Abstract

The objective quantification of photoreceptor loss in inherited retinal degenerations (IRD) is essential for measuring disease progression, and is now especially important with the growing number of clinical trials. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technology widely used to recognize and quantify such anomalies. Here, we implement a versatile method based on a convolutional neural network to segment the regions of preserved photoreceptors in two different IRDs (choroideremia and retinitis pigmentosa) from OCT images. An excellent segmentation accuracy (~90%) was achieved for both IRDs. Due to the flexibility of this technique, it has potential to be extended to additional IRDs in the future.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

2016 (8)

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yung, M. A. Klufas, and D. Sarraf, “Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease,” Int J Retina Vitreous 2(1), 12 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina 31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Goodwin, “Hereditary retinal disease,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19(3), 255–262 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. J. Francis, “Genetics of inherited retinal disease,” J. R. Soc. Med. 99(4), 189–191 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Sitorus, M. Preising, and B. Lorenz, “Causes of blindness at the ‘Wiyata Guna’ School for the Blind, Indonesia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(9), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allikmets, R.

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almarcegui, C.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Avila-Fernandez, A.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayuso, C.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Baumann, B.

Birch, D. G.

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco-Kelly, F.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Camino, A.

Carroll, J.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravarthy, U.

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chew, E. Y.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemons, T. E.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corton, M.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. B.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuenca, N.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cunefare, D.

Curcio, C. A.

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina 31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolz, I.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Downes, S. M.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, Q.

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duncan, J. L.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, T. L.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, L.

Farsiu, S.

L. Fang, D. Cunefare, C. Wang, R. H. Guymer, S. Li, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of nine retinal layer boundaries in OCT images of non-exudative AMD patients using deep learning and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2732–2744 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, G. A.

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

Francis, P. J.

P. J. Francis, “Genetics of inherited retinal disease,” J. R. Soc. Med. 99(4), 189–191 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedlander, M.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuertes, I.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, E.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
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Garcia-Hoyos, M.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
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Garcia-Martin, E.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Garcia-Sandoval, B.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
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Genead, M. A.

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
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Gimenez, A.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
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Godara, P.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
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Goodwin, P.

P. Goodwin, “Hereditary retinal disease,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19(3), 255–262 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groppe, M.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guymer, R. H.

Hagag, A. M.

R. Zhao, A. Camino, J. Wang, A. M. Hagag, Y. Lu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated drusen detection in dry age-related macular degeneration by multiple-depth, en face optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5049–5064 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Haim, M.

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hauch, A.-M.

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Z. Wang, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of photoreceptor disruption in mild diabetic retinopathy on volumetric optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5384–5398 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, A. Camino, J. Wang, A. M. Hagag, Y. Lu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated drusen detection in dry age-related macular degeneration by multiple-depth, en face optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5049–5064 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Hwang, T. S.

Jaffe, G. J.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffe, S. J.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, N.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Z. Wang, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of photoreceptor disruption in mild diabetic retinopathy on volumetric optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5384–5398 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, A. Camino, J. Wang, A. M. Hagag, Y. Lu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated drusen detection in dry age-related macular degeneration by multiple-depth, en face optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5049–5064 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Jolly, J. K.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalatzis, V.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klufas, M. A.

M. Yung, M. A. Klufas, and D. Sarraf, “Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease,” Int J Retina Vitreous 2(1), 12 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kurimoto, M.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lad, E. M.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Li, H.

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

Liu, G.

A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Locke, K.

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Martinez, M. A.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Molina, M. I.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorda, I.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenz, B.

R. Sitorus, M. Preising, and B. Lorenz, “Causes of blindness at the ‘Wiyata Guna’ School for the Blind, Indonesia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(9), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Luo, X.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDonald, I. M.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacLaren, R. E.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makiyama, Y.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayer, M. A.

Mukherjee, D.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, S.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogino, K.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oishi, A.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldani, M.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parving, A.

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

Pennesi, M. E.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Perez-Carro, R.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinilla, I.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Preising, M.

R. Sitorus, M. Preising, and B. Lorenz, “Causes of blindness at the ‘Wiyata Guna’ School for the Blind, Indonesia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(9), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratnam, K.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riveiro-Alvarez, R.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivolta, C.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, L.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Mena, D.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Roorda, A.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, T.

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S.

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Alcudia, R.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Bolivar, N.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sancho, E.

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sarraf, D.

M. Yung, M. A. Klufas, and D. Sarraf, “Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease,” Int J Retina Vitreous 2(1), 12 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, F.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sitorus, R.

R. Sitorus, M. Preising, and B. Lorenz, “Causes of blindness at the ‘Wiyata Guna’ School for the Blind, Indonesia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(9), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaide, R. F.

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide and C. A. Curcio, “Anatomical correlates to the bands seen in the outer retina by optical coherence tomography: literature review and model,” Retina 31(8), 1609–1619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staurenghi, G.

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepien, K. E.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, E. M.

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Sundquist, S. M.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syed, R.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Tian, B.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

Torriano, S.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trujillo-Tiebas, M. J.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vann, R. R.

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villaverde, C.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, F.

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of photoreceptor disruption in mild diabetic retinopathy on volumetric optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5384–5398 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Weleber, R. G.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Wen, Y.

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Xiang, D.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, K.

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, N.

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yung, M.

M. Yung, M. A. Klufas, and D. Sarraf, “Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease,” Int J Retina Vitreous 2(1), 12 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayit-Soudry, S.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, X.

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, R.

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurita, O.

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fang, D. Cunefare, C. Wang, R. H. Guymer, S. Li, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of nine retinal layer boundaries in OCT images of non-exudative AMD patients using deep learning and graph search,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2732–2744 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camino, Y. Jia, G. Liu, J. Wang, and D. Huang, “Regression-based algorithm for bulk motion subtraction in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 3053–3066 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, A. Camino, J. Wang, A. M. Hagag, Y. Lu, S. T. Bailey, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated drusen detection in dry age-related macular degeneration by multiple-depth, en face optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5049–5064 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Camino, M. Zhang, J. Wang, T. S. Hwang, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of photoreceptor disruption in mild diabetic retinopathy on volumetric optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5384–5398 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. Sitorus, M. Preising, and B. Lorenz, “Causes of blindness at the ‘Wiyata Guna’ School for the Blind, Indonesia,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87(9), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Genet. (1)

T. Rosenberg, M. Haim, A.-M. Hauch, and A. Parving, “The prevalence of Usher syndrome and other retinal dystrophy-hearing impairment associations,” Clin. Genet. 51(5), 314–321 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. Goodwin, “Hereditary retinal disease,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19(3), 255–262 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int J Retina Vitreous (1)

M. Yung, M. A. Klufas, and D. Sarraf, “Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal disease,” Int J Retina Vitreous 2(1), 12 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

R. Syed, S. M. Sundquist, K. Ratnam, S. Zayit-Soudry, Y. Zhang, J. B. Crawford, I. M. MacDonald, P. Godara, J. Rha, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, K. E. Stepien, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution images of retinal structure in patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(2), 950–961 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Genead, G. A. Fishman, E. M. Stone, and R. Allikmets, “The natural history of Stargardt disease with specific sequence mutation in the ABCA4 Gene,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5867–5871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Birch, Y. Wen, K. Locke, and D. C. Hood, “Rod sensitivity, cone sensitivity, and photoreceptor layer thickness in retinal degenerative diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7141–7147 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mukherjee, E. M. Lad, R. R. Vann, S. J. Jaffe, T. E. Clemons, M. Friedlander, E. Y. Chew, G. J. Jaffe, S. Farsiu, and MacTel Study Group, “Correlation between macular integrity assessment and optical coherence tomography imaging of ellipsoid zone in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO291 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Xue, M. Oldani, J. K. Jolly, T. L. Edwards, M. Groppe, S. M. Downes, and R. E. MacLaren, “Correlation of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the outer retina and choroid of patients with choroideremia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3674–3684 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Soc. Med. (1)

P. J. Francis, “Genetics of inherited retinal disease,” J. R. Soc. Med. 99(4), 189–191 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Ophthalmol. (2)

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jain, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, X. Zhang, R. G. Weleber, D. Huang, and M. E. Pennesi, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in choroideremia: correlating choriocapillaris loss with overlying degeneration,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134(6), 697–702 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medicine (Baltimore) (1)

G. Liu, H. Li, X. Liu, D. Xu, and F. Wang, “Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(52), e5785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Res. (1)

G. Liu, X. Liu, H. Li, Q. Du, and F. Wang, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients,” Ophthalmic Res. 56(3), 111–122 (2016).
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Ophthalmology (2)

A. Oishi, K. Ogino, Y. Makiyama, S. Nakagawa, M. Kurimoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging of retinitis pigmentosa,” Ophthalmology 120(9), 1827–1834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Staurenghi, S. Sadda, U. Chakravarthy, and R. F. Spaide, “Proposed lexicon for anatomic landmarks in normal posterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(8), 1572–1578 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS One (1)

R. Sanchez-Alcudia, M. Garcia-Hoyos, M. A. Lopez-Martinez, N. Sanchez-Bolivar, O. Zurita, A. Gimenez, C. Villaverde, L. Rodrigues-Jacy da Silva, M. Corton, R. Perez-Carro, S. Torriano, V. Kalatzis, C. Rivolta, A. Avila-Fernandez, I. Lorda, M. J. Trujillo-Tiebas, B. Garcia-Sandoval, M. I. Lopez-Molina, F. Blanco-Kelly, R. Riveiro-Alvarez, and C. Ayuso, “A comprehensive analysis of choroideremia: from genetic characterization to clinical practice,” PLoS One 11(4), e0151943 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Retina (2)

E. Garcia-Martin, I. Pinilla, E. Sancho, C. Almarcegui, I. Dolz, D. Rodriguez-Mena, I. Fuertes, and N. Cuenca, “Optical coherence tomography in retinitis pigmentosa: reproducibility and capacity to detect macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness alterations,” Retina 32(8), 1581–1591 (2012).
[PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Zhu, H. Chen, H. Zhao, B. Tian, L. Wang, F. Shi, D. Xiang, X. Luo, E. Gao, L. Zhang, Y. Yin, and X. Chen, “Automatic three-dimensional detection of photoreceptor ellipsoid zone disruption caused by trauma in the OCT,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25433 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Z. Wang, A. Camino, A. M. Hagag, J. Wang, R. G. Weleber, P. Yang, M. E. Pennesi, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated detection of preserved photoreceptor layer on optical coherence tomography in choroideremia based on machine learning,” J. Biophotonics, doi:.
[Crossref]

A. Vedaldi and K. Lenc, “MatConvNet: Convolutional Neural Networks for MATLAB,” in Proceedings of the 23rd ACM international conference on Multimedia, (ACM, Brisbane, Australia, 2015), pp. 689–692.
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flow chart of the preserved ellipsoid zone detection algorithm. Patches from B-scans containing the ellipsoid zone region are used to train convolutional neural network (CNN) for classification of each patch’s central A-line position as preserved or loss of photoreceptors. BM – Bruch’s membrane
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Correction of shadow artifacts cast by large vessels onto outer retinal layers. A representative B-scan (A) is segmented at the Bruch’s membrane (BM) and a segment between the BM and the C-scan located 33 pixels above the BM is generated (B). Shadow artifacts (red arrows) are corrected in (C) by averaging values in the vicinity within a circle of 10-pixel radius not contained in the large vessel mask (D). The dashed white line in (D) indicates the position of the representative B-scan.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The thickness maps between EZ and Bruch membrane of three retinitis pigmentosa subjects (A-C) and their corresponding manual grading (D-F). EZ – ellipsoid zone. G represents a B-scan example with total EZ loss. H represents a B-scan example with only peripheral EZ loss. Pink line is the Bruch’s membrane. Blue line is the upper EZ boundary.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The en face mean projection of the reflectance values within the 8-pixel-width slab for three choroideremia subjects (A-C) and their corresponding manual grading (D-F). Green line in representative B-scan in G and H represent the Bruch’s membrane segmentation. Dashed lines in H represent the slab defined for en face projection.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Patch extraction process. Patches of size 33 × 33 pixels are extracted from segments generated in Fig. 2(C) in order to train the CNN. Each patch is classified as ellipsoid zone (EZ) loss or preserved EZ, according to the manual grading assigned to the position (x, y) of its central A-line, indicated by black arrows. Preserved EZ patches show two distinct hyper-reflective boundaries: EZ and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Partially preserved and completely preserved EZ were assigned the same label on training stage.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of the convolutional neural network patch classification framework. Three convolutional layers with ReLU activation, three pooling layers and two fully connected layers are stacked together and trained with labeled patches of B-scan segments from the choroideremia and retinitis pigmentosa data sets separately.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Preserved ellipsoid zone areas detected automatically by the deep learning method and their correspondence with manual segmentation for 4 subjects with retinitis pigmentosa. Areas in white show agreement between manual segmentation and the CNN classifier, whereas areas in green are false negatives and areas in purple are false positives.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Preserved ellipsoid zone areas detected automatically by the deep learning method and their correspondence with manual segmentation for 4 subjects with choroideremia. Areas in white show agreement between manual segmentation and the CNN classifier, whereas areas in green are false negatives and areas in purple are false positives.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Effect of large vessel shadow artifacts on the accuracy of CNN patch-wise classifier in normal data. (A) shows the en-face projection of the rectangular section selected above the Bruch’s membrane. Shadow artifacts caused by absorption of superficial large vessels artifacts are evident. The CNN probabilistic images generated without rectifying shadow artifacts (B) and rectifying shadows (C) were generated and yellow boxes mark the regions where classification accuracy was improved. (D1-D4) show the classification results for the remaining four healthy subjects training with the retinitis pigmentosa data set and (E1-E4) show the classification results for the same subjects training with the choroideremia data set.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Case with the greatest difference in ellipsoid zone area between the CNN algorithm and manual grading. A is the probability image of the CNN output; B is the comparison of automatic and manual results, the areas in green are false negatives and areas in purple are false positives; C is the B-scan image in the dashed line position.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Examples of en face projections of the choroideremia cases that illustrate the challenges of manually segmenting the outer retinal tubulations. Isolated areas possibly caused by vanishing tubulations (blue arrows) are numerous, of small size and scattered over the whole scanning area. They are difficult to segment manually and likely responsible of misclassifications when included in the gold standard. Some tubulations have dark appearance within the boundaries apparent to a human grader (yellow arrows). Such patches exhibit an appearance very different to the typical preserved EZ patch observed in Fig. 5.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison of the contrast between preserved EZ and EZ loss in en face vs cross-sectional images in choroideremia (A) and retinitis pigmentosa (B). Dashed lines indicate the positions at which 33-pixel-width sections of B-scans above the Bruch’s membrane are extracted, which are represented enclosed in yellow and orange boxes. Manual segmentation of the boundary between the two classes can be performed with better confidence from the en face projection (choroideremia) or thickness map (retinitis pigmentosa) compared to the B-scan sections.

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