Abstract

Transdermal skin delivery is a method to transport various topical formulations to a deeper skin layer non-invasively. Permeability analysis of many delivering agents has been mostly conducted by a simple tape stripping method. However, it cannot reveal a detailed depth-dependent distribution profile of transdermally delivered agents in the skin. In this work, we achieved a cellular-level depth-defined visualization of fluorophore-labelled human epidermal growth factor (EGF) transdermally delivered to human skin by using encapsulation with common liposomes and newly fabricated multi-lamellar nanostructures using a custom-design two-photon microscopy system. It was able to generate 3D reconstructed images displaying the distribution of human EGF inside the human skin sample with high-resolution. Based on a depthwise fluorescence intensity profile showing the permeation of human EGF, a quantitative analysis was performed to assess the transdermal delivery efficacy achieved by each formulation, showing a significant improvement of the efficacy with the utilization of multi-lamellar nanostructure.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. R. M. Hathout and M. Nasr, “Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 254–260 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. M. Andanson, K. L. A. Chan, and S. G. Kazarian, “High-Throughput Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Permeation Through the Skin,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(5), 512–517 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Transdermal skin delivery: Predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59(11), 1152–1161 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Balázs, P. Sipos, C. Danciu, S. Avram, C. Soica, C. Dehelean, G. Varju, G. Erős, M. Budai-Szűcs, S. Berkó, and E. Csányi, “ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopic investigation of the electroporation-mediated transdermal delivery of a nanocarrier system containing an antitumour drug,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 67–78 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, I. C. Lee, Z. F. Lee, H. L. Liu, C. C. Wang, Y. C. Choia, H. Y. Chou, and J. D. Lee, “In vivo investigation of temporal effects and drug delivery induced by transdermal microneedles with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1865–1876 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Batalla, H. Cabrera, E. San Martín-Martínez, D. Korte, A. Calderón, and E. Marín, “Encapsulation efficiency of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by liposomes determined by thermal lens microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3898–3906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin, “Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 13(11), 813–827 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. M. Allen and P. R. Cullis, “Liposomal drug delivery systems: From concept to clinical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 65(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Hathout and M. Nasr, “Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 254–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. M. Andanson, K. L. A. Chan, and S. G. Kazarian, “High-Throughput Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Permeation Through the Skin,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(5), 512–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of Nanotechnology on Drug Delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, “Transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 26(11), 1261–1268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Transdermal skin delivery: Predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59(11), 1152–1161 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Nii and F. Ishii, “Encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble and insoluble drugs in liposomes prepared by the microencapsulation vesicle method,” Int. J. Pharm. 298(1), 198–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4(2), 145–160 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. R. Prausnitz, S. Mitragotri, and R. Langer, “Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3(2), 115–124 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. Sun, J. W. Su, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton polarization imaging of the stratum corneum and the dermis in ex-vivo human skin,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3377–3384 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Arifin and A. F. Palmer, “Determination of size distribution and encapsulation efficiency of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin blood substitutes using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle static light scattering,” Biotechnol. Prog. 19(6), 1798–1811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. J. Lawrence and G. D. Rees, “Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 45(1), 89–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Bos and M. M. H. M. Meinardi, “The 500 Dalton rule for the skin penetration of chemical compounds and drugs,” Exp. Dermatol. 9(3), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlberg, S.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberti, I.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexiev, U.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, T. M.

T. M. Allen and P. R. Cullis, “Liposomal drug delivery systems: From concept to clinical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 65(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alnasif, N.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andanson, J. M.

Angiboust, J. F.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arifin, D. R.

D. R. Arifin and A. F. Palmer, “Determination of size distribution and encapsulation efficiency of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin blood substitutes using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle static light scattering,” Biotechnol. Prog. 19(6), 1798–1811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avram, S.

Bagatolli, L. A.

D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balázs, B.

Batalla, J.

Belsey, N. A.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkó, S.

Binder, L.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biss, D. P.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blagus, T.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blankschtein, D.

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boreham, A.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bos, J. D.

J. D. Bos and M. M. H. M. Meinardi, “The 500 Dalton rule for the skin penetration of chemical compounds and drugs,” Exp. Dermatol. 9(3), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brivanlou, A. H.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodwolf, R.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budai-Szucs, M.

Cabrera, H.

Calderón, A.

Carrer, D. C.

D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cemazar, M.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, K. L. A.

Chen, Y. F.

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiu, W. S.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, C. S.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choia, Y. C.

Chou, H. Y.

Contreras-Rojas, L. R.

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cote, D.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Côté, D.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Csányi, E.

Cullis, P. R.

T. M. Allen and P. R. Cullis, “Liposomal drug delivery systems: From concept to clinical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 65(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danciu, C.

Darvin, M. E.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dehelean, C.

Delgado-Charro, M. B.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, J. W. Su, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton polarization imaging of the stratum corneum and the dermis in ex-vivo human skin,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3377–3384 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubertret, B.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eccleston, G. M.

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckl, K. M.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eros, G.

Essendoubi, M.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farokhzad, O. C.

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of Nanotechnology on Drug Delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, D. C.

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

Fleige, E.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fluhr, J. W.

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrett, N. L.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gobinet, C.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godin, B.

B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Transdermal skin delivery: Predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59(11), 1152–1161 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guy, R. H.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haag, R.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hadgraft, J.

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hathout, R. M.

R. M. Hathout and M. Nasr, “Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 254–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennies, H. C.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herkenne, C.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirata, K.

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoppel, M.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishii, F.

T. Nii and F. Ishii, “Encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble and insoluble drugs in liposomes prepared by the microencapsulation vesicle method,” Int. J. Pharm. 298(1), 198–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobi, U.

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jee, S. H.

Kählig, H.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalia, Y. N.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazarian, S. G.

Kim, P.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knorr, F.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korte, D.

Kosjek, T.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Küchler, S.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lademann, J.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, M. E.

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langer, R.

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of Nanotechnology on Drug Delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, “Transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 26(11), 1261–1268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Prausnitz, S. Mitragotri, and R. Langer, “Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3(2), 115–124 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawrence, M. J.

M. J. Lawrence and G. D. Rees, “Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 45(1), 89–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I. C.

Lee, J. D.

Lee, Z. F.

Libchaber, A.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. J.

Lindemann, U.

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. L.

Lo, W.

Mahrhauser, D.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marín, E.

Markelc, B.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martins, S.

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

Mathy, F. X.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meidan, V.

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinardi, M. M. H. M.

J. D. Bos and M. M. H. M. Meinardi, “The 500 Dalton rule for the skin penetration of chemical compounds and drugs,” Exp. Dermatol. 9(3), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinke, M. C.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merk, H. F.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miklavcic, D.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitragotri, S.

M. R. Prausnitz, S. Mitragotri, and R. Langer, “Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3(2), 115–124 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moger, J.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammed, D.

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moothanchery, M.

Naik, A.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nasr, M.

R. M. Hathout and M. Nasr, “Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 254–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, S. F.

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nii, T.

T. Nii and F. Ishii, “Encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble and insoluble drugs in liposomes prepared by the microencapsulation vesicle method,” Int. J. Pharm. 298(1), 198–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noireaux, V.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, A. F.

D. R. Arifin and A. F. Palmer, “Determination of size distribution and encapsulation efficiency of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin blood substitutes using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle static light scattering,” Biotechnol. Prog. 19(6), 1798–1811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickup-Gerlaugh, A. J.

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piot, O.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

Prausnitz, M. R.

M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, “Transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 26(11), 1261–1268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Prausnitz, S. Mitragotri, and R. Langer, “Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3(2), 115–124 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Preat, V.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Préat, V.

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, G. J.

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rees, G. D.

M. J. Lawrence and G. D. Rees, “Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 45(1), 89–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynaud, R.

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouse, J. J.

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rühl, E.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

San Martín-Martínez, E.

Sanderson, F. D.

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarmento, B.

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

Schaefer, H.

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer-Korting, M.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schanzer, S.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schöll, J.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeni, R. Z.

Sersa, G.

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipos, P.

Skourides, P.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soica, C.

Souto, E. B.

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

Spencer, J. A.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sterry, W.

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. W.

Sun, Y.

Surber, C.

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syring, F.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torchilin, V. P.

V. P. Torchilin, “Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 13(11), 813–827 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4(2), 145–160 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Touitou, E.

B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Transdermal skin delivery: Predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59(11), 1152–1161 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. T.

Tsai, T. H.

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tseng, T. Y.

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valenta, C.

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varju, G.

Veilleux, I.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vermehren, C.

D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. C.

Weigmann, H. J.

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilken, K.

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Yang, C. S.

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoschke, C.

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AAPS PharmSciTech (1)

S. F. Ng, J. J. Rouse, F. D. Sanderson, V. Meidan, and G. M. Eccleston, “Validation of a Static Franz Diffusion Cell System for In Vitro Permeation Studies,” AAPS PharmSciTech 11(3), 1432–1441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of Nanotechnology on Drug Delivery,” ACS Nano 3(1), 16–20 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (3)

T. M. Allen and P. R. Cullis, “Liposomal drug delivery systems: From concept to clinical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 65(1), 36–48 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Lawrence and G. D. Rees, “Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 45(1), 89–121 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Godin and E. Touitou, “Transdermal skin delivery: Predictions for humans from in vivo, ex vivo and animal models,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59(11), 1152–1161 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Y. Tseng, C. S. Yang, T. H. Tsai, Y. F. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 163702 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Biotechnol. Prog. (1)

D. R. Arifin and A. F. Palmer, “Determination of size distribution and encapsulation efficiency of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin blood substitutes using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle static light scattering,” Biotechnol. Prog. 19(6), 1798–1811 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces (1)

R. M. Hathout and M. Nasr, “Transdermal delivery of betahistine hydrochloride using microemulsions: physical characterization, biophysical assessment, confocal imaging and permeation studies,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 110, 254–260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. (2)

J. Lademann, U. Jacobi, C. Surber, H. J. Weigmann, and J. W. Fluhr, “The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 72(2), 317–323 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mahrhauser, M. Hoppel, J. Schöll, L. Binder, H. Kählig, and C. Valenta, “Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 88(1), 34–39 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

D. Mohammed, K. Hirata, J. Hadgraft, and M. E. Lane, “Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 118–122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Dermatol. (1)

J. D. Bos and M. M. H. M. Meinardi, “The 500 Dalton rule for the skin penetration of chemical compounds and drugs,” Exp. Dermatol. 9(3), 165–169 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ieee J Sel Top Quant (1)

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Nanomedicine (1)

S. Martins, B. Sarmento, D. C. Ferreira, and E. B. Souto, “Lipid-based colloidal carriers for peptide and protein delivery--liposomes versus lipid nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 2(4), 595–607 (2007).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Pharm. (1)

T. Nii and F. Ishii, “Encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble and insoluble drugs in liposomes prepared by the microencapsulation vesicle method,” Int. J. Pharm. 298(1), 198–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Lindemann, K. Wilken, H. J. Weigmann, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Quantification of the horny layer using tape stripping and microscopic techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 601–607 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, C. S. Choe, S. Ahlberg, M. C. Meinke, U. Alexiev, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Penetration of silver nanoparticles into porcine skin ex vivo using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, Raman microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 051006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (5)

T. Blagus, B. Markelc, M. Cemazar, T. Kosjek, V. Preat, D. Miklavcic, and G. Sersa, “In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 862–871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Carrer, C. Vermehren, and L. A. Bagatolli, “Pig skin structure and transdermal delivery of liposomes: a two photon microscopy study,” J. Control. Release 132(1), 12–20 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, A. J. Pickup-Gerlaugh, G. J. Price, J. Moger, and R. H. Guy, “Evaluation of drug delivery to intact and porated skin by coherent Raman scattering and fluorescence microscopies,” J. Control. Release 174, 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Alnasif, C. Zoschke, E. Fleige, R. Brodwolf, A. Boreham, E. Rühl, K. M. Eckl, H. F. Merk, H. C. Hennies, U. Alexiev, R. Haag, S. Küchler, and M. Schäfer-Korting, “Penetration of normal, damaged and diseased skin - An in vitro study on dendritic core-multishell nanotransporters,” J. Control. Release 185, 45–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Chiu, N. A. Belsey, N. L. Garrett, J. Moger, G. J. Price, M. B. Delgado-Charro, and R. H. Guy, “Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs,” J. Control. Release 220(A), 98–106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

B. Yu, C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, D. Blankschtein, and R. Langer, “In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 117(1), 16–25 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, “Transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 26(11), 1261–1268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (3)

M. R. Prausnitz, S. Mitragotri, and R. Langer, “Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 3(2), 115–124 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin, “Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 13(11), 813–827 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4(2), 145–160 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pharm. Res. (1)

C. Herkenne, I. Alberti, A. Naik, Y. N. Kalia, F. X. Mathy, V. Préat, and R. H. Guy, “In vivo methods for the assessment of topical drug bioavailability,” Pharm. Res. 25(1), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science 298(5599), 1759–1762 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. (1)

F. Syring, H. J. Weigmann, S. Schanzer, M. C. Meinke, F. Knorr, and J. Lademann, “Investigation of Model Sunscreen Formulations Comparing the Sun Protection Factor, the Universal Sun Protection Factor and the Radical Formation Ratio,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 29(1), 18–23 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

M. Essendoubi, C. Gobinet, R. Reynaud, J. F. Angiboust, M. Manfait, and O. Piot, “Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Skin Res. Technol. 22(1), 55–62 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of a custom-built laser-scanning two-photon microscopy for imaging of human skin sample. M, mirror; OBJ, Objective lens; SPF, single band pass filter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; BPF, band pass filter; PMT, photomultiplier tube. (b) Cryogenic electron microscopic image of DOTAP hybrid-type multi-lamellar nanostructure; DOTAP complex (left), and the photograph of human skin sample (right) prepared using a Franz cell diffusion system. (c) Representative images acquired from human skin samples after the application of free-form FITC-EGF and encapsulated FITC-EGF with general liposome and DOTAP complex. Scale bars: 100 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Representative sequential images of human skin samples at 12 hours after the application of free-form FITC-EGF, encapsulated FITC-EGF with general liposome or DOTAP complex. (b) Reconstructed images in XZ orthogonal view and 3D view. Scale bars: 50 μm. (c-d) Averaged normalized FITC-EGF signal intensity along the z-axis from surface to dermal layer of the human skin samples. (e) Penetration depth of FITC-EGF with different thresholds of 50, 20, 10, and 5% of fluorescence intensity measured at the skin surface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Representative sequential images of human skin samples at 24 hours after the application of free-form FITC-EGF, encapsulated FITC-EGF with general liposome or DOTAP complex. (b) Reconstructed images in XZ orthogonal view and 3D view. Scale bars: 50 μm. (c-d) Averaged normalized FITC-EGF signal intensity along the z-axis from surface to dermal layer of the human skin samples. (e) Penetration depth of FITC-EGF with different thresholds of 50, 20, 10, and 5% of fluorescence intensity measured at the skin surface.

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