Abstract

There is currently no low-cost method to quantitatively assess the contents of a blood bag without breaching the bag and potentially damaging the sample. Towards this end, we adapt oblique back-illumination microscopy (OBM) to rapidly, inexpensively, and non-invasively screen blood bags for red blood cell (RBC) morphology and white blood cell (WBC) count. OBM has been recently introduced as a tomographic technique that produces high-resolution wide-field images based on phase-gradient and transmission. Here we modify this technique to include illumination at dual wavelengths to facilitate spectral analysis for cell classification. Further, we apply a modified 2D Hilbert transform to recover the phase information from the phase-gradient images for facile cell segmentation. Blood cells are classified as WBCs and RBCs, and counted based on shape, absorption spectrum, and phase profile using an automated algorithm. This work has important implications for the non-invasive assessment of (1) cell viability in storage bags for transfusion applications and (2) suitability of a cord blood collection bag for stem cell therapy applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

A. Tamada and M. Igarashi, “Revealing chiral cell motility by 3D Riesz transform-differential interference contrast microscopy and computational kinematic analysis,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

L. Tian and L. Waller, “Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope,” Opt. Express 23, 11394 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. N. Rich, “Improving Quality and Potency Testing for Umbilical Cord Blood: A New Perspective,” Stem Cells Transl. Med. 4, 967–973 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

I. Moon, F. Yi, Y. H. Lee, B. Javidi, D. Boss, and P. Marquet, “Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods,” Opt. Express 21, 30947 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. Methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Gluckman and V. Rocha, “History of the clinical use of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells,” Cytotherapy 7, 219–227 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

C. Preza, “Rotational-diversity phase estimation from differential-interference-contrast microscopy images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 415 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. B. Segel, G. R. Cokelet, and M. A. Lichtman, “The measurement of lymphocyte volume: importance of reference particle deformability and counting solution tonicity,” Blood 57, 894–899 (1981).
[PubMed]

1974 (2)

D. English and B. R. Andersen, “Single-step separation of red blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes on discontinuous density gradients of Ficoll-Hypaque,” J. Immunol. Methods 5, 249–252 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Mansberg, A. M. Saunders, and W. Groner, “The Hemalog D White Cell Differential System,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 711–724 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

A. Hradin, R. I. Weed, and C. F. Reed, “Changes in Physical Properties of Stored Erthrocytes,” Transfus 9, 229–237 (1969).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

1935 (1)

C. P. Saylor, “Accuracy of Microscopical Methods for Determining Refractive Index by Immersion,” Part J. Res. Natl. Bureau Standards 15, 277–294 (1935).
[Crossref]

Allan, D.

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

Andersen, B. R.

D. English and B. R. Andersen, “Single-step separation of red blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes on discontinuous density gradients of Ficoll-Hypaque,” J. Immunol. Methods 5, 249–252 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armitage, S.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balabanova, S.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Bart, T.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Berger, B. J.

C. C. Chernecky and B. J. Berger, Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

Blasi, B.

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bone, D. J.

Boo, M.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Boss, D.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Moon, F. Yi, Y. H. Lee, B. Javidi, D. Boss, and P. Marquet, “Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods,” Opt. Express 21, 30947 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bracewell, R. N. R. N.

R. N. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier transform and its applications (McGraw Hill, 2000).

Chapman, C.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chernecky, C. C.

C. C. Chernecky and B. J. Berger, Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

Chu, K. K.

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. Methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yi, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Graded-field microscopy with white light,” Opt. Express 14, 5191 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cogswell, C. J.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cokelet, G. R.

G. B. Segel, G. R. Cokelet, and M. A. Lichtman, “The measurement of lymphocyte volume: importance of reference particle deformability and counting solution tonicity,” Blood 57, 894–899 (1981).
[PubMed]

Contreras, M.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cotte, Y.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

D’Alessandro, A.

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

David Giese, J.

Depeursinge, C.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dickinson, A.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ding, H.

Elmoazzen, H.

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

English, D.

D. English and B. R. Andersen, “Single-step separation of red blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes on discontinuous density gradients of Ficoll-Hypaque,” J. Immunol. Methods 5, 249–252 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Fehily, D.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fekete, P. W.

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, Y.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, P. A.

Foeken, L.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Ford, T. N.

J. David Giese, T. N. Ford, and J. Mertz, “Fast volumetric phase-gradient imaging in thick samples,” Opt. Express 22, 1152 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. Methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladwin, M. T.

D. B. Kim-Shapiro, J. Lee, and M. T. Gladwin, “Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown,” Transfus 51, 844–851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Glenn, R.

Gluckman, E.

E. Gluckman and V. Rocha, “History of the clinical use of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells,” Cytotherapy 7, 219–227 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grignani, F.

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groner, W.

H. P. Mansberg, A. M. Saunders, and W. Groner, “The Hemalog D White Cell Differential System,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 711–724 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horstmeyer, R.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hradin, A.

A. Hradin, R. I. Weed, and C. F. Reed, “Changes in Physical Properties of Stored Erthrocytes,” Transfus 9, 229–237 (1969).
[Crossref]

Igarashi, M.

A. Tamada and M. Igarashi, “Revealing chiral cell motility by 3D Riesz transform-differential interference contrast microscopy and computational kinematic analysis,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

Jourdain, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim-Shapiro, D. B.

D. B. Kim-Shapiro, J. Lee, and M. T. Gladwin, “Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown,” Transfus 51, 844–851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kindler, V.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Kurtzberg, J.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Larkin, K. G.

K. G. Larkin and P. A. Fletcher, “Isotropic scalar image visualization of vector differential image data using the inverse Riesz transform,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 907 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Larkin, D. J. Bone, and M. A. Oldfield, “Natural demodulation of two-dimensional fringe patterns I General background of the spiral phase quadrature transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1862 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latimer, P.

Lee, J.

D. B. Kim-Shapiro, J. Lee, and M. T. Gladwin, “Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown,” Transfus 51, 844–851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, X.

Lichtman, M. A.

G. B. Segel, G. R. Cokelet, and M. A. Lichtman, “The measurement of lymphocyte volume: importance of reference particle deformability and counting solution tonicity,” Blood 57, 894–899 (1981).
[PubMed]

Lim, J.

MacRae, R. A.

Magistretti, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mansberg, H. P.

H. P. Mansberg, A. M. Saunders, and W. Groner, “The Hemalog D White Cell Differential System,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 711–724 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Moon, F. Yi, Y. H. Lee, B. Javidi, D. Boss, and P. Marquet, “Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods,” Opt. Express 21, 30947 (2013).
[Crossref]

McClure, J. A.

Mehta, S. B.

Mertz, J.

Migliorati, G.

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mir, M.

Moon, I.

Murashova, G. A.

Navarrete, C.

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nicoletti, I.

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicoloso, G.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Oldfield, M. A.

Osseiran, S.

Oudshoorn, M.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Pagliacci, M.

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passweg, J.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Pavillon, N.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petraszko, T.

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

Popescu, G.

Preza, C.

Price, T.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramchandran, K.

Ramundo, N.

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, C. F.

A. Hradin, R. I. Weed, and C. F. Reed, “Changes in Physical Properties of Stored Erthrocytes,” Transfus 9, 229–237 (1969).
[Crossref]

Regan, D.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Riccardi, C.

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rich, I. N.

I. N. Rich, “Improving Quality and Potency Testing for Umbilical Cord Blood: A New Perspective,” Stem Cells Transl. Med. 4, 967–973 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocha, V.

E. Gluckman and V. Rocha, “History of the clinical use of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells,” Cytotherapy 7, 219–227 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, A. M.

H. P. Mansberg, A. M. Saunders, and W. Groner, “The Hemalog D White Cell Differential System,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 711–724 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saylor, C. P.

C. P. Saylor, “Accuracy of Microscopical Methods for Determining Refractive Index by Immersion,” Part J. Res. Natl. Bureau Standards 15, 277–294 (1935).
[Crossref]

Saytashev, I.

Schwabe, R.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Segel, G. B.

G. B. Segel, G. R. Cokelet, and M. A. Lichtman, “The measurement of lymphocyte volume: importance of reference particle deformability and counting solution tonicity,” Blood 57, 894–899 (1981).
[PubMed]

Shapiro, H. M. H. M.

H. M. H. M. Shapiro, Practical flow cytometry (Wiley-Liss, 2003).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

S. B. Mehta and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Quantitative phase-gradient imaging at high resolution with asymmetric illumination-based differential phase contrast,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1924 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shpall, E. J.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S.

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

Spence, D.

Tamada, A.

A. Tamada and M. Igarashi, “Revealing chiral cell motility by 3D Riesz transform-differential interference contrast microscopy and computational kinematic analysis,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tangella, K.

Tian, L.

Tichelli, A.

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

Toy, F.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waller, L.

Warren, W. S.

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weed, R. I.

A. Hradin, R. I. Weed, and C. F. Reed, “Changes in Physical Properties of Stored Erthrocytes,” Transfus 9, 229–237 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. W.

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, F.

Yi, R.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

Zolla, L.

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Blood (1)

G. B. Segel, G. R. Cokelet, and M. A. Lichtman, “The measurement of lymphocyte volume: importance of reference particle deformability and counting solution tonicity,” Blood 57, 894–899 (1981).
[PubMed]

Bone Marrow Transpl. (1)

S. Armitage, D. Fehily, A. Dickinson, C. Chapman, C. Navarrete, and M. Contreras, “Cord blood banking: volume reduction of cord blood units using a semi-automated closed system,” Bone Marrow Transpl. 23, 505–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cytotherapy (1)

E. Gluckman and V. Rocha, “History of the clinical use of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells,” Cytotherapy 7, 219–227 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

F. E. Robles, J. W. Wilson, and W. S. Warren, “Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 120502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1)

H. P. Mansberg, A. M. Saunders, and W. Groner, “The Hemalog D White Cell Differential System,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 711–724 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Immunol. Methods (2)

D. English and B. R. Andersen, “Single-step separation of red blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes on discontinuous density gradients of Ficoll-Hypaque,” J. Immunol. Methods 5, 249–252 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Nicoletti, G. Migliorati, M. Pagliacci, F. Grignani, and C. Riccardi, “A rapid and simple method for measuring thymocyte apoptosis by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry,” J. Immunol. Methods 139, 271–279 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (2)

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199, 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214, 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Tamada and M. Igarashi, “Revealing chiral cell motility by 3D Riesz transform-differential interference contrast microscopy and computational kinematic analysis,” Nat. Commun. 8, 2194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nat. Methods 9, 1195–1197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Part J. Res. Natl. Bureau Standards (1)

C. P. Saylor, “Accuracy of Microscopical Methods for Determining Refractive Index by Immersion,” Part J. Res. Natl. Bureau Standards 15, 277–294 (1935).
[Crossref]

Stem Cells Int. (1)

D. Allan, T. Petraszko, H. Elmoazzen, and S. Smith, “A review of factors influencing the banking of collected umbilical cord blood units,” Stem Cells Int. 2013, 463031 (2013).

Stem Cells Transl. Med. (1)

I. N. Rich, “Improving Quality and Potency Testing for Umbilical Cord Blood: A New Perspective,” Stem Cells Transl. Med. 4, 967–973 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transfus (2)

D. B. Kim-Shapiro, J. Lee, and M. T. Gladwin, “Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown,” Transfus 51, 844–851 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Hradin, R. I. Weed, and C. F. Reed, “Changes in Physical Properties of Stored Erthrocytes,” Transfus 9, 229–237 (1969).
[Crossref]

Transfus. Med. (1)

B. Blasi, A. D’Alessandro, N. Ramundo, and L. Zolla, “Red blood cell storage and cell morphology,” Transfus. Med. 22, 90–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

T. Bart, M. Boo, S. Balabanova, Y. Fischer, G. Nicoloso, L. Foeken, M. Oudshoorn, J. Passweg, A. Tichelli, V. Kindler, J. Kurtzberg, T. Price, D. Regan, E. J. Shpall, and R. Schwabe, “Impact of selection of cord blood units from the united states and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations,” Transfus. Med. Hemotherapy (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chernecky and B. J. Berger, Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures (Elsevier/Saunders, 2013).

Student, “On the Error of Counting with a Haemacytometer,” Biometrika.5, 351 (1907).
[Crossref]

H. M. H. M. Shapiro, Practical flow cytometry (Wiley-Liss, 2003).
[Crossref]

R. N. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier transform and its applications (McGraw Hill, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) OBM schematic. Light epi-illuminated into the sample from two sets of two diametrically opposed LEDs enters the blood bag and is redirected into the imaging plane from the trans-direction through multiple scattering. (a Inset) Overhead diagram of objective adapter indicating LED orientation. (b) The LED fiber coupling scaffold. (c) Blood bag that is placed over the glass slide on the platform. (d) A 3D printed housing for the fibers fits snugly onto the objective below the imaging stage. (e) The inverted microscope and platform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An OBM image of mononuclear cell layer on a coverslip with green illumination in (a) transmission and (b) phase gradient and (c) phase.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OBM images of red (a) transmission, (b) phase gradient, (c) phase. (d)–(f) Corresponding green images. (g)–(l) Enlarged images of a WBC in the corresponding contrast method in (g)–(i) red and (j)–(l) green
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Heat map of cross-correlation detection of (a) red phase gradient and (b) green phase image. Candidate cells are found in regions around values that exceed a threshold. Inset on the heat map are the corresponding WBC images used as kernels in the cross-correlation detection. (c) Region with WBC candidate overlaid onto the green phase image (see Fig. 3(f)). The cells with both the red and green circles are selected as candidates for transmission (2nd stage) analysis.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The transmission stage of detection. (a) The green phase image with candidate cells highlighted in color (b) scatter of green versus red transmission of each detected cell. The points with candidate cells are given the same corresponding color as the overlay. The cells identified by eye to be WBCs (arrows, left), are correctly selected by their characteristic transmission (arrows, right). The dotted line in (b) indicates the cutoff distance beyond which candidate cells are determined to be WBCs.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x ) x f ( x ) d x = f ( x ) u ( x x ) d x
I ( x ) = F 1 [ F ( ω ) U ( ω ) ] = F 1 [ ( 1 i ω ) + π δ ( ω ) ) F ( ω ) ] ,
H [ f ( x ) ] = 1 π f ( x ) d x x x = v ( x ) * f ( x ) ,
H { f ( x ) } = F 1 [ F ( ω ) V ( ω ) ] = F 1 [ ( i sgn ( ω ) ) F ( ω ) ] ,
U ( ω ) = π δ ( ω ) i ω
V ( ω ) = i sgn ( ω ) .
| U ( ω ) | = ω 1 U ( ω ) = π 2 sgn ( ω ) , ω 0
| V ( ω ) | = 1 V ( ω ) = π 2 sgn ( ω ) , ω 0 .

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