Abstract

The bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) is a new generation of bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A potential challenge of BVS is malapposition, which may possibly lead to late stent thrombosis. It is therefore important to conduct malapposition analysis right after stenting. Since an intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) image sequence contains thousands of BVS struts, manual analysis is labor intensive and time consuming. Computer-based automatic analysis is an alternative, but faces some difficulties due to the interference of blood artifacts and the uncertainty of the struts number, position and size. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for struts malapposition analysis that breaks down the problem into two steps. Firstly, struts are detected by a cascade classifier trained by AdaBoost and a region of interest (ROI) is determined for each strut to completely contain it. Then, strut boundaries are segmented within ROIs through dynamic programming. Based on the segmentation result, malapposition analysis is conducted automatically. Tested on 7 pullbacks labeled by an expert, our method correctly detected 91.5% of 5821 BVS struts with 12.1% false positives. The average segmentation Dice coefficient for correctly detected struts was 0.81. The time consumption for a pullback is 15 sec on average. We conclude that our method is accurate and efficient for BVS struts detection and segmentation, and enables automatic BVS malapposition analysis in IVOCT images.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2014 (3)

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Foster, R. Koprowski, and J. D. Skufca, “Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 94 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Gogas, V. Farooq, Y. Onuma, and P. W. Serruys, “The absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold: an evolution or revolution in interventional cardiology,” Hell. J. Cardiol. 53(4), 301–309 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time face detection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 57(2), 137–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Rätsch, T. Onoda, and K. R. Müller, “Soft margins for adaboost,” Mach. Learn. 42(4), 287–320 (2001).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. A. Amini, T. E. Weymouth, and R. C. Jain, “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 12(9), 855–867 (1990).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adriaenssens, T.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akasaka, T.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albero, R.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amini, A. A.

A. A. Amini, T. E. Weymouth, and R. C. Jain, “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 12(9), 855–867 (1990).
[Crossref]

Awata, M.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlis, P.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, M. R.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bezerra, H. G.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnema, G. T.

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braganza, D. M.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briguori, C.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A. J.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bruining, N.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Caputo, R. P.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardinal, K. O.

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlier, S.

S. Gurmeric, G. Isguder, S. Carlier, and G. Unal, “A new 3-d automated computational method to evaluate in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in in-vivo intravascular optical coherence tomography pullbacks,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Springer, 2009) pp. 776–785.

Chen, Y.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Chieffo, A.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J. M.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhary, S.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, A.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coosemans, M.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Corvaja, N.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’hooge, J.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dalal, N.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Dekker, N.

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Desmet, W.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Di, M. C.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dijkstra, J.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubois, C.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[Crossref]

Eggermont, J.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elbaz, A.

A. Elnakib, G. Gimel’farb, J. S. Suri, and A. Elbaz, Multi Modality State-of-the-art Medical Image Segmentation and Registration Methodologies (Springer Science & Business Media), Chap. 1.

Elnakib, A.

A. Elnakib, G. Gimel’farb, J. S. Suri, and A. Elbaz, Multi Modality State-of-the-art Medical Image Segmentation and Registration Methodologies (Springer Science & Business Media), Chap. 1.

Farooq, V.

B. D. Gogas, V. Farooq, Y. Onuma, and P. W. Serruys, “The absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold: an evolution or revolution in interventional cardiology,” Hell. J. Cardiol. 53(4), 301–309 (2012).

Ferrari, R.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finci, L.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, K. R.

K. R. Foster, R. Koprowski, and J. D. Skufca, “Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 94 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Garcia, H. M.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gimel’farb, G.

A. Elnakib, G. Gimel’farb, J. S. Suri, and A. Elbaz, Multi Modality State-of-the-art Medical Image Segmentation and Registration Methodologies (Springer Science & Business Media), Chap. 1.

Gogas, B. D.

B. D. Gogas, V. Farooq, Y. Onuma, and P. W. Serruys, “The absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold: an evolution or revolution in interventional cardiology,” Hell. J. Cardiol. 53(4), 301–309 (2012).

Gonzalo, N.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gurmeric, S.

S. Gurmeric, G. Isguder, S. Carlier, and G. Unal, “A new 3-d automated computational method to evaluate in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in in-vivo intravascular optical coherence tomography pullbacks,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Springer, 2009) pp. 776–785.

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[Crossref]

Holmes, D. R.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoole, S. P.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isguder, G.

S. Gurmeric, G. Isguder, S. Carlier, and G. Unal, “A new 3-d automated computational method to evaluate in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in in-vivo intravascular optical coherence tomography pullbacks,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Springer, 2009) pp. 776–785.

Jaeger, J. L.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. C.

A. A. Amini, T. E. Weymouth, and R. C. Jain, “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 12(9), 855–867 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jin, Q.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Jones, M.

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time face detection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 57(2), 137–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kayaert, P.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kereiakes, D. J.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koprowski, R.

K. R. Foster, R. Koprowski, and J. D. Skufca, “Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 94 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotani, J.-i.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, T.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuntz, R. E.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leon, M. B.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Liistro, F.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Logstrup, S.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maenpaa, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mccormick, L. M.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

McGhie, D. V.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minamiguchi, H.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mintz, G. S.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moses, J. W.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, K. R.

G. Rätsch, T. Onoda, and K. R. Müller, “Soft margins for adaboost,” Mach. Learn. 42(4), 287–320 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagata, S.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakatani, S.

Nanto, S.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’shaughnessy, C.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ojala, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Onoda, T.

G. Rätsch, T. Onoda, and K. R. Müller, “Soft margins for adaboost,” Mach. Learn. 42(4), 287–320 (2001).
[Crossref]

Onsea, K.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Onuma, Y.

Oshima, F.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paloschi, R.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pawar, R.

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piazza, N.

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

Pietikainen, M.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Popma, J. J.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, X.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Ralston, J.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rätsch, G.

G. Rätsch, T. Onoda, and K. R. Müller, “Soft margins for adaboost,” Mach. Learn. 42(4), 287–320 (2001).
[Crossref]

Regar, E.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

Reiber, J. H.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sacco, R. L.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Gogas, V. Farooq, Y. Onuma, and P. W. Serruys, “The absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold: an evolution or revolution in interventional cardiology,” Hell. J. Cardiol. 53(4), 301–309 (2012).

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sinnaeve, P.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sivieri, G.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skufca, J. D.

K. R. Foster, R. Koprowski, and J. D. Skufca, “Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 94 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. C.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spanos, V.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stam, H.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stankovic, G.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suri, J. S.

A. Elnakib, G. Gimel’farb, J. S. Suri, and A. Elbaz, Multi Modality State-of-the-art Medical Image Segmentation and Registration Methodologies (Springer Science & Business Media), Chap. 1.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taubert, K.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teirstein, P. S.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toutouzas, K.

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Triggs, B.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Uematsu, M.

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ughi, G. J.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Unal, G.

S. Gurmeric, G. Isguder, S. Carlier, and G. Unal, “A new 3-d automated computational method to evaluate in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in in-vivo intravascular optical coherence tomography pullbacks,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Springer, 2009) pp. 776–785.

Viola, P.

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time face detection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 57(2), 137–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, S. Nakatani, J. Eggermont, Y. Onuma, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, P. W. Serruys, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic detection of bioresorbable vascular scaffold struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography pullback runs,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3589–3602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

West, N. E.

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weymouth, T. E.

A. A. Amini, T. E. Weymouth, and R. C. Jain, “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 12(9), 855–867 (1990).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. O.

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S. K.

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, D. A.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Q.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Zhao, W.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Zhu, R.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

Zoghb, W. A.

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

K. R. Foster, R. Koprowski, and J. D. Skufca, “Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 94 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Catheter. Cardio. Inte. (1)

A. J. Brown, L. M. Mccormick, D. M. Braganza, M. R. Bennett, S. P. Hoole, and N. E. West, “Expansion and malapposition characteristics after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation,” Catheter. Cardio. Inte. 84(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Circulation (1)

T. Takagi, G. Stankovic, L. Finci, K. Toutouzas, A. Chieffo, V. Spanos, F. Liistro, C. Briguori, N. Corvaja, R. Albero, G. Sivieri, R. Paloschi, M. C. Di, and A. Colombo, “Results and long-term predictors of adverse clinical events after elective percutaneous interventions on unprotected left main coronary artery,” Circulation 106(6), 698–702 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Commun. ACM (1)

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, “Use of the hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[Crossref]

Eur. Heart J. (1)

S. C. Smith, A. Collins, R. Ferrari, D. R. Holmes, S. Logstrup, D. V. McGhie, J. Ralston, R. L. Sacco, H. Stam, K. Taubert, D. A. Wood, and W. A. Zoghb, “Our time: a call to save preventable death from cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke),” Eur. Heart J. 33(23), 2910–2916 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

EuroIntervention (1)

N. Gonzalo, P. W. Serruys, N. Piazza, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography (oct) in secondary revascularisation: stent and graft assessment,” EuroIntervention 5(Suppl D), 93–100 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hell. J. Cardiol. (1)

B. D. Gogas, V. Farooq, Y. Onuma, and P. W. Serruys, “The absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold: an evolution or revolution in interventional cardiology,” Hell. J. Cardiol. 53(4), 301–309 (2012).

IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. (2)

A. A. Amini, T. E. Weymouth, and R. C. Jain, “Using dynamic programming for solving variational problems in vision,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 12(9), 855–867 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE T. Pattern. Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. (2)

A. Wang, J. Eggermont, N. Dekker, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, R. Pawar, J. H. Reiber, and J. Dijkstra, “Automatic stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomographic pullback runs,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 29(1), 29–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovas. Imag. 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Comput. Vision (1)

P. Viola and M. Jones, “Robust real-time face detection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 57(2), 137–154 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2)

J.-i. Kotani, M. Awata, S. Nanto, M. Uematsu, F. Oshima, H. Minamiguchi, G. S. Mintz, and S. Nagata, “Incomplete neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(10), 2108–2111 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. M. Cho, and S. Chowdhary, “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies : A report from the international working group for intravascular optical coherence tomography standardization and validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach. Learn. (1)

G. Rätsch, T. Onoda, and K. R. Müller, “Soft margins for adaboost,” Mach. Learn. 42(4), 287–320 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

J. W. Moses, M. B. Leon, J. J. Popma, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. R. Holmes, C. O’shaughnessy, R. P. Caputo, D. J. Kereiakes, D. O. Williams, P. S. Teirstein, J. L. Jaeger, and R. E. Kuntz, “Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery,” N. Engl. J. Med. 349(14), 1315–1323 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

G. T. Bonnema, K. O. Cardinal, S. K. Williams, and J. K. Barton, “An automatic algorithm for detecting stent endothelialization from volumetric optical coherence tomography datasets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(12), 3083 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, T. Akasaka, T. Kubo, and K. Huang, “Automatic detection of stent struts with thick neointimal growth in intravascular optical coherence tomography image sequences,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(20), 6665 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

A. Elnakib, G. Gimel’farb, J. S. Suri, and A. Elbaz, Multi Modality State-of-the-art Medical Image Segmentation and Registration Methodologies (Springer Science & Business Media), Chap. 1.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic side branch ostium detection and main vascular segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health. (to be published).

Y. Cao, Q. Jin, Y. Chen, Q. Yin, X. Qin, J. Li, R. Zhu, and W. Zhao, “Automatic identification of side branch and main vascular measurements in intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, 2017), pp. 608–611.

S. Gurmeric, G. Isguder, S. Carlier, and G. Unal, “A new 3-d automated computational method to evaluate in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in in-vivo intravascular optical coherence tomography pullbacks,” in Proceedings of Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (Springer, 2009) pp. 776–785.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Procedures of BVS struts analysis. Each step is: ① Struts detection; ② Struts segmentation; ③ Malapposition analysis;
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Some basic models of Haar-like features.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The structure of a weak classifier built up by (a) a decision stump and (c) a decision tree. (b) and (d) are the strong classifier boosted by (a) and (c), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The workflow for BVS struts detection with trained cascade classifiers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The process of struts segmentation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The results of struts detection and segmentation in (a) normal images, (b)(c) images with severer artifacts and (d) to (f) images with apposed and malapposed struts. White translucent masks are the ground truth marked by an expert. Blue dots refer to detected seed points, and yellow circles refer to the corresponding ROI. Green and red curves represent apposed and malapposed BVS struts, respectively. For malapposed struts, the distance between lumen and strut (μm) is represented by the white line.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The 3D reconstruction model of BVS struts within the coronary artery. Green and red curves refer to apposed and malapposed struts respectively. The golden layer is the tissue and the incarnadine layer inside is the coronary artery lumen. The Grey thin tube is the guide wire.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The ROC curve of struts detection for multi layer tree-based classifier (green curve) and single layer stump-based classifier (blue curve). (b) The error bar of segmentation Dice coefficient for the seven test sets.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The segmentation results of (a) partly hidden struts, (b)struts with unclear borders and, (c) struts with a bright spot in the center.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The quantitative evaluation results.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

II ( x , y ) = x = 1 x y = 1 y I ( x , y )
D = II ( x 1 , y 1 ) + II ( x 2 , y 2 ) II ( x 1 , y 2 ) II ( x 2 , y 1 )
h ( f , x , p , θ ) = { 1 if p f > p θ 1 else
H ( x ) = { 1 if j = 1 J c j t > 0 0 else
S s = j = 1 J c s , j t s
H s ( x ) = 1 , s = 1 , 2 N s s = 1 N s S s T > 0
E ( γ , d ) = min { E 1 ( γ , d ) , E 2 ( γ , d ) , E 3 ( γ , d ) } , γ [ 1 , M ] , d [ 1 , R ]
C ( γ , d ) = E ( γ , d ) γ = 1 C ( γ , d ) = min C ( γ 1 , d * ) + E ( γ , d ) , 1 < γ M
TPR = TP / ( TP + FN ) FPR = FP / ( TP + FP ) F = 2 × ( 1 FPR ) × TPR / ( 1 FPR + TPR )
CPE = ( x s x g ) 2 + ( y s y g ) 2
Dice = 2 × ( A s A g ) / ( A s + A g )

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