Abstract

We present an in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy based method for large 3D reconstruction of the cornea on a cellular level with cropped volume sizes up to 266 x 286 x 396 µm3. The microscope objective used is equipped with a piezo actuator for automated, fast and precise closed-loop focal plane control. Furthermore, we present a novel concave surface contact cap, which significantly reduces eye movements by up to 87%, hence increasing the overlapping image area of the whole stack. This increases the cuboid volume of the generated 3D reconstruction significantly. The possibility to generate oblique sections using isotropic volume stacks opens the window to slit lamp microscopy on a cellular level.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. D. Twa and M. J. Giese, “Assessment of Corneal Thickness and Keratocyte Density in a Rabbit Model of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Using Scanning Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(6), 941–953 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. T. Turuwhenua, D. V. Patel, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Fully Automated Montaging of Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Images of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2235–2242 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Poletti, J. Wigdahl, P. Guimarães, and A. Ruggeri, “Automatic montaging of corneal sub-basal nerve images for the composition of a wide-range mosaic,” in Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(IEEE,2004), pp.5426–5439.
  12. S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).
  14. E. Beaurepaire, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, L. Blanchot, and H. Saint-Jalmes, “Full-field optical coherence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 244–246 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. Mazlin, P. Xiao, E. Dalimier, K. Grieve, K. Irsch, J.-A. Sahel, M. Fink, and A. C. Boccara, “In vivo high resolution human corneal imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(2), 557–568 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. J. Bron, “Anterior corneal mosaic,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52(9), 659–669 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. J. Bron and R. C. Tripathi, “Anterior corneal mosaic. Further observations,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53(11), 760–764 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Kobayashi, H. Yokogawa, and K. Sugiyama, “In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy of Bowman’s Layer of the Cornea,” Ophthalmology 113(12), 2203–2208 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Yokogawa, A. Kobayashi, and K. Sugiyama, “Mapping of Normal Corneal K-Structures by In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Cornea 27(8), 879–883 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. F. Guthoff, C. Baudouin, and J. Stave, Atlas of Confocal Laser Scanning In-vivo Microscopy in Ophthalmology (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2006), Chap. 2.
  24. A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional imaging of corneal cells using in vivo confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 213–219 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).
  27. K. Bizheva, B. Tan, B. MacLelan, O. Kralj, M. Hajialamdari, D. Hileeto, and L. Sorbara, “Sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT for in-vivo imaging of the cellular structure of healthy and keratoconic human corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 800–812 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. S. Allgeier, Institute for Automation and Applied Informatics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany, A. Bartschat, S. Bohn, K.-M. Reichert, K. Sperlich, M. Walckling, V. Hagenmeyer, R. Mikut, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D confocal laser-scanning microscopy for large-area imaging of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus.”
  30. A. Bartschat, L. Toso, J. Stegmaier, A. Kuijper, R. Mikut, B. Köhler, and S. Allgeier, “Automatic corneal tissue classification using bag-of visual-words approaches,” in Forum Bildverarbeitung 2016, F. Puente León and M. Heitzmann, eds. (KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016), pp. 245–256.

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2014 (2)

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

2013 (2)

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. T. Turuwhenua, D. V. Patel, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Fully Automated Montaging of Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Images of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2235–2242 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Twa and M. J. Giese, “Assessment of Corneal Thickness and Keratocyte Density in a Rabbit Model of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Using Scanning Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(6), 941–953 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Yokogawa, A. Kobayashi, and K. Sugiyama, “Mapping of Normal Corneal K-Structures by In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Cornea 27(8), 879–883 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kobayashi, H. Yokogawa, and K. Sugiyama, “In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy of Bowman’s Layer of the Cornea,” Ophthalmology 113(12), 2203–2208 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. F. Guthoff, H. Wienss, C. Hahnel, and A. Wree, “Epithelial Innervation of Human Cornea: A Three-Dimensional Study Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Cornea 24(5), 608–613 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional imaging of corneal cells using in vivo confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 213–219 (1993).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. J. Bron and R. C. Tripathi, “Anterior corneal mosaic. Further observations,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53(11), 760–764 (1969).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

A. J. Bron, “Anterior corneal mosaic,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52(9), 659–669 (1968).
[Crossref]

Allgeier, S.

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Badian, R. A.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Baiocchi, S.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balestrazzi, A.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baudouin, C.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bizheva, K.

Blanchot, L.

Blum, M.

A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

Bretthauer, G.

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bringole-Baudouin, F.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bron, A. J.

A. J. Bron and R. C. Tripathi, “Anterior corneal mosaic. Further observations,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53(11), 760–764 (1969).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bron, “Anterior corneal mosaic,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 52(9), 659–669 (1968).
[Crossref]

Caporossi, A.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caporossi, T.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cavanagh, H. D.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional imaging of corneal cells using in vivo confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 213–219 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dahlin, L. B.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Dalimier, E.

Eberle, F.

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Edwards, K.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Efron, N.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

Giese, M. J.

M. D. Twa and M. J. Giese, “Assessment of Corneal Thickness and Keratocyte Density in a Rabbit Model of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Using Scanning Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(6), 941–953 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gosschalk, K.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grieve, K.

Grümmer, G.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guimarães, P.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

E. Poletti, J. Wigdahl, P. Guimarães, and A. Ruggeri, “Automatic montaging of corneal sub-basal nerve images for the composition of a wide-range mosaic,” in Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(IEEE,2004), pp.5426–5439.

Guthoff, R. F.

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. F. Guthoff, H. Wienss, C. Hahnel, and A. Wree, “Epithelial Innervation of Human Cornea: A Three-Dimensional Study Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Cornea 24(5), 608–613 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hahnel, C.

R. F. Guthoff, H. Wienss, C. Hahnel, and A. Wree, “Epithelial Innervation of Human Cornea: A Three-Dimensional Study Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Cornea 24(5), 608–613 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hajialamdari, M.

Hileeto, D.

Irsch, K.

Jester, J. V.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional imaging of corneal cells using in vivo confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 213–219 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, A.

H. Yokogawa, A. Kobayashi, and K. Sugiyama, “Mapping of Normal Corneal K-Structures by In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Cornea 27(8), 879–883 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kobayashi, H. Yokogawa, and K. Sugiyama, “In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy of Bowman’s Layer of the Cornea,” Ophthalmology 113(12), 2203–2208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Köhler, B.

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Kraak, R.

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kralj, O.

Labbé, A.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lagali, N. S.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Lebec, M.

Li, H. F.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

MacLelan, B.

Maier, S.

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Malik, R. A.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martin, C.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maurer, J. K.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mazlin, V.

Mazzotta, C.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

McCulley, J. P.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

McGhee, C. N. J.

J. T. Turuwhenua, D. V. Patel, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Fully Automated Montaging of Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Images of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2235–2242 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mikut, R.

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

Møller-Pedersen, T.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

Patel, D. V.

J. T. Turuwhenua, D. V. Patel, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Fully Automated Montaging of Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Images of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2235–2242 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peebo, B.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Peschel, S.

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peterson, M.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Petroll, W. M.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional imaging of corneal cells using in vivo confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 170(3), 213–219 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pitchard, N.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poletti, E.

E. Poletti, J. Wigdahl, P. Guimarães, and A. Ruggeri, “Automatic montaging of corneal sub-basal nerve images for the composition of a wide-range mosaic,” in Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(IEEE,2004), pp.5426–5439.

Prakasam, R.

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reichert, K.-M.

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rolandsson, O.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Ruggeri, A.

E. Poletti, J. Wigdahl, P. Guimarães, and A. Ruggeri, “Automatic montaging of corneal sub-basal nerve images for the composition of a wide-range mosaic,” in Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(IEEE,2004), pp.5426–5439.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Russell, A.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sahel, J.-A.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sampson, G. P.

K. Edwards, N. Pitchard, K. Gosschalk, G. P. Sampson, A. Russell, R. A. Malik, and N. Efron, “Wide-Field Assessment of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus in Diabetic Neuropathy Using a Novel Mapping Technique,” Cornea 31(9), 1078–1082 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schwiede, M.

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sorbara, L.

Stachs, O.

B. Köhler, S. Allgeier, F. Eberle, S. Maier, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, and O. Stachs, “Large-Scale Imaging of Corneal Nerve Fibres by Guided Eye Movements,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 231(12), 1170–1173 (2014).

S. Allgeier, S. Maier, R. Mikut, S. Peschel, K.-M. Reichert, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler, “Mosaicking the Subbasal Nerve Plexus by Guided Eye Movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6082–6089 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stave, J.

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, K.

H. Yokogawa, A. Kobayashi, and K. Sugiyama, “Mapping of Normal Corneal K-Structures by In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Cornea 27(8), 879–883 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kobayashi, H. Yokogawa, and K. Sugiyama, “In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy of Bowman’s Layer of the Cornea,” Ophthalmology 113(12), 2203–2208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, B.

Tommasi, C.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Traversi, C.

C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, R. C.

A. J. Bron and R. C. Tripathi, “Anterior corneal mosaic. Further observations,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 53(11), 760–764 (1969).
[Crossref]

Turuwhenua, J. T.

J. T. Turuwhenua, D. V. Patel, and C. N. J. McGhee, “Fully Automated Montaging of Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Images of the Human Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2235–2242 (2012).
[Crossref]

Twa, M. D.

M. D. Twa and M. J. Giese, “Assessment of Corneal Thickness and Keratocyte Density in a Rabbit Model of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Using Scanning Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(6), 941–953 (2011).
[Crossref]

Utheim, T. P.

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

Vaidya, S.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Warnet, J.-M.

A. Labbé, H. Liang, C. Martin, F. Bringole-Baudouin, J.-M. Warnet, and C. Baudouin, “Comparative Anatomy of Laboratory Animal Corneas with a New-Generation High-Resolution In Vivo Confocal Microscope,” Curr. Eye Res. 31(6), 501–509 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weaver, M.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wienss, H.

R. F. Guthoff, H. Wienss, C. Hahnel, and A. Wree, “Epithelial Innervation of Human Cornea: A Three-Dimensional Study Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Cornea 24(5), 608–613 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wigdahl, J.

E. Poletti, J. Wigdahl, P. Guimarães, and A. Ruggeri, “Automatic montaging of corneal sub-basal nerve images for the composition of a wide-range mosaic,” in Proceedings of the 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(IEEE,2004), pp.5426–5439.

Winter, K.

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wree, A.

R. F. Guthoff, H. Wienss, C. Hahnel, and A. Wree, “Epithelial Innervation of Human Cornea: A Three-Dimensional Study Using Confocal Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Cornea 24(5), 608–613 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiao, P.

Yokogawa, H.

H. Yokogawa, A. Kobayashi, and K. Sugiyama, “Mapping of Normal Corneal K-Structures by In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Cornea 27(8), 879–883 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kobayashi, H. Yokogawa, and K. Sugiyama, “In Vivo Laser Confocal Microscopy of Bowman’s Layer of the Cornea,” Ophthalmology 113(12), 2203–2208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhivov, A.

R. Prakasam, K. Winter, M. Schwiede, S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, B. Köhler, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Characteristic Quantities of Corneal Epithelial Structures in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Volume Data Sets,” Cornea 32(5), 636–643 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Allgeier, A. Zhivov, F. Eberle, B. Köhler, S. Maier, G. Bretthauer, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Image Reconstruction of the Subbasal Nerve Plexus with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(9), 5022–5028 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zinser, G.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. F. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. D. Twa and M. J. Giese, “Assessment of Corneal Thickness and Keratocyte Density in a Rabbit Model of Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Using Scanning Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 152(6), 941–953 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
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A. Zhivov, M. Blum, R. F. Guthoff, and O. Stachs, “Real-time mapping of the subepithelial nerve plexus by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(9), 1133–1135 (2010).
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A. Zhivov, O. Stachs, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of corneal surface and epithelium,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 667–672 (2009).
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C. Mazzotta, A. Balestrazzi, C. Traversi, S. Baiocchi, T. Caporossi, C. Tommasi, and A. Caporossi, “Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus by Riboflavin-UVA-Induced Cross-Linking of Corneal Collagen: Ultrastructural Analysis by Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Humans,” Cornea 26(4), 390–397 (2007).
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W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
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Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

O. Stachs, A. Zhivov, R. Kraak, J. Stave, and R. F. Guthoff, “In vivo three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy of the epithelial nerve structure in the human cornea,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(4), 569–575 (2007).
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Ophthalmologe (1)

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Other (5)

N. S. Lagali, S. Allgeier, P. Guimarães, R. A. Badian, A. Ruggeri, B. Köhler, T. P. Utheim, B. Peebo, M. Peterson, L. B. Dahlin, and O. Rolandsson, “Wide-field corneal subbasal nerve plexus mosaics in age-controlled healthy and type 2 diabetes populations,” Sci. Data (to be published).

S. Allgeier, Institute for Automation and Applied Informatics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany, A. Bartschat, S. Bohn, K.-M. Reichert, K. Sperlich, M. Walckling, V. Hagenmeyer, R. Mikut, O. Stachs, and B. Köhler are preparing a manuscript to be called “3D confocal laser-scanning microscopy for large-area imaging of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus.”

A. Bartschat, L. Toso, J. Stegmaier, A. Kuijper, R. Mikut, B. Köhler, and S. Allgeier, “Automatic corneal tissue classification using bag-of visual-words approaches,” in Forum Bildverarbeitung 2016, F. Puente León and M. Heitzmann, eds. (KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016), pp. 245–256.

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Supplementary Material (9)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Corneal image stack of subject 1 using planar TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 2       Corneal image stack of subject 1 using concave TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 3       Corneal image stack of subject 2 using planar TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 4       Corneal image stack of subject 2 using concave TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 5       Corneal image stack of subject 3 using planar TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 6       Corneal image stack of subject 3 using concave TomoCap and KIT-alignment.
» Visualization 7       Corneal image stack for the creation of Fig. 6A using concave TomoCap and no alignment.
» Visualization 8       Corneal image stack for the creation of Fig. 6B using concave TomoCap and rigid alignment.
» Visualization 9       Corneal image stack for the creation of Fig. 6C using concave TomoCap and KIT-alignment.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Left: Original RCM – focal plane adjustment by TomoCap movement (outlined in red). Right: RCM 2.0 – focal plane adjustment by objective lens movement (outlined in red), while TomoCap position remains fixed. Please note: The different TomoCaps are compatible to both RCM versions and only the planar TomoCap is shown here. The concave TomoCap is presented in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TomoCap with planar (left) and concave (right) contact surface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 True to scale sections of eyeball, cornea and concave TomoCap with a gel interface of 50 µm thickness. The cornea’s center of curvature is denoted with cc and the eye’s center of rotation with cr. Vertical lines on the cornea apex and center of the concave surface visualize the rotation of the eye. Left: no rotation; Right: Clockwise rotation around cr of 0.66 ° corresponding to a lateral corneal shift of 150 µm. Insets show the distance between cornea and TomoCap and schematically the amount of surrounding gel.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration for the calculation of the approximated overlapping area A (boldly outlined area). Colored lines represent the maximum and minimum coordinate of the stack. The × -symbols mark the center of gravity of the single images with a side length s. For the sake of simplicity, the calculation is demonstrated on a strongly reduced stack with only three images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 False color composite images derived from two single consecutive stromal images recorded with the concave TomoCap and using no alignment (A), rigid alignment (B) and KIT-alignment (C). Regions with identical intensity distribution in the first and second image are rendered in grayscales while differences are colored either magenta or green (see text for detailed explanation).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Orthogonal slice (A) of the corneal image stack after KIT-alignment without image averaging over several slices and exemplary images from different layers: superficial cells (B), intermediate wing cells (C), basal epithelial cells (D), subbasal nerve plexus (E), Bowman’s membrane (F) and stroma (G, H, I). This image stack was recorded using the concave TomoCap.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Orthogonal slices of a corneal image stack captured with the concave TomoCap using no alignment (A), rigid alignment (B) and the KIT-alignment (C). Without alignment, epithelial cells cannot be resolved. Notice the increasing image quality from Fig. 7A to 7C. Image averaging was not performed.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cornea sketch according to Guthoff et al. [28] (A); corneal image stack recorded with the concave TomoCap in isometric view using no alignment (B), rigid alignment (C) and KIT-alignment (D). Please note: The top surfaces in these images are, based on the imaging method, almost identical. However, the side views of (C) and (D) reveal epithelial cells whereas the stroma shows the keratocyte nuclei. Due to the different alignment methods, structures may be imaged at slightly changed positions thus leading to altered cross-sections. Image averaging was not performed.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Oblique slices of a corneal image stack captured with the concave TomoCap using no alignment (A), rigid alignment (B) and KIT-alignment (C). Notice: In order to keep all information of the slice, the imaging area in B and C is increasing. Image averaging was not performed.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Exemplary thick KIT-aligned 3D corneal image stack, originally used for the analysis of the eye movements with the concave TomoCap. It starts close to the subbasal nerve plexus and has a depth of 396 µm. (HRT automatic brightness control is deactivated and no image processing was performed)

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Comparison between TomoCaps regarding lateral image-to-image shifts.

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Table 2 Comparison between TomoCaps regarding overlapping area for nst = 40.

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Table 3 Overlapping areas using the concave TomoCap with increasing stack sizes.

Equations (1)

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A=(s( x max x min ))(s( y max y min )).

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