Abstract

We investigate the origin of high frequency noise in Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers and present an extremely well dispersion compensated setup which virtually eliminates intensity noise and dramatically improves coherence properties. We show optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging at 3.2 MHz A-scan rate and demonstrate the positive impact of the described improvements on the image quality. Especially in highly scattering samples, at specular reflections and for strong signals at large depth, the noise in optical coherence tomography images is significantly reduced. We also describe a simple model that suggests a passive physical stabilizing mechanism that leads to an automatic compensation of remaining cavity dispersion in FDML lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (2)

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Efficient simulation of the swept-waveform polarization dynamics in fiber spools and Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1135–1146 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mei, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Delay Compensated FBG Demodulation System Based on Fourier Domain Mode-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1585–1588 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Modeling and analysis of polarization effects in Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2385–2388 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2448–2465 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, T. Pfeiffer, E. Regar, W. Wieser, H. van Beusekom, C. T. Lancee, G. Springeling, I. Krabbendam, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 5021–5032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: Imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

H. T. Peter and K. W. Ruikang, “Digital phase stabilization to improve detection sensitivity for optical coherence tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3365–3372 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

1992 (1)

H. Chaté and P. Manneville, “Stability of the Bekki-Nozaki hole solutions to the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 171(3-4), 183–188 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, “Formations of spatial patterns and holes in the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 110(3), 133–135 (1985).
[Crossref]

Adie, S. G.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

An, X.

André, R.

Baumann, B.

Bekki, N.

N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, “Formations of spatial patterns and holes in the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 110(3), 133–135 (1985).
[Crossref]

Beurskens, R.

Biedermann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bonesi, M.

Boppart, S. A.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Byoung Chang, L.

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cable, A. E.

Carney, P. S.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caswell, A. W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang-Seok, K.

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chaté, H.

H. Chaté and P. Manneville, “Stability of the Bekki-Nozaki hole solutions to the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 171(3-4), 183–188 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, C. Shu, and S. He, “Multiple fiber Bragg grating interrogation based on a spectrum-limited Fourier domain mode-locking fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1395–1397 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Desjardins, A. E.

Draxinger, W.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eibl, M.

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, G. Palte, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Chromatic polarization effects of swept waveforms in FDML lasers and fiber spools,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9819–9832 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: Imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eun-Joo, J.

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, J.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haritoglou, C.

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hegarty, S.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

Hegarty, S. P.

Herold, R. E.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Efficient simulation of the swept-waveform polarization dynamics in fiber spools and Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(6), 1135–1146 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, T. Pfeiffer, E. Regar, W. Wieser, H. van Beusekom, C. T. Lancee, G. Springeling, I. Krabbendam, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 5021–5032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Modeling and analysis of polarization effects in Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2385–2388 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2448–2465 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, H. Sattmann, T. Torzicky, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography scan engine based on Fourier domain mode locked laser,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2987–3000 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, G. Palte, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Chromatic polarization effects of swept waveforms in FDML lasers and fiber spools,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9819–9832 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: Imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R. A.

Huyet, G.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jiang, J. Y.

Jirauschek, C.

Jung, E. J.

Jung, W.

Kampik, A.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpf, S.

Kelleher, B.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kernt, M.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-S.

Kim, M. K.

Klein, T.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolb, J. P.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

Krabbendam, I.

Kranendonk, L. A.

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kufner, C. L.

Lancee, C. T.

Lee, B. C.

B. C. Lee and M. Y. Jeon, “Remote fiber sensor based on cascaded Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(19), 4607–4610 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-Z.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
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Makita, S.

Manneville, P.

H. Chaté and P. Manneville, “Stability of the Bekki-Nozaki hole solutions to the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 171(3-4), 183–188 (1992).
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Mei, J.

J. Mei, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Delay Compensated FBG Demodulation System Based on Fourier Domain Mode-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1585–1588 (2015).
[Crossref]

Min Yong, J.

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mohler, K. J.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

Neubauer, A. S.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nozaki, K.

N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, “Formations of spatial patterns and holes in the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 110(3), 133–135 (1985).
[Crossref]

O’Shaughnessy, B.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Okura, Y.

Palte, G.

Park, B. H.

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H. T. Peter and K. W. Ruikang, “Digital phase stabilization to improve detection sensitivity for optical coherence tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3365–3372 (2007).
[Crossref]

Petermann, M.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, T.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regar, E.

Reznicek, L.

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rica, S.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruikang, K. W.

H. T. Peter and K. W. Ruikang, “Digital phase stabilization to improve detection sensitivity for optical coherence tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3365–3372 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sanders, S. T.

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sattmann, H.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shemonski, N. D.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Shu, C.

Slepneva, S.

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

South, F. A.

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springeling, G.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

Taira, K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Todor, S.

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torzicky, T.

Trepanier, F.

Trépanier, F.

Urata, Y.

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

van Beusekom, H.

van der Steen, A. F. W.

van Soest, G.

Vladimirov, A. G.

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wieser, W.

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, T. Pfeiffer, E. Regar, W. Wieser, H. van Beusekom, C. T. Lancee, G. Springeling, I. Krabbendam, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 5021–5032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, H. Sattmann, T. Torzicky, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography scan engine based on Fourier domain mode locked laser,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2987–3000 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, G. Palte, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Chromatic polarization effects of swept waveforms in FDML lasers and fiber spools,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9819–9832 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: Imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolf, A.

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

J. Mei, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Delay Compensated FBG Demodulation System Based on Fourier Domain Mode-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1585–1588 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

J. Mei, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Delay Compensated FBG Demodulation System Based on Fourier Domain Mode-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1585–1588 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zotter, S.

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bonesi, H. Sattmann, T. Torzicky, S. Zotter, B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography scan engine based on Fourier domain mode locked laser,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2987–3000 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, C. L. Kufner, W. Wieser, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Ultra-widefield retinal MHz-OCT imaging with up to 100 degrees viewing angle,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1534–1552 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek and R. Huber, “Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2448–2465 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, T. Pfeiffer, E. Regar, W. Wieser, H. van Beusekom, C. T. Lancee, G. Springeling, I. Krabbendam, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 5021–5032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. Reznicek, T. Klein, W. Wieser, M. Kernt, A. Wolf, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, R. Huber, and A. S. Neubauer, “Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 252(6), 1009–1016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Mei, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Delay Compensated FBG Demodulation System Based on Fourier Domain Mode-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1585–1588 (2015).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, K. J. Mohler, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, M. Kernt, A. Kampik, A. S. Neubauer, and R. Huber, “Choroidal, retinal and RPE thickness in diabetic retinopathy measured with widefield MHz-OCT over 60° field of view,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 603 (2015).

J. Biophotonics (1)

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Recent developments in Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: Imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 357–363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on a Fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

L. Byoung Chang, J. Eun-Joo, K. Chang-Seok, and J. Min Yong, “Dynamic and static strain fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation with a 1.3 µm Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094008 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Peter and K. W. Ruikang, “Digital phase stabilization to improve detection sensitivity for optical coherence tomography,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3365–3372 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Eigenwillig, W. Wieser, S. Todor, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. Jirauschek, and R. Huber, “Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. D. Shemonski, F. A. South, Y.-Z. Liu, S. G. Adie, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 440–443 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. C. Lee and M. Y. Jeon, “Remote fiber sensor based on cascaded Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(19), 4607–4610 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (18)

E. J. Jung, C.-S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, M. K. Kim, M. Y. Jeon, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16552–16560 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Todor, B. Biedermann, W. Wieser, R. Huber, and C. Jirauschek, “Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8802–8807 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, G. Palte, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Chromatic polarization effects of swept waveforms in FDML lasers and fiber spools,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9819–9832 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Kranendonk, X. An, A. W. Caswell, R. E. Herold, S. T. Sanders, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, Y. Okura, and Y. Urata, “High speed engine gas thermometry by Fourier-domain mode-locked laser absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15115–15128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1096–1103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski and M. Wojtkowski, “Averaging techniques for OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9757–9773 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slepneva, B. Kelleher, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. P. Hegarty, A. G. Vladimirov, and G. Huyet, “Dynamics of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19240–19251 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Lett. A (2)

H. Chaté and P. Manneville, “Stability of the Bekki-Nozaki hole solutions to the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 171(3-4), 183–188 (1992).
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N. Bekki and K. Nozaki, “Formations of spatial patterns and holes in the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Lett. A 110(3), 133–135 (1985).
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Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31(1), 783–790 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Pfeiffer, W. Draxinger, W. Wieser, T. Klein, M. Petermann, and R. Huber, “Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence,” Proc. SPIE 10053, 100531T (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, S. Hegarty, B. Kelleher, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Convective Nozaki-Bekki holes in a long cavity laser,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320F (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

S. Slepneva, B. O’Shaughnessy, A. Vladimirov, S. Rica, and G. Huyet, “Turbulent laser puffs,” arXiv:1801.05509 (2018).

T. Kraetschmer and S. T. Sanders, “Ultrastable Fourier Domain Mode Locking Observed in a Laser Sweeping 1363.8 - 1367.3 nm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), CFB4.
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer and R. Huber, “Verfahren zur Erhaltung der Synchronität eines Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) Lasers,” DE 10 2017 209 739.6 (2018).

M. Eibl, S. Karpf, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Hyperspectral stimulated Raman microscopy with two fiber laser sources,” in Advanced Microscopy Techniques IV; and Neurophotonics II, SPIE Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2015), 953604.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Intensity of 2000 sucessive sweeps measured at 63GHz
» Visualization 2       Image Quality improvement by new laser: 4D image comparison to old laser

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic and photo of the FDML laser: It comprises a 1310 nm semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), a fiber polarization controller (PC), a fiber optic isolator (ISO), a fiber Fabry-Pérot filter (FFP) driven at 411kHz, a mixed fiber spool, and a custom made chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photoreceiver signal of intensity trace with 117nm sweep bandwidth of the FDML in ultra-low noise sweet spot mode. Shown are two consecutive sweeps, one backward (red to blue) and one forward sweep. The trace was acquired with 50 GHz analog bandwidth and 160 GS/s (for a video showing dynamic changes in consecutive sweeps see Visualization 1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Spectra acquired with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). Blue line: 117 nm full range FDML laser spectrum, centered at 1292 nm. Red line: Spectrum of ASE, showing the absorption lines of water vapor. b) The laser output spectrum on a linear scale showing the FWHM of 77 nm and the 10 dB width of 116 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Typical drift of the sweet spot frequency due to temperature changes in the FDML laser cavity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of FDML laser intensity noise for 0 Hz (a,b,c - blue), 1 Hz (d,e,f - black) and 5 Hz (g,e,h - red) detuned FFP frequency. The output of the laser was recorded at 50GHz analog bandwidth. (a,d,g): Intensity traces, (b,e,h): Low frequency noise spectra plotted as amplitude of the Fourier transforms of the respective traces from 0 to 2 GHz on a linear scale.(c,f,i). Noise spectra over the full 63 GHz of the oscilloscope also on a linear scale.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the noise spectra between 0 Hz and 6 GHz for 0 Hz (blue), 1 Hz (black) and 5 Hz (red) detuning. For each plot 1000 time traces were recorded and Fourier transformed. The FFTs were averaged and the amplitude values are plotted on a linear scale.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Number of holes per sweep at varying detuning from the sweet spot frequency. (b) Number of holes at different frequencies in the region very close around the sweet spot frequency.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Fringe contrast roll-off with automated frequency regulation keeping the laser in the low noise operation mode. (b) Comparison of ~28 GHz fringes in low noise operation and with a detuning of + 100 mHz.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 FDML laser intensity outputs acquired at 50 GHz detection bandwidth. (a) Laser with an all SMF28 fiber cavity without a CFBG for dispersion compensation sweeping over a 104 nm spectral range at a center wavelength of 1307 nm. The black arrows indicate two “sweet spots”. (b,c) Two sweeps from an FDML laser with imperfect dispersion compensation sweeping 110 nm at 1292 nm. (d) The new laser detuned from the optimum frequency by 100 mHz. (e) Calculated mismatch of cavity round trip time and inverse FFP frequency.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Simple model for the phase disturbances causing the holes. When the incoming light field to the FFP changes its phase so fast that the light in the FFP cavity cannot accommodate adiabatically, the feedback light is reflected, and the light stored in the FFP depletes. (b) Intensity traces that show the evolution of a holes within 15 consecutive sweeps. All traces were acquired at the same temporal position relative to the FFP filter drive signal.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Calculated transmitted and reflected intensities before and after a phase jump Δ φ =π at t=0 for 165 pm and 82.5 pm FWHM FFPs.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 FFP intensity transmission normalized to the maximal transmission and group delay dependence on the light’s frequency offset relative to the filter transmission window center.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 FFP group delay dependence on the light frequency offset to the filter center frequency. a) Stable and unstable operating points with equal GDs. Any wavelength (colored circles) can experience a suitable group delay compensating for varying round trip times through the cavity by hitting the filter with either a negative or positive frequency offset. b) Stable operating point for a wavelength before (black dot) and after (blue dots) a change of its cavity round trip time RT T cavity (λ). The numbered red dots indicate the position in the filter window of the observed wavelength after consecutive round trips. The direction of the walk off caused by a delay in the cavity is indicated by the black solid arrow and the walk off caused by a decreased RTT is indicated by the black dashed arrow.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Intensity traces of a 110 nm sweep acquired at the sweet spot frequency (a) and with different detuning (b-d) of the FFP frequency. All traces have been numerically low pass filtered to 1.6 GHz.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 3.2 MHz A-scan rate OCT images (2048 A-scans at 40 mW light exposure) of a human finger knuckle joint acquired at different detuning from the sweet spot frequency. The white bar corresponds to 1 mm in tissue.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Comparison of live rendered 3D-OCT using the new low noise FDML laser (a) to our prior work (b) (see Visualization 2).

Equations (6)

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I ˜ t ( t )=1+2σ( t )[ cos( Δ φ )1 ][ e π δ f t e 2π δ f t ],
I ˜ r ( t )=2σ( t )( e 2π δ f t )[ 1cos( Δ φ ) ].
t s = T max 1/2 12if/ δ f = T max 1/2 1+4 (f/ δ f ) 2   ( 1+2if/ δ f ),
φ= tan 1 ( 2 f δ f ) and τ g = dφ dω = 1 π δ f 1 1+ ( 2f/ δ f ) 2 .
max( RT T cavity (λ) )<1/ f FFP <min( RT T cavity (λ) )+G D FFP max ,
1/ f FFP =RTT(λ)=RT T cavity (λ)+GD(λ),

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