Abstract

The number of patients with kidney stones worldwide is increasing, and it is particularly important to facilitate accurate diagnosis methods. Accurate analysis of the type of kidney stones plays a crucial role in the patient's follow-up treatment. This study used microscopic Raman spectroscopy to analyze and classify the different mineral components present in kidney stones. There were several Raman changes observed for the different types of kidney stones and the four types were oxalates, phosphates, purines and L-cystine kidney stones. We then combined machine learning techniques with Raman spectroscopy. KNN and SVM combinations with PCA (PCA-KNN, PCA-SVM) methods were implemented to classify the same spectral data set. The results show the diagnostic accuracies are 96.3% for the PCA-KNN and PCA-SVM methods with high sensitivity (0.963, 0.963) and specificity (0.995,0.985). The experimental Raman spectra results of kidney stones show the proposed method has high classification accuracy. This approach can provide support for physicians making treatment recommendations to patients with kidney stones

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Tasian, A. E. Kabarriti, A. Kalmus, and S. L. Furth, “Kidney stone recurrence among children and adolescents,” J. Urol. 197(1), 246–252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

R. Selvaraju, A. Raja, and G. Thiruppathi, “Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 114, 650–657 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

C. A. Lieber, H. E. Nethercott, and M. H. Kabeer, “Cancer field effects in normal tissues revealed by Raman spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 975–982 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. C. Chiu, H. Y. Yang, S. H. Lu, and H. K. Chiang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy identification of urinary stone composition from ureteroscopic lithotripsy urine powder,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(2), 136–141 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. C. Curhan, “Epidemiology of stone disease,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 34(3), 287–293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. W. Moe, “Kidney stones: pathophysiology and medical management,” Lancet 367(9507), 333–344 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

C. Otto, C. J. D. Grauw, J. J. Duindam, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, “Applications of micro-Raman imaging in biomedical research,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kontoyannis, N. C. Bouropoulos, and P. G. Koutsoukos, “Urinary stone layer analysis of mineral components by Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction: a comparative study,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51(8), 1205–1209 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kontoyannis, N. C. Bouropoulos, and P. G. Koutsoukos, “Raman spectroscopy: A tool for the quantitative analysis of mineral components of solid mixtures. The case of calcium oxalate monohydrate and hydroxyapatite,” Vib. Spectrosc. 15(1), 53–60 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. Uribarri, M. S. Oh, and H. J. Carroll, “The first kidney stone,” Ann. Intern. Med. 111(12), 1006–1009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abbas, A.

Ahmed, M.

Alexander, R. T.

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreas, B.

Barik, B. K.

K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bello, A.

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilal, M.

Bouropoulos, N. C.

C. G. Kontoyannis, N. C. Bouropoulos, and P. G. Koutsoukos, “Raman spectroscopy: A tool for the quantitative analysis of mineral components of solid mixtures. The case of calcium oxalate monohydrate and hydroxyapatite,” Vib. Spectrosc. 15(1), 53–60 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kontoyannis, N. C. Bouropoulos, and P. G. Koutsoukos, “Urinary stone layer analysis of mineral components by Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction: a comparative study,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51(8), 1205–1209 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cai, C.

G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calhoun, E. A.

M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, H. J.

J. Uribarri, M. S. Oh, and H. J. Carroll, “The first kidney stone,” Ann. Intern. Med. 111(12), 1006–1009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chawla, A.

K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. A.

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chiu, H. Y. Yang, S. H. Lu, and H. K. Chiang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy identification of urinary stone composition from ureteroscopic lithotripsy urine powder,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(2), 136–141 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiu, A. W.

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y. C.

Y. C. Chiu, H. Y. Yang, S. H. Lu, and H. K. Chiang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy identification of urinary stone composition from ureteroscopic lithotripsy urine powder,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(2), 136–141 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christian, K.

Chu, D. I.

G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Copelovitch, L.

G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Z.

G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curhan, G. C.

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Curhan, “Epidemiology of stone disease,” Urol. Clin. North Am. 34(3), 287–293 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Pearle, E. A. Calhoun, and G. C. Curhan, “Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis,” J. Urol. 173(3), 848–857 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denburg, M. R.

G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duindam, J. J.

C. Otto, C. J. D. Grauw, J. J. Duindam, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, “Applications of micro-Raman imaging in biomedical research,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Florian, S.

Furth, S. L.

G. E. Tasian, A. E. Kabarriti, A. Kalmus, and S. L. Furth, “Kidney stone recurrence among children and adolescents,” J. Urol. 197(1), 246–252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Q.

Golay, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Grauw, C. J. D.

C. Otto, C. J. D. Grauw, J. J. Duindam, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, “Applications of micro-Raman imaging in biomedical research,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Greve, J.

C. Otto, C. J. D. Grauw, J. J. Duindam, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, “Applications of micro-Raman imaging in biomedical research,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hemmelgarn, B. R.

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Chiu, Y. Y. Huang, P. A. Chen, S. H. Lu, A. W. Chiu, and H. K. Chiang, “Quantitative and multicomponent analysis of prevalent urinary calculi using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(8), 992–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

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Kabarriti, A. E.

G. E. Tasian, A. E. Kabarriti, A. Kalmus, and S. L. Furth, “Kidney stone recurrence among children and adolescents,” J. Urol. 197(1), 246–252 (2017).
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Kalmus, A.

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K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
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G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
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K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
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K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
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Oh, M. S.

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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
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R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
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K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
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G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
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G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
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C. Otto, C. J. D. Grauw, J. J. Duindam, N. M. Sijtsema, and J. Greve, “Applications of micro-Raman imaging in biomedical research,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2-3), 143–150 (1997).
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G. E. Tasian, M. E. Ross, L. Song, D. J. Sas, R. Keren, M. R. Denburg, D. I. Chu, L. Copelovitch, C. S. Saigal, and S. L. Furth, “Annual incidence of nephrolithiasis among children and adults in South Carolina from 1997 to 2012,” Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11(3), 488–496 (2016).
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G. E. Tasian, A. E. Kabarriti, A. Kalmus, and S. L. Furth, “Kidney stone recurrence among children and adolescents,” J. Urol. 197(1), 246–252 (2017).
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Thiruppathi, G.

R. Selvaraju, A. Raja, and G. Thiruppathi, “Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 114, 650–657 (2013).
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Unnikrishnan, V. K.

K. S. Muhammed, A. Chawla, M. Mallya, B. K. Barik, V. K. Unnikrishnan, V. B. Kartha, and C. Santhosh, “LIBS-Raman: an effective complementary approach to analyze renal-calculi,” J. Biophotonics 11, 201700271 (2018).
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Uribarri, J.

J. Uribarri, M. S. Oh, and H. J. Carroll, “The first kidney stone,” Ann. Intern. Med. 111(12), 1006–1009 (1989).
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Wiebe, N.

R. T. Alexander, B. R. Hemmelgarn, N. Wiebe, A. Bello, C. Morgan, S. Samuel, S. W. Klarenbach, G. C. Curhan, and M. Tonelli, “Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study,” BMJ 345, e5287 (2012).
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Wu, W.

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G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
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Y. C. Chiu, H. Y. Yang, S. H. Lu, and H. K. Chiang, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy identification of urinary stone composition from ureteroscopic lithotripsy urine powder,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(2), 136–141 (2009).
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G. Zeng, Z. Mai, S. Xia, Z. Wang, K. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Long, J. Ma, Y. Li, S. P. Wan, W. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Cui, Z. Zhao, J. Qin, T. Zeng, Y. Liu, X. Duan, X. Mai, Z. Yang, Z. Kong, T. Zhang, C. Cai, Y. Shao, Z. Yue, S. Li, J. Ding, S. Tang, and Z. Ye, “Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study,” BJU Int. 120(1), 109–116 (2017).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Typical Raman spectra of kidney stones after preprocessing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The spectra of first five principal components in PCA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 3D plot of the first principal component (PC1) versus the second principal component (PC2) and the third principal component (PC3) for kidney stones.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of discrimination results for Raman spectra utilizing the PCA-SVM and PCA-KNN based spectral classification.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 The chemical name, composition, mineral name of the most common components of urinary tract calculi [21].

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Table 2 Raman spectral data of kidney stones [17, 26, 27]

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Table 3 Explanation of variance for the top 6 principal components of samples

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Table 4 Classification results for the samples in the validation set.

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Table 5 Each case was classified by the functions derived from all cases other than that case