Abstract

We demonstrate the feasibility of short wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy combined with tape stripping for depth profiling of lipids and water in the stratum corneum of human skin. The proposed spectroscopic technique relies on differential detection at three wavelengths of 1720, 1750, and 1770 nm, with varying ratio of the lipid-to-water absorption coefficient and an ‘isosbestic point’. Comparison of the data acquired using SWIR spectroscopy with that obtained by a gold standard for non-invasive quantitative molecular-specific skin measurements, namely confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS), revealed specificity of the proposed modality for water and lipid quantification. At the same time, we provide evidence showing aberrant sensitivity of Corneometer hydration read-outs to the presence of skin surface lipids, and a lack of sensitivity of the Sebumeter when attempting to measure the lipids of the cornified lipid envelope and intracellular lipid layers. We conclude that a spectroscopic SWIR-based spectroscopic method combined with tape stripping has the potential for depth profiling of the stratum corneum water and lipids, due to superior measurement sensitivity and specificity compared to the Corneometer and Sebumeter.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (13)

D. J. Tobin, “Introduction to skin aging,” J. Tissue Viability 26(1), 37–46 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Tobin, “Introduction to skin aging,” J. Tissue Viability 26(1), 37–46 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Daniels, “Basic therapeutics: What are the features of modern personal care products to protect and regenerate the skin barrier?” Hautarzt 68(11), 912–915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Parrish, “The impact of aging on epithelial barriers,” Tissue Barriers 5(4), e1343172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cialla-May, X. S. Zheng, K. Weber, and J. Popp, “Recent progress in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biological and biomedical applications: from cells to clinics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(13), 3945–3961 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Shipp, F. Sinjab, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy: techniques and applications in the life sciences,” AOP 9(2), 315–428 (2017).

A. Ezerskaia, A. Ras, P. Bloemen, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, and B. Varghese, “High sensitivity optical measurement of skin gloss,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 3981–3992 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ezerskaia, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, R. Verhagen, and B. Varghese, “Quantitative and simultaneous non-invasive measurement of skin hydration and sebum levels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2311–2320 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neck 37(4), 511–517 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leroy, T. Lefèvre, R. Pouliot, M. Auger, and G. Laroche, “Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 067004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takahashi, H. Tsuji, M. Minami-Hori, Y. Miyauchi, and H. Iizuka, “Defective barrier function accompanied by structural changes of psoriatic stratum corneum,” J. Dermatol. 41(2), 144–148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Gao, X. Wang, S. Chen, S. Li, and X. Liu, “Acute skin barrier disruption with repeated tape stripping: an in vivo model for damage skin barrier,” Skin Res Technol.  19, 162–168 (2013.

A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

N. K. Brogden, L. Mehalick, C. L. Fischer, P. W. Wertz, and K. A. Brogden, “The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 25(4), 167–181 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Rizzo and H. I. Maibach, “Personalizing dermatology: the future of genomic expression profiling to individualize dermatologic therapy,” J. Dermatolog. Treat. 23(3), 161–167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakazawa, N. Ohta, and I. Hatta, “A possible regulation mechanism of water content in human stratum corneum via intercellular lipid matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lipids 165(2), 238–243 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Boncheva, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(10), 870–876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Lu, S. Valiveti, J. Spence, C. Zhuang, L. Robosky, K. Wade, A. Love, L. Y. Hu, D. Pole, and M. Mollan, “Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples,” Int. J. Pharm. 367(1-2), 37–43 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cravello and A. Ferri, “Relationships between skin properties and environmental parameters,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(2), 180–186 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Prausnitz and R. Langer, “Transdermal drug delivery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 26(11), 1261–1268 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Pons-Guiraud, “Dry skin in dermatology: a complex physiopathology,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 21(s2), 1–4 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. J. Tobin, “Biochemistry of human skin--our brain on the outside,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(1), 52–67 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Arck, A. Slominski, T. C. Theoharides, E. M. Peters, and R. Paus, “Neuroimmunology of stress: skin takes center stage,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1697–1704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. J. Weigmann, J. Ulrich, S. Schanzer, U. Jacobi, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Comparison of transepidermal water loss and spectroscopic absorbance to quantify changes of the stratum corneum after tape stripping,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 18(4), 180–185 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. C. Madison, “Barrier function of the skin: “la raison d’être” of the epidermis,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 121(2), 231–241 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. A. Gupta and A. K. Gupta, “Dissatisfaction with skin appearance among patients with eating disorders and non-clinical controls,” Br. J. Dermatol. 145(1), 110–113 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Y. N. Kalia, I. Alberti, N. Sekkat, C. Curdy, A. Naik, and R. H. Guy, “Normalization of stratum corneum barrier function and transepidermal water loss in vivo,” Pharm. Res. 17(9), 1148–1150 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

O. G. Martinsen, S. Grimnes, and J. Karlsen, “Electrical methods for skin moisture assessment,” Skin Pharmacol. 8(5), 237–245 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. Pinnagoda, R. A. Tupker, T. Agner, and J. Serup, “Guidelines for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement. A report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 22(3), 164–178 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

I. Brody, “A light and electron microscopy study of normal human stratum corneum with particular reference to the intercellular space,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 94(1), 29–45 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

M. Ponec, A. Weerheim, J. Kempenaar, A. M. Mommaas, and D. H. Nugteren, “Lipid composition of cultured human keratinocytes in relation to their differentiation,” J. Lipid Res. 29(7), 949–961 (1988).
[PubMed]

C. W. Blichmann and J. Serup, “Assessment of skin moisture. Measurement of electrical conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 68(4), 284–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90(2), 218–224 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. Pethig and D. B. Kell, “The passive electrical properties of biological systems: their significance in physiology, biophysics and biotechnology,” Phys. Med. Biol. 32(8), 933–970 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

H. Tagami, M. Ohi, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Kanamaru, M. Yamada, and B. Ichijo, “Evaluation of the skin surface hydration in vivo by electrical measurement,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 75(6), 500–507 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

G. E. Nilsson, “Measurement of water exchange through skin,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 15(3), 209–218 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

D. N. Menton and A. Z. Eisen, “Structure and organization of mammalian stratum corneum,” J. Ultrastruct. Res. 35(3), 247–264 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agner, T.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pinnagoda, R. A. Tupker, T. Agner, and J. Serup, “Guidelines for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement. A report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 22(3), 164–178 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiba, S.

A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, M.

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Akiyama, “Corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), the key structure for skin barrier function and ichthyosis pathogenesis,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 88(1), 3–9 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberti, I.

Y. N. Kalia, I. Alberti, N. Sekkat, C. Curdy, A. Naik, and R. H. Guy, “Normalization of stratum corneum barrier function and transepidermal water loss in vivo,” Pharm. Res. 17(9), 1148–1150 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelova-Fischer, I.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arck, P. C.

P. C. Arck, A. Slominski, T. C. Theoharides, E. M. Peters, and R. Paus, “Neuroimmunology of stress: skin takes center stage,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1697–1704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auger, M.

M. Leroy, T. Lefèvre, R. Pouliot, M. Auger, and G. Laroche, “Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 067004 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babineau, D. C.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, L. A.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berents, T.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blichmann, C. W.

C. W. Blichmann and J. Serup, “Assessment of skin moisture. Measurement of electrical conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 68(4), 284–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Bloemen, P.

Boguniewicz, M.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boncheva, M.

M. Boncheva, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(10), 870–876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwstra, J. A.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandner, J.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brans, R.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brody, I.

I. Brody, “A light and electron microscopy study of normal human stratum corneum with particular reference to the intercellular space,” Ups. J. Med. Sci. 94(1), 29–45 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brogden, K. A.

N. K. Brogden, L. Mehalick, C. L. Fischer, P. W. Wertz, and K. A. Brogden, “The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 25(4), 167–181 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brogden, N. K.

N. K. Brogden, L. Mehalick, C. L. Fischer, P. W. Wertz, and K. A. Brogden, “The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 25(4), 167–181 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, B. E.

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burlingame, A. L.

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

Carter, E. A.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Boncheva, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(10), 870–876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, E. A. Carter, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, “In vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy of the skin: noninvasive determination of molecular concentration profiles,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 116(3), 434–442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Y. Gao, X. Wang, S. Chen, S. Li, and X. Liu, “Acute skin barrier disruption with repeated tape stripping: an in vivo model for damage skin barrier,” Skin Res Technol.  19, 162–168 (2013.

Choe, C.

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cialla-May, D.

D. Cialla-May, X. S. Zheng, K. Weber, and J. Popp, “Recent progress in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biological and biomedical applications: from cells to clinics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(13), 3945–3961 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clausen, M. L.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cravello, B.

B. Cravello and A. Ferri, “Relationships between skin properties and environmental parameters,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(2), 180–186 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curdy, C.

Y. N. Kalia, I. Alberti, N. Sekkat, C. Curdy, A. Naik, and R. H. Guy, “Normalization of stratum corneum barrier function and transepidermal water loss in vivo,” Pharm. Res. 17(9), 1148–1150 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniels, R.

R. Daniels, “Basic therapeutics: What are the features of modern personal care products to protect and regenerate the skin barrier?” Hautarzt 68(11), 912–915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darvin, M. E.

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, G.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sterke, J.

M. Boncheva, J. de Sterke, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Exp. Dermatol. 18(10), 870–876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisen, A. Z.

D. N. Menton and A. Z. Eisen, “Structure and organization of mammalian stratum corneum,” J. Ultrastruct. Res. 35(3), 247–264 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, P. M.

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

Engebretsen, K. A.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ezerskaia, A.

Falcone, D.

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feingold, K. R.

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferri, A.

B. Cravello and A. Ferri, “Relationships between skin properties and environmental parameters,” Skin Res. Technol. 14(2), 180–186 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fink, B.

N. Samson, B. Fink, and P. J. Matts, “Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32(3), 167–184 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, C. L.

N. K. Brogden, L. Mehalick, C. L. Fischer, P. W. Wertz, and K. A. Brogden, “The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 25(4), 167–181 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganguli-Indra, G.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Wang, S. Chen, S. Li, and X. Liu, “Acute skin barrier disruption with repeated tape stripping: an in vivo model for damage skin barrier,” Skin Res Technol.  19, 162–168 (2013.

Gooris, G. S.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimnes, S.

O. G. Martinsen, S. Grimnes, and J. Karlsen, “Electrical methods for skin moisture assessment,” Skin Pharmacol. 8(5), 237–245 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, A. K.

M. A. Gupta and A. K. Gupta, “Dissatisfaction with skin appearance among patients with eating disorders and non-clinical controls,” Br. J. Dermatol. 145(1), 110–113 (2001).
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Gupta, M. A.

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Rehman, I. U.

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Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
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R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
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R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
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M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
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A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
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Schanzer, S.

H. J. Weigmann, J. Ulrich, S. Schanzer, U. Jacobi, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Comparison of transepidermal water loss and spectroscopic absorbance to quantify changes of the stratum corneum after tape stripping,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 18(4), 180–185 (2005).
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Y. N. Kalia, I. Alberti, N. Sekkat, C. Curdy, A. Naik, and R. H. Guy, “Normalization of stratum corneum barrier function and transepidermal water loss in vivo,” Pharm. Res. 17(9), 1148–1150 (2000).
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C. W. Blichmann and J. Serup, “Assessment of skin moisture. Measurement of electrical conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 68(4), 284–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Shipp, D. W.

D. W. Shipp, F. Sinjab, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy: techniques and applications in the life sciences,” AOP 9(2), 315–428 (2017).

Short, M.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neck 37(4), 511–517 (2015).
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M. Sullivan and N.B. Silverberg, “Current and emerging concepts in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis,” Clin, Dermatol. 35(4), 349–353 (2017).
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S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
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Sinjab, F.

D. W. Shipp, F. Sinjab, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy: techniques and applications in the life sciences,” AOP 9(2), 315–428 (2017).

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P. C. Arck, A. Slominski, T. C. Theoharides, E. M. Peters, and R. Paus, “Neuroimmunology of stress: skin takes center stage,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1697–1704 (2006).
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Sonis, S.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neck 37(4), 511–517 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spence, J.

G. W. Lu, S. Valiveti, J. Spence, C. Zhuang, L. Robosky, K. Wade, A. Love, L. Y. Hu, D. Pole, and M. Mollan, “Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples,” Int. J. Pharm. 367(1-2), 37–43 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterry, W.

H. J. Weigmann, J. Ulrich, S. Schanzer, U. Jacobi, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Comparison of transepidermal water loss and spectroscopic absorbance to quantify changes of the stratum corneum after tape stripping,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 18(4), 180–185 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, S.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugawara, T.

A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, M.

M. Sullivan and N.B. Silverberg, “Current and emerging concepts in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis,” Clin, Dermatol. 35(4), 349–353 (2017).
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S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
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Tagami, H.

M. Egawa and H. Tagami, “Comparison of the depth profiles of water and water-binding substances in the stratum corneum determined in vivo by Raman spectroscopy between the cheek and volar forearm skin: effects of age, seasonal changes and artificial forced hydration,” Br. J. Dermatol. 158(2), 251–260 (2008).
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H. Tagami, M. Ohi, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Kanamaru, M. Yamada, and B. Ichijo, “Evaluation of the skin surface hydration in vivo by electrical measurement,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 75(6), 500–507 (1980).
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Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, H. Tsuji, M. Minami-Hori, Y. Miyauchi, and H. Iizuka, “Defective barrier function accompanied by structural changes of psoriatic stratum corneum,” J. Dermatol. 41(2), 144–148 (2014).
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Takahashi, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. A.

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90(2), 218–224 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theoharides, T. C.

P. C. Arck, A. Slominski, T. C. Theoharides, E. M. Peters, and R. Paus, “Neuroimmunology of stress: skin takes center stage,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 126(8), 1697–1704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thierse, H. J.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thyssen, J. P.

S. A. Koppes, K. A. Engebretsen, T. Agner, I. Angelova-Fischer, T. Berents, J. Brandner, R. Brans, M. L. Clausen, E. Hummler, I. Jakasa, R. Jurakić-Tončic, S. M. John, D. Khnykin, S. Molin, J. O. Holm, S. Suomela, H. J. Thierse, S. Kezic, S. F. Martin, and J. P. Thyssen, “Current knowledge on biomarkers for contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 77(1), 1–16 (2017).
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D. J. Tobin, “Introduction to skin aging,” J. Tissue Viability 26(1), 37–46 (2017).
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D. J. Tobin, “Introduction to skin aging,” J. Tissue Viability 26(1), 37–46 (2017).
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H. Takahashi, H. Tsuji, M. Minami-Hori, Y. Miyauchi, and H. Iizuka, “Defective barrier function accompanied by structural changes of psoriatic stratum corneum,” J. Dermatol. 41(2), 144–148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tupker, R. A.

J. Pinnagoda, R. A. Tupker, T. Agner, and J. Serup, “Guidelines for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement. A report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis,” Contact Dermat. 22(3), 164–178 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulrich, J.

H. J. Weigmann, J. Ulrich, S. Schanzer, U. Jacobi, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Comparison of transepidermal water loss and spectroscopic absorbance to quantify changes of the stratum corneum after tape stripping,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 18(4), 180–185 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbach, H. P.

Uzunbajakava, N.

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uzunbajakava, N. E.

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valiveti, S.

G. W. Lu, S. Valiveti, J. Spence, C. Zhuang, L. Robosky, K. Wade, A. Love, L. Y. Hu, D. Pole, and M. Mollan, “Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples,” Int. J. Pharm. 367(1-2), 37–43 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Kerkhof, P.

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Kerkhof, P. C.

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Erp, P.

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Erp, P. E.

R. J. Richters, D. Falcone, N. E. Uzunbajakava, B. Varghese, P. J. Caspers, G. J. Puppels, P. E. van Erp, and P. C. van de Kerkhof, “Sensitive skin: assessment of the skin barrier using confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 30(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Richters, N. E. Uzunbajakava, D. Falcone, J. C. Hendriks, E. J. Jaspers, P. C. van de Kerkhof, and P. E. van Erp, “Clinical, biophysical and immunohistochemical analysis of skin reactions to acute skin barrier disruption - a comparative trial between participants with sensitive skin and those with nonsensitive skin,” Br. J. Dermatol. 174(5), 1126–1133 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Smeden, J.

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Smeden, M. Janssens, G. S. Gooris, and J. A. Bouwstra, “The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 295–313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, B.

Verhagen, R.

Verkruysse, W.

R. Richters, D. Falcone, N. Uzunbajakava, W. Verkruysse, P. van Erp, and P. van de Kerkhof, “What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 28(2), 75–83 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wade, K.

G. W. Lu, S. Valiveti, J. Spence, C. Zhuang, L. Robosky, K. Wade, A. Love, L. Y. Hu, D. Pole, and M. Mollan, “Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples,” Int. J. Pharm. 367(1-2), 37–43 (2009).
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Warner, R. R.

R. R. Warner, M. C. Myers, and D. A. Taylor, “Electron probe analysis of human skin: determination of the water concentration profile,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 90(2), 218–224 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watabe, A.

A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, K.

D. Cialla-May, X. S. Zheng, K. Weber, and J. Popp, “Recent progress in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biological and biomedical applications: from cells to clinics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(13), 3945–3961 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weerheim, A.

M. Ponec, A. Weerheim, J. Kempenaar, A. M. Mommaas, and D. H. Nugteren, “Lipid composition of cultured human keratinocytes in relation to their differentiation,” J. Lipid Res. 29(7), 949–961 (1988).
[PubMed]

Weigmann, H. J.

H. J. Weigmann, J. Ulrich, S. Schanzer, U. Jacobi, H. Schaefer, W. Sterry, and J. Lademann, “Comparison of transepidermal water loss and spectroscopic absorbance to quantify changes of the stratum corneum after tape stripping,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 18(4), 180–185 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wertz, P. W.

N. K. Brogden, L. Mehalick, C. L. Fischer, P. W. Wertz, and K. A. Brogden, “The emerging role of peptides and lipids as antimicrobial epidermal barriers and modulators of local inflammation,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 25(4), 167–181 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitney, J.

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

Williams, M. L.

M. A. Lampe, A. L. Burlingame, J. Whitney, M. L. Williams, B. E. Brown, E. Roitman, and P. M. Elias, “Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations,” J. Lipid Res. 24(2), 120–130 (1983).
[PubMed]

Yamada, M.

H. Tagami, M. Ohi, K. Iwatsuki, Y. Kanamaru, M. Yamada, and B. Ichijo, “Evaluation of the skin surface hydration in vivo by electrical measurement,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 75(6), 500–507 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamasaki, K.

A. Watabe, T. Sugawara, K. Kikuchi, K. Yamasaki, S. Sakai, and S. Aiba, “Sweat constitutes several natural moisturizing factors, lactate, urea, sodium, and potassium,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 72(2), 177–182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

S. Li, M. Villarreal, S. Stewart, J. Choi, G. Ganguli-Indra, D. C. Babineau, C. Philpot, G. David, T. Yoshida, M. Boguniewicz, J. M. Hanifin, L. A. Beck, D. Y. Leung, E. L. Simpson, and A. K. Indra, “Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in atopic dermatitis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 177(4), e125–e127 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

K. Guze, H. C. Pawluk, M. Short, H. Zeng, J. Lorch, C. Norris, and S. Sonis, “Pilot study: Raman spectroscopy in differentiating premalignant and malignant oral lesions from normal mucosa and benign lesions in humans,” Head Neck 37(4), 511–517 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. S.

D. Cialla-May, X. S. Zheng, K. Weber, and J. Popp, “Recent progress in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for biological and biomedical applications: from cells to clinics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(13), 3945–3961 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, C.

G. W. Lu, S. Valiveti, J. Spence, C. Zhuang, L. Robosky, K. Wade, A. Love, L. Y. Hu, D. Pole, and M. Mollan, “Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples,” Int. J. Pharm. 367(1-2), 37–43 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Derm. Venereol. (2)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Blichmann and J. Serup, “Assessment of skin moisture. Measurement of electrical conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 68(4), 284–290 (1988).
[PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

C. Choe, J. Lademann, and M. E. Darvin, “Depth profiles of hydrogen bound water molecule types and their relation to lipid and protein interaction in the human stratum corneum in vivo,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(22), 6329–6337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AOP (1)

D. W. Shipp, F. Sinjab, and I. Notingher, “Raman spectroscopy: techniques and applications in the life sciences,” AOP 9(2), 315–428 (2017).

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (4)

K. R. Feingold and P. M. Elias, “Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841(3), 280–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the short wave infrared experimental set-up [44]: LD1 – Laser Diode (1720 ± 4 nm, Roithner Laser), LD2 – Laser Diode (1750 ± 5 nm nm, Roithner Laser), LD3 – Laser Diode (1770 ± 20 nm, Roithner Laser), F – Narrowband filter (1770 ± 5 nm, Spectrogon), M1, M2, M3, M4 – mirrors, M5 – Mirror with a central aperture, FM1, FM2 – Flipping mirrors, L1, L3, L5 – Aspheric lenses, L2 (f = 300 mm, L4 (f = 300 mm), L6 (f = 75 mm), L7 (f = 150 mm), L8 (f = 35 mm,)– Plano convex lenses L9 (f = 35 mm) – Biconvex lens, L10 (f = 25.4 mm, LA1951-C) P1s, P2p – polarizers, PD – photodiode (DET30B/M).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of forehead, palm and differential spectrum of both.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raman spectra of the stratum corneum acquired at three axial positions, 0, 4 and 16 µm. Spectral regions with preferential contribution of water (3350-3550 cm−1), protein (2910-2966 cm−1) and sebum/lipid (2790-2910 cm−1) are marked.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative Stratum corneum water content normalized with respect to the maximum value (70% water) as a function of tape-strip number measured with SWIR, Corneometer and TEWL.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Relative Stratum corneum lipid content normalized with respect to the baseline (no-strip) as a function of tape-strip number measured with SWIR and Sebumeter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Depth resolved relative stratum corneum water and lipid content normalized with respect to the baseline measured with confocal Raman micro spectrometer for comparison.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of capacitance based skin hydration measurements using Corneometer on the presence of skin surface lipids (sebum).

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