Abstract

Optical coherence elastography (OCE), a functional extension of optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of biological tissue. A handheld fiber-optic OCE instrument will allow the clinician to conveniently interrogate the localized mechanical properties of in vivo tissue, leading to better informed clinical decision making. During handheld OCE characterization, the handheld probe is used to compress the sample and the displacement of the sample is quantified by analyzing the OCT signals acquired. However, the motion within the sample inevitably varies in time due to varying hand motion. Moreover, the motion speed depends on spatial location due to the sample deformation. Hence, there is a need for a robust motion tracking method for manual OCE measurement. In this study, we investigate a temporally and spatially adaptive Doppler analysis method. The method described here strategically chooses the time interval (δt) between signals involved in Doppler analysis to track the motion speed v(z,t) that varies temporally and spatially in a deformed sample volume under manual compression. Enabled by temporally and spatially adaptive Doppler analysis, we report the first demonstration of real-time manual OCE characterization of in vivo tissue to the best of our knowledge.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (5)

2015 (2)

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chavan, J. Mo, M. de Groot, A. Meijering, J. F. de Boer, and D. Iannuzzi, “Collecting optical coherence elastography depth profiles with a micromachined cantilever probe,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1476–1478 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2006 (2)

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2000 (2)

1998 (2)

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Aglyamov, S.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belfield, K. D.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liang, S. G. Adie, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14183–14190 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Canner, J. K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Céspedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandra, N.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavan, D.

Chen, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chester, S. A.

Chin, L.

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.-J.

Chudoba, C.

Cittadine, A. J.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Groot, M.

Duncan, D. D.

Ehman, R. L.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Es’haghian, S.

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gabrielson, E.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garra, B. S.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gehlbach, P.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, P.

Greenleaf, J. F.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, T.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.-H.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haorah, J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H. C.

Hillman, T. R.

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, D. Huang, Y. Su, and X. S. Yao, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26129–26145 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Hubbi, B.

Iannuzzi, D.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobs, L. K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

John, R.

Kallel, F.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. U.

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, B. F.

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ko, T.

Koh, S. H.

Krouskop, T. A.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latham, B.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Li, X.

X. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging needle for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(20), 1520–1522 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Lomas, D. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manapuram, R. K.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manduca, A.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

May Gonzalez, E. A.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meemon, P.

Meijering, A.

Mo, J.

Mujat, M.

Munro, P. R.

Muthupillai, R.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Parker, K. J.

Pfister, B. J.

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Y.

Quirk, B. C.

Renaud, D.

Rolland, J. P.

Rossman, P. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for tissue boundary detection,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2310–2312 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, X. Yang, R. W. Kirk, B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrathin side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3894–3896 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, X. Liang, B. F. Kennedy, R. John, D. D. Sampson, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25519–25534 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, R. A. McLaughlin, B. C. Quirk, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography using a ring actuator,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21762–21772 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

Saunders, C. M.

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawyer, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, E. B.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott Carney, P.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

Song, C. G.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tafra, L.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tien, A.

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, K.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Twa, M. D.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vantipalli, S.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wheeler, T. M.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijesinghe, P.

Xiang, S.

Xu, Y.

Yang, C.

Yang, X.

Yao, J.

Yao, X. S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Céspedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 111–134 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S.-H.

Zaki, F.

Zaki, F. R.

Zhang, K.

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Y.

Zvietcovich, F.

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

A. M. Zysk, K. Chen, E. Gabrielson, L. Tafra, E. A. May Gonzalez, J. K. Canner, E. B. Schneider, A. J. Cittadine, P. Scott Carney, S. A. Boppart, K. Tsuchiya, K. Sawyer, and L. K. Jacobs, “Intraoperative assessment of final margins with a handheld optical imaging probe during breast-conserving surgery may reduce the reoperation rate: Results of a multicenter study,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 22(10), 3356–3362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qiu, Y. Wang, K. D. Belfield, and X. Liu, “Ultrathin lensed fiber-optic probe for optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2154–2162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qiu, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, N. Chandra, J. Haorah, B. Hubbi, B. J. Pfister, and X. Liu, “Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe for in situ measurement of tissue mechanical properties,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(2), 688–700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qiu, F. R. Zaki, N. Chandra, S. A. Chester, and X. Liu, “Nonlinear characterization of elasticity using quantitative optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4702–4710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. U. Kang, J.-H. Han, X. Liu, K. Zhang, C. G. Song, and P. Gehlbach, “Endoscopic functional Fourier domain common-path optical coherence tomography for microsurgery,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 781–792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. M. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, B. F. Kennedy, A. Tien, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Wang, K. V. Larin, J. Li, S. Vantipalli, R. K. Manapuram, S. Aglyamov, S. Emelianov, and M. D. Twa, “A focused air-pulse system for optical-coherence-tomography-based measurements of tissue elasticity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(7), 075605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

X. Liang, S. G. Adie, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamic spectral-domain optical coherence elastography for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14183–14190 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Sci. Rep. (1)

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Ultrason. Imaging (2)

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Other (1)

Y.-c. Fung, Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Visualization 1 shows the displacement field tracked by performing Doppler analysis on signals with adaptive time interval during the compression process.
» Visualization 2       Visualization 2 shows the displacement field tracked by performing Doppler analysis on signals with large time interval during the compression process.
» Visualization 3       Visualization 3 shows the displacement field tracked by performing Doppler analysis on signals with small time interval during the compression process.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of depth resolved displacement for a sample with different stiffness at different depth. Here, ε1 < ε2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) demonstrate adaptive selection of time intervals for Doppler analysis: (a) Time intervals used to calculate Doppler phase shift for the same A-scan (mth A-scan) are different for pixels at different depth (1st pixel and kth pixel); (b) Time intervals used to calculate Doppler phase shift for the same pixel in different A-scans are different (1st pixel in the mth A-scan and in the qth A-scan and kth pixel in the mth A-scan and in the qth A-scan); (c) time interval remains the same for conventional Doppler analysis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Block diagram for adaptive Doppler analysis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Benchtop setup for experimental validation of the method for adaptive Doppler analysis; (b) fiber optic probe for handheld OCE characterization.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Doppler phase shift (a) and phase noise (b) obtained from the sample at the same depth with different motor translation speeds; Doppler phase shift (c) and phase noise (d) obtained from the sample at the different depths with the same motor translation speed.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Depth resolved displacement (a) obtained with different motor speeds and the same time interval (δt = ΔT0, where T0 = 16μs and Δ = 50) for Doppler analysis; (b) obtained with the same motor speed (vmotor = 0.25mm/s) and different time intervals for Doppler analysis.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Adaptive time interval (δt(z) = Δ(z)T0) selected for a sample under compression.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Depth resolved displacements obtained through adaptive Doppler analysis when different values of W were used to determine the time interval according to Eq. (9).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Depth resolved displacement extracted through adaptive Doppler analysis, (a) with the motor translated at the same speed for different displacements; (b) with the motor translated at different speeds for the same displacement.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Depth resolved displacement extracted from manual compression process with adaptive (red), large (blue) and small (black) time intervals between A-scans involved in Doppler analysis (see Visualization 1, Visualization 2 and Visualization 3).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Displacement (blue) obtained from adaptive Doppler tracking and magnitude OCT signal (red) of Sample 1; (b) displacement (blue) obtained from adaptive Doppler tracking and magnitude OCT signal (red) of Sample 2.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) in vivo OCT image of diseased skin at the back of the hand; (b) in vivo OCT image of normal skin at the back of the hand; (c) displacement measured through adaptive Doppler analysis of OCT signal for diseased skin and normal skin; (d) in vivo OCT image of fingertip skin; (e) in vivo OCT image of forearm skin; (f) displacement measured through adaptive Doppler analysis of OCT signal for fingertip skin and forearm skin. Scale bars represent 500μm.

Equations (9)

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ε( z )= d dz [ δL( z ) ]
δ ϕ k,m =4π v k,m δt λ 0 =4π v k,m Δ k,m T 0 λ 0
δ ϕ ^ k,m =atan[ Im( I k,m * I k,m+ Δ k,m ) Re( I k,m * I k,m+ Δ k,m ) ]
δ ϕ ^ k,m =δ ϕ k,m N k,m π+ n k,m
δ L ^ k =δ L k m=1 M ( λ 0 4 Δ k,m N k,m ) + m=1 M ( λ 0 4π Δ k,m n k,m )
Var( n k,m )=β 1 SNR
Var( δ L k )= m=1 M ( λ 0 4π Δ k,m ) 2 Var( n k,m )
Δ k,m λ 0 8 v k,m T 0
Δ k,m = π M 0 | 2W j=1 M 0 ( δ φ ^ k,j+( i1 ) M 0 ) |

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