford, P. H. Lange, and D. W. Lin, “Positive Surgical Margins at Radical Prostatectomy Predict Prostate Cancer Specific Mortality,” J. Urol. 183(6), 2213–2218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. H. Chau, J. T. Motz, J. A. Gardecki, S. Waxman, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Fingerprint and high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in a human-swine coronary xenograft in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

V. Vrabie, C. Gobinet, O. Piot, A. Tfayli, P. Bernard, R. Huez, and M. Manfait, “Independent component analysis of Raman spectra: Application on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 2(1), 40–50 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

P. Crow, A. Molckovsky, N. Stone, J. Uff, B. Wilson, and L. M. WongKeeSong, “Assessment of fiberoptic near-infrared raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of bladder and prostate cancer,” Urology 65(6), 1126–1130 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Hernandez, J. I. Epstein, B. J. Trock, T. Tsuzuki, H. B. Carter, and P. C. Walsh, “Radical retropubic prostatectomy. How often do experienced surgeons have positive surgical margins when there is extraprostatic extension in the region of the neurovascular bundle?” J. Urol. 173(2), 446–449 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cheng, T. D. Jones, C.-X. Pan, A. Barbarin, J. N. Eble, and M. O. Koch, “Anatomic distribution and pathologic characterization of small-volume prostate cancer (<0.5 ml) in whole-mount prostatectomy specimens,” Mod. Pathol. 18(8), 1022–1026 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. M. Jarvis and R. Goodacre, “Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 232(2), 127–132 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. J. Kausik, M. L. Blute, T. J. Sebo, B. C. Leibovich, E. J. Bergstralh, J. Slezak, and H. Zincke, “Prognostic significance of positive surgical margins in patients with extraprostatic carcinoma after radical prostatectomy,” Cancer 95(6), 1215–1219 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J.-F. Gigot, P. Deprez, C. Sempoux, C. Descamps, S. Metairie, D. Glineur, and P. Gianello, “Surgical management of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: the role of routine frozen section of the surgical margin, intraoperative endoscopic staged biopsies of the Wirsung duct, and pancreaticogastric anastomosis,” Arch. Surg. 136(11), 1256–1262 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10 Pt 1), 1773–1776 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. J. Davis, T. M. Pisansky, T. M. Wilson, H. J. Rothenberg, A. Pacelli, D. W. Hillman, D. J. Sargent, and D. G. Bostwick, “The radial distance of extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma: implications for prostate brachytherapy,” Cancer 85(12), 2630–2637 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albala, D. M.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alenizi, A. M.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, L. B.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alom, M.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriole, G. L.

S. A. Strope and G. L. Andriole, “Prostate cancer screening: current status and future perspectives,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 7(9), 487–493 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashton, L.

L. Ashton, K. Lau, C. L. Winder, and R. Goodacre, “Raman spectroscopy: lighting up the future of microbial identification,” Future Microbiol. 6(9), 991–997 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubertin, K.

M. Jermyn, J. Mercier, K. Aubertin, J. Desroches, K. Urmey, J. Karamchandiani, E. Marple, M.-C. Guiot, F. Leblond, and K. Petrecca, “Highly accurate detection of cancer in situ with intraoperative, label-free, multimodal optical spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 77(14), 3942–3950 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balbay, M. D.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbarin, A.

L. Cheng, T. D. Jones, C.-X. Pan, A. Barbarin, J. N. Eble, and M. O. Koch, “Anatomic distribution and pathologic characterization of small-volume prostate cancer (<0.5 ml) in whole-mount prostatectomy specimens,” Mod. Pathol. 18(8), 1022–1026 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrass, B.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, T. A.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergholt, M. S.

M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergstralh, E. J.

S. J. Kausik, M. L. Blute, T. J. Sebo, B. C. Leibovich, E. J. Bergstralh, J. Slezak, and H. Zincke, “Prognostic significance of positive surgical margins in patients with extraprostatic carcinoma after radical prostatectomy,” Cancer 95(6), 1215–1219 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berlin, A.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernard, P.

V. Vrabie, C. Gobinet, O. Piot, A. Tfayli, P. Bernard, R. Huez, and M. Manfait, “Independent component analysis of Raman spectra: Application on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 2(1), 40–50 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berney, D.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienz, M.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blute, M. L.

S. J. Kausik, M. L. Blute, T. J. Sebo, B. C. Leibovich, E. J. Bergstralh, J. Slezak, and H. Zincke, “Prognostic significance of positive surgical margins in patients with extraprostatic carcinoma after radical prostatectomy,” Cancer 95(6), 1215–1219 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bostwick, D. G.

B. J. Davis, T. M. Pisansky, T. M. Wilson, H. J. Rothenberg, A. Pacelli, D. W. Hillman, D. J. Sargent, and D. G. Bostwick, “The radial distance of extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma: implications for prostate brachytherapy,” Cancer 85(12), 2630–2637 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boughey, J. C.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

A. H. Chau, J. T. Motz, J. A. Gardecki, S. Waxman, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Fingerprint and high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in a human-swine coronary xenograft in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutros, P. C.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brewer, D. S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bristow, R. G.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchner, N.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, A.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho, N.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Camp, C. H.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
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Campbell, P.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Chen, G. M.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Chen, H.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Chen, M.

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Chen, R.

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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Chong, T.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Chu, K. C.

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Clark, J.

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Collins, C. C.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Cooke, S.

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Cooper, C.

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Cooper, C. S.

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Corbishley, C.

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Crow, P.

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Dennis, N.

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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Easton, D.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Eble, J. N.

L. Cheng, T. D. Jones, C.-X. Pan, A. Barbarin, J. N. Eble, and M. O. Koch, “Anatomic distribution and pathologic characterization of small-volume prostate cancer (<0.5 ml) in whole-mount prostatectomy specimens,” Mod. Pathol. 18(8), 1022–1026 (2005).
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Edwards, S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Eeles, R.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Egevad, L. L.

C. Magi-Galluzzi, A. J. Evans, B. Delahunt, J. I. Epstein, D. F. Griffiths, T. H. van der Kwast, R. Montironi, T. M. Wheeler, J. R. Srigley, L. L. Egevad, and P. A. Humphrey, “International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease,” Mod. Pathol. 24(1), 26–38 (2011).
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El-Hakim, A.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
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Ellis, W. J.

J. L. Wright, B. L. Dalkin, L. D. True, W. J. Ellis, J. L. Stanford, P. H. Lange, and D. W. Lin, “Positive Surgical Margins at Radical Prostatectomy Predict Prostate Cancer Specific Mortality,” J. Urol. 183(6), 2213–2218 (2010).
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Epstein, J. I.

C. Magi-Galluzzi, A. J. Evans, B. Delahunt, J. I. Epstein, D. F. Griffiths, T. H. van der Kwast, R. Montironi, T. M. Wheeler, J. R. Srigley, L. L. Egevad, and P. A. Humphrey, “International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease,” Mod. Pathol. 24(1), 26–38 (2011).
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D. J. Hernandez, J. I. Epstein, B. J. Trock, T. Tsuzuki, H. B. Carter, and P. C. Walsh, “Radical retropubic prostatectomy. How often do experienced surgeons have positive surgical margins when there is extraprostatic extension in the region of the neurovascular bundle?” J. Urol. 173(2), 446–449 (2005).
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Evans, A. J.

C. Magi-Galluzzi, A. J. Evans, B. Delahunt, J. I. Epstein, D. F. Griffiths, T. H. van der Kwast, R. Montironi, T. M. Wheeler, J. R. Srigley, L. L. Egevad, and P. A. Humphrey, “International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease,” Mod. Pathol. 24(1), 26–38 (2011).
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Fan, J.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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Farley, D. R.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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Farmer, J. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
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Feld, M. S.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
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A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
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Fisher, C.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
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Fleshner, N.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Foster, C. S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Fox, N. S.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Fraser, M.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, C.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Futreal, A.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamble, S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Gardecki, J. A.

A. H. Chau, J. T. Motz, J. A. Gardecki, S. Waxman, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Fingerprint and high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in a human-swine coronary xenograft in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 040501 (2008).
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A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
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Gianello, P.

J.-F. Gigot, P. Deprez, C. Sempoux, C. Descamps, S. Metairie, D. Glineur, and P. Gianello, “Surgical management of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: the role of routine frozen section of the surgical margin, intraoperative endoscopic staged biopsies of the Wirsung duct, and pancreaticogastric anastomosis,” Arch. Surg. 136(11), 1256–1262 (2001).
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Gigot, J.-F.

J.-F. Gigot, P. Deprez, C. Sempoux, C. Descamps, S. Metairie, D. Glineur, and P. Gianello, “Surgical management of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: the role of routine frozen section of the surgical margin, intraoperative endoscopic staged biopsies of the Wirsung duct, and pancreaticogastric anastomosis,” Arch. Surg. 136(11), 1256–1262 (2001).
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Glineur, D.

J.-F. Gigot, P. Deprez, C. Sempoux, C. Descamps, S. Metairie, D. Glineur, and P. Gianello, “Surgical management of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: the role of routine frozen section of the surgical margin, intraoperative endoscopic staged biopsies of the Wirsung duct, and pancreaticogastric anastomosis,” Arch. Surg. 136(11), 1256–1262 (2001).
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Gnanapragasam, V.

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C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Grant, C. S.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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Greenman, C.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Griffiths, D. F.

C. Magi-Galluzzi, A. J. Evans, B. Delahunt, J. I. Epstein, D. F. Griffiths, T. H. van der Kwast, R. Montironi, T. M. Wheeler, J. R. Srigley, L. L. Egevad, and P. A. Humphrey, “International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease,” Mod. Pathol. 24(1), 26–38 (2011).
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Guan, Z.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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Guiot, M.-C.

J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, M. Pinto, F. Picot, M.-A. Tremblay, S. Obaid, E. Marple, K. Urmey, D. Trudel, G. Soulez, M.-C. Guiot, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “A new method using Raman spectroscopy for in vivo targeted brain cancer tissue biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1792 (2018).
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M. Jermyn, J. Mercier, K. Aubertin, J. Desroches, K. Urmey, J. Karamchandiani, E. Marple, M.-C. Guiot, F. Leblond, and K. Petrecca, “Highly accurate detection of cancer in situ with intraoperative, label-free, multimodal optical spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 77(14), 3942–3950 (2017).
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Gundem, G.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Habermann, E. B.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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Hach, F.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
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Harding, N. J.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Hardy, C.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Hart-Prieto, M.

P. Crow, B. Barrass, C. Kendall, M. Hart-Prieto, M. Wright, R. Persad, and N. Stone, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines,” Br. J. Cancer 92(12), 2166–2170 (2005).
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Hartshorn, C. M.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
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Have, C. L.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Hawley, J.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Hazell, S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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He, D.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heddleston, J. M.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
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Hennings-Yeomans, P. H.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Hernandez, D. J.

D. J. Hernandez, J. I. Epstein, B. J. Trock, T. Tsuzuki, H. B. Carter, and P. C. Walsh, “Radical retropubic prostatectomy. How often do experienced surgeons have positive surgical margins when there is extraprostatic extension in the region of the neurovascular bundle?” J. Urol. 173(2), 446–449 (2005).
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Hicks, D.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, J. Lyons, D. Hicks, M. Fitzmaurice, R. R. Dasari, J. P. Crowe, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 66(6), 3317–3322 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hieken, T. J.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hight Walker, A. R.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
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Hillman, D. W.

B. J. Davis, T. M. Pisansky, T. M. Wilson, H. J. Rothenberg, A. Pacelli, D. W. Hillman, D. J. Sargent, and D. G. Bostwick, “The radial distance of extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma: implications for prostate brachytherapy,” Cancer 85(12), 2630–2637 (1999).
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Hinton, J.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Ho, K. Y.

K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia during clinical gastroscopy,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 9(6), 476–483 (2016).
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M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
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J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12957 (2015).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the stomach: identification of Helicobacter-pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia,” Int. J. Cancer 126(8), 1920–1927 (2010).
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Honn, K. V.

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
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Hsieh, J.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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Huang, L.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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Huang, M.

W. Huang, S. Wu, M. Chen, L. Sun, Y. Li, M. Huang, S. Huang, Z. Xu, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Study of both fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy of pathological nasopharyngeal tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46(6), 537–544 (2015).
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M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
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W. Huang, S. Wu, M. Chen, L. Sun, Y. Li, M. Huang, S. Huang, Z. Xu, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Study of both fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy of pathological nasopharyngeal tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46(6), 537–544 (2015).
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W. Huang, S. Wu, M. Chen, L. Sun, Y. Li, M. Huang, S. Huang, Z. Xu, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Study of both fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy of pathological nasopharyngeal tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46(6), 537–544 (2015).
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M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
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K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia during clinical gastroscopy,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 9(6), 476–483 (2016).
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K. Lin, W. Zheng, C. M. Lim, and Z. Huang, “Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3705–3715 (2016).
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K. Lin, D. L. P. Cheng, and Z. Huang, “Optical diagnosis of laryngeal cancer using high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 213–217 (2012).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the stomach: identification of Helicobacter-pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia,” Int. J. Cancer 126(8), 1920–1927 (2010).
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J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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V. Vrabie, C. Gobinet, O. Piot, A. Tfayli, P. Bernard, R. Huez, and M. Manfait, “Independent component analysis of Raman spectra: Application on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 2(1), 40–50 (2007).
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Ilancheran, A.

J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
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J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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R. M. Jarvis and R. Goodacre, “Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 232(2), 127–132 (2004).
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Johns, J.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Jones, D.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Jones, T. D.

L. Cheng, T. D. Jones, C.-X. Pan, A. Barbarin, J. N. Eble, and M. O. Koch, “Anatomic distribution and pathologic characterization of small-volume prostate cancer (<0.5 ml) in whole-mount prostatectomy specimens,” Mod. Pathol. 18(8), 1022–1026 (2005).
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Joseph, O.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Jung, E.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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L. J. DiNardo, J. Lin, L. S. Karageorge, and C. N. Powers, “Accuracy, utility, and cost of frozen section margins in head and neck cancer surgery,” Laryngoscope 110(10 Pt 1), 1773–1776 (2000).
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Karamchandiani, J.

M. Jermyn, J. Mercier, K. Aubertin, J. Desroches, K. Urmey, J. Karamchandiani, E. Marple, M.-C. Guiot, F. Leblond, and K. Petrecca, “Highly accurate detection of cancer in situ with intraoperative, label-free, multimodal optical spectroscopy,” Cancer Res. 77(14), 3942–3950 (2017).
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Kast, R. E.

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
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C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Keeney, G. L.

J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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Kendall, C.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
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N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
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Kendall, C. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. J. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
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Killian, K.

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
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Koch, M. O.

L. Cheng, T. D. Jones, C.-X. Pan, A. Barbarin, J. N. Eble, and M. O. Koch, “Anatomic distribution and pathologic characterization of small-volume prostate cancer (<0.5 ml) in whole-mount prostatectomy specimens,” Mod. Pathol. 18(8), 1022–1026 (2005).
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Koljenovic, S.

I. P. Santos, P. J. Caspers, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. van Doorn, V. Noordhoek Hegt, S. Koljenović, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions suspected of melanoma using high-wavenumber raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 88(15), 7683–7688 (2016).
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S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, R. Wolthuis, B. de Jong, L. Santos, P. J. Caspers, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 031116 (2005).
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Kong, C.-R.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
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Kong, K.

K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
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Kote-Jarai, Z.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Lambin, P.

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Massie, C. E.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Matthews, L.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Mayer, E.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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McDermott, U.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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McLaren, S.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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McLean, D.

H. Lui, J. Zhao, D. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo skin cancer diagnosis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2491–2500 (2012).
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McPherson, A.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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McPherson, J. D.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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McWilliams, A.

Meng, A.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Menzies, A.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
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C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Tetu, B.

P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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V. Vrabie, C. Gobinet, O. Piot, A. Tfayli, P. Bernard, R. Huez, and M. Manfait, “Independent component analysis of Raman spectra: Application on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies,” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 2(1), 40–50 (2007).
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C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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Thompson, A.

C. S. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. C. Wedge, P. Van Loo, G. Gundem, L. B. Alexandrov, B. Kremeyer, A. Butler, A. G. Lynch, N. Camacho, C. E. Massie, J. Kay, H. J. Luxton, S. Edwards, Z. Kote-Jarai, N. Dennis, S. Merson, D. Leongamornlert, J. Zamora, C. Corbishley, S. Thomas, S. Nik-Zainal, S. O’Meara, L. Matthews, J. Clark, R. Hurst, R. Mithen, R. G. Bristow, P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, S. Cooke, K. Raine, D. Jones, A. Menzies, L. Stebbings, J. Hinton, J. Teague, S. McLaren, L. Mudie, C. Hardy, E. Anderson, O. Joseph, V. Goody, B. Robinson, M. Maddison, S. Gamble, C. Greenman, D. Berney, S. Hazell, N. Livni, C. Fisher, C. Ogden, P. Kumar, A. Thompson, C. Woodhouse, D. Nicol, E. Mayer, T. Dudderidge, N. C. Shah, V. Gnanapragasam, T. Voet, P. Campbell, A. Futreal, D. Easton, A. Y. Warren, C. S. Foster, M. R. Stratton, H. C. Whitaker, U. McDermott, D. S. Brewer, and D. E. Neal, “Analysis of the genetic phylogeny of multifocal prostate cancer identifies multiple independent clonal expansions in neoplastic and morphologically normal prostate tissue,” Nat. Genet. 47(4), 367–372 (2015).
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J. C. Boughey, T. J. Hieken, J. W. Jakub, A. C. Degnim, C. S. Grant, D. R. Farley, K. M. Thomsen, J. B. Osborn, G. L. Keeney, and E. B. Habermann, “Impact of analysis of frozen-section margin on reoperation rates in women undergoing lumpectomy for breast cancer: Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data,” Surgery 156(1), 190–197 (2014).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, M. Pinto, F. Picot, M.-A. Tremblay, S. Obaid, E. Marple, K. Urmey, D. Trudel, G. Soulez, M.-C. Guiot, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “A new method using Raman spectroscopy for in vivo targeted brain cancer tissue biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1792 (2018).
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Trexler, M.

R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
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Trinh, Q.-D.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
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Trock, B. J.

D. J. Hernandez, J. I. Epstein, B. J. Trock, T. Tsuzuki, H. B. Carter, and P. C. Walsh, “Radical retropubic prostatectomy. How often do experienced surgeons have positive surgical margins when there is extraprostatic extension in the region of the neurovascular bundle?” J. Urol. 173(2), 446–449 (2005).
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Trudeau, V.

M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
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Trudel, D.

J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, M. Pinto, F. Picot, M.-A. Tremblay, S. Obaid, E. Marple, K. Urmey, D. Trudel, G. Soulez, M.-C. Guiot, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “A new method using Raman spectroscopy for in vivo targeted brain cancer tissue biopsy,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1792 (2018).
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R. E. Kast, S. C. Tucker, K. Killian, M. Trexler, K. V. Honn, and G. W. Auner, “Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 33(2-3), 673–693 (2014).
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M. Sharma, E. Marple, J. Reichenberg, and J. W. Tunnell, “Design and characterization of a novel multimodal fiber-optic probe and spectroscopy system for skin cancer applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(8), 083101 (2014).
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M. Bienz, P.-A. Hueber, V. Trudeau, A. M. Alenizi, R. Valdivieso, M. Alom, M. D. Balbay, A. E. Canda, V. Mouraviev, D. M. Albala, A. El-Hakim, Q.-D. Trinh, M. Latour, F. Saad, and K. C. Zorn, “Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience,” Can. Urol. Assoc. J. 9(7-8), 434 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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Walsh, P. C.

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J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12957 (2015).
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L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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Wang, X.

L. Wang, D. He, J. Zeng, Z. Guan, Q. Dang, X. Wang, J. Wang, L. Huang, P. Cao, G. Zhang, J. Hsieh, and J. Fan, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 087001 (2013).
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M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
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K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of gastric intestinal metaplasia during clinical gastroscopy,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 9(6), 476–483 (2016).
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J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12957 (2015).
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S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the stomach: identification of Helicobacter-pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia,” Int. J. Cancer 126(8), 1920–1927 (2010).
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X. Zhang, M. A. Young, O. Lyandres, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Rapid detection of an anthrax biomarker by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(12), 4484–4489 (2005).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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W. Huang, S. Wu, M. Chen, L. Sun, Y. Li, M. Huang, S. Huang, Z. Xu, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Study of both fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy of pathological nasopharyngeal tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 46(6), 537–544 (2015).
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M. S. Bergholt, K. Lin, J. Wang, W. Zheng, H. Xu, Q. Huang, J. L. Ren, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, S. Srivastava, B. Wong, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy enhances real-time in vivo diagnosis of adenomatous polyps during colonoscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(4), 333–342 (2016).
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J. Wang, K. Lin, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12957 (2015).
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J. Mo, W. Zheng, J. J. H. Low, J. Ng, A. Ilancheran, and Z. Huang, “High wavenumber Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia,” Anal. Chem. 81(21), 8908–8915 (2009).
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P. C. Boutros, M. Fraser, N. J. Harding, R. de Borja, D. Trudel, E. Lalonde, A. Meng, P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, A. McPherson, V. Y. Sabelnykova, A. Zia, N. S. Fox, J. Livingstone, Y.-J. Shiah, J. Wang, T. A. Beck, C. L. Have, T. Chong, M. Sam, J. Johns, L. Timms, N. Buchner, A. Wong, J. D. Watson, T. T. Simmons, C. P’ng, G. Zafarana, F. Nguyen, X. Luo, K. C. Chu, S. D. Prokopec, J. Sykes, A. Dal Pra, A. Berlin, A. Brown, M. A. Chan-Seng-Yue, F. Yousif, R. E. Denroche, L. C. Chong, G. M. Chen, E. Jung, C. Fung, M. H. W. Starmans, H. Chen, S. K. Govind, J. Hawley, A. D’Costa, M. Pintilie, D. Waggott, F. Hach, P. Lambin, L. B. Muthuswamy, C. Cooper, R. Eeles, D. Neal, B. Tetu, C. Sahinalp, L. D. Stein, N. Fleshner, S. P. Shah, C. C. Collins, T. J. Hudson, J. D. McPherson, T. van der Kwast, and R. G. Bristow, “Spatial genomic heterogeneity within localized, multifocal prostate cancer,” Nat. Genet. 47(7), 736–745 (2015).
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K. Kong, C. Kendall, N. Stone, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 89, 121–134 (2015).
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Anal. Chem. (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Fresh human prostate slice on which measured areas were labelled using India ink and identified with blue circles. Scale bar = 1 cm. (b) Schematic depiction of the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy system. Fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectra are acquired following excitations at 785 nm (near infra-red [NIR]) and 671 nm, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fingerprint (490-1660 cm−1) and high wavenumber (2800-3050 cm−1) average Raman spectra for normal (N = 393) and cancer (N = 84) prostatic tissues. The arrows identify prominent Raman peaks for which the results of univariate statistical tests are identified as follows: *** for p<0.001, ** for p<0.01, and * for p<0.05.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showing the performance of classifications performed on fingerprint (FP) spectra, high wavenumber (HWN) spectra or FP + HWN spectra and using support vector machines (SVMs) and either leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) or leave-one-patient-out cross-validation (LOPOCV). (a) ROC for HWN / FP / FP + HWN with LOOCV and LOPOCV. (b) Comparison of LOOCV/LOPOCV for HWN, FP and FP + HWN.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Univariate statistical analyses between normal and cancer prostatic tissues for prominent Raman peaks identified by arrows in Fig. 2. *** corresponds to p<0,001, ** to p<0,01 and * p<0,05. The references used for peak assignment are [41–45].

Tables Icon

Table 2 Table summarizing accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for each test. The correspondent ROC curves are plotted in Fig. 3.

Metrics