Abstract

A fiber optic probe was developed for guidance during stereotactic brain biopsy procedures to target tumor tissue and reduce the risk of hemorrhage. The probe was connected to a setup for the measurement of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced fluorescence and microvascular blood flow. Along three stereotactic trajectories, fluorescence (n = 109) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) (n = 144) measurements were done in millimeter increments. The recorded signals were compared to histopathology and radiology images. The median ratio of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and autofluorescence (AF) in the tumor was considerably higher than the marginal zone (17.3 vs 0.9). The blood flow showed two high spots (3%) in total. The proposed setup allows simultaneous and real-time detection of tumor tissue and microvascular blood flow for tracking the vessels.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

2017 (6)

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. Zsigmond, S. Hemm-Ode, and K. Wårdell, “Optical Measurements during Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation: Safety Aspects,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 95(6), 392–399 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

K. Wårdell, S. Hemm-Ode, P. Rejmstad, and P. Zsigmond, “High-Resolution Laser Doppler Measurements of Microcirculation in the Deep Brain Structures: A Method for Potential Vessel Tracking,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 94(1), 1–9 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (7)

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Goyette, J. Pichette, M.-A. Tremblay, A. Laurence, M. Jermyn, K. Mok, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, K. Petrecca, B. C. Wilson, and F. Leblond, “Sub-diffuse interstitial optical tomography to improve the safety of brain needle biopsies: a proof-of-concept study,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 170–173 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Scolaro, D. Lorenser, W.-J. Madore, R. W. Kirk, A. S. Kramer, G. C. Yeoh, N. Godbout, D. D. Sampson, C. Boudoux, and R. A. McLaughlin, “Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1767–1781 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Desroches, M. Jermyn, K. Mok, C. Lemieux-Leduc, J. Mercier, K. St-Arnaud, K. Urmey, M. C. Guiot, E. Marple, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Characterization of a Raman spectroscopy probe system for intraoperative brain tissue classification,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2380–2397 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Pichette, A. Goyette, F. Picot, M.-A. Tremblay, G. Soulez, B. C. Wilson, and F. Leblond, “Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4238–4254 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Rey-Dios, E. M. Hattab, and A. A. Cohen-Gadol, “Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(6), 1071 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Wardell, P. Zsigmond, J. Richter, and S. Hemm, “Relation Between Laser Doppler Signals and Anatomy During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Towards Vim and STN,” Neurosurgery 72, 127 (2012).

2011 (2)

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
[PubMed]

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

C. M. Owen and M. E. Linskey, “Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle,” J. Neurooncol. 93(1), 139–149 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
[PubMed]

1992 (1)

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Aalders, M. C. G.

M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
[PubMed]

Abbasifard, S.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Abrishamkar, S.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Adnan, J

N. R. M Nor and J Adnan, “Intracranial Bleed Post Stereotactic Biopsy: Lessons Learned,” The Internet Journal of Neurosurgery8, 1 (2012).

Åkesson, G.

P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
[PubMed]

Amin, D. V.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Åneman, O.

P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ankerst, J.

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Antonsson, J.

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bannykh, S. I.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Beck, J.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Benericetti, E.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bergenheim, A. T.

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bernstein, M.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

Black, D.

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

Black, K. L.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Blomstedt, P.

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bottiroli, G.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Braverman, I. M.

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Bruce, J. N.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

Butte, P. V.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ceroni, M.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chang, C.-N.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Chuang, C. C.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cohen-Gadol, A. A.

R. Rey-Dios, E. M. Hattab, and A. A. Cohen-Gadol, “Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(6), 1071 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cozzens, J. W.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Croce, A. C.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Desroches, J.

Di Ieva, A.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Dorfer, C.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

Erich Wu, T.-W.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Eriksson, O.

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Espinosa, J. A.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Field, M.

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fiorani, S.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Flickinger, J. C.

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

Franz, G.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

Fredriksson, I.

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
[PubMed]

Furtner, J.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Giombelli, E.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Goetz, M.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

Gonda, D. D.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

Goyette, A.

Guiot, M. C.

Haghighi, E. K.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hahn, H. K.

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

Hainfellner, J. A.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Haj-Hosseini, N.

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hajibabaie, M.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hallbeck, M.

J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hariz, M. I.

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hattab, E. M.

R. Rey-Dios, E. M. Hattab, and A. A. Cohen-Gadol, “Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(6), 1071 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hemm, S.

K. Wardell, P. Zsigmond, J. Richter, and S. Hemm, “Relation Between Laser Doppler Signals and Anatomy During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Towards Vim and STN,” Neurosurgery 72, 127 (2012).

Hemm-Ode, S.

P. Zsigmond, S. Hemm-Ode, and K. Wårdell, “Optical Measurements during Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation: Safety Aspects,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 95(6), 392–399 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Wårdell, S. Hemm-Ode, P. Rejmstad, and P. Zsigmond, “High-Resolution Laser Doppler Measurements of Microcirculation in the Deep Brain Structures: A Method for Potential Vessel Tracking,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 94(1), 1–9 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hershman, D. L.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hirato, J.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hirato, M.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hollnburger, B.

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

Honarmand, A.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Horiguchi, K.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hsu, P.-W.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Hsu, Y. H.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Iijima, K.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ivan, M. E.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jermyn, M.

Jilch, A.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Johansson, J.

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Johansson, J. D.

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
[PubMed]

Johnson, M. D.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jones, B. A.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Jung, H.-W.

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kasper, E. M.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

Keh-Yen, A.

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Kiesel, B.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kikinis, R.

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

Kim, D. G.

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kim, J. E.

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

Knifed, E.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

Knittel, S.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Knosp, E.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kondziolka, D.

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

Kongkham, P. N.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kramer, A. S.

Kronreif, G.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

Larson, P. S.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Laurence, A.

Leblond, F.

Lee, S. C.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.-T.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lemieux-Leduc, C.

Lin, T. K.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lin, W.-C.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Linskey, M. E.

C. M. Owen and M. E. Linskey, “Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle,” J. Neurooncol. 93(1), 139–149 (2009).
[PubMed]

Locatelli, D.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lokaitis, B. C.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Lui, T. N.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lunsford, L. D.

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

MacGregor, M.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Madore, W.-J.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Malone, H.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mamelak, A. N.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Marcu, L.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Markwardt, N. A.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

Marosi, C.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Marple, E.

Martin, A. J.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Martínez-Moreno, M.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

Mercier, J.

Mert, A.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Michael, A. P.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Micko, A.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

Minchev, G.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
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Miyagishima, T.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
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Moin, H.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mok, K.

Moore, B. E.

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
[PubMed]

Murek, M.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nano, R.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Neugut, A. I.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

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N. R. M Nor and J Adnan, “Intracranial Bleed Post Stereotactic Biopsy: Lessons Learned,” The Internet Journal of Neurosurgery8, 1 (2012).

Nuno, M.

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Owen, C. M.

C. M. Owen and M. E. Linskey, “Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle,” J. Neurooncol. 93(1), 139–149 (2009).
[PubMed]

Paek, S. H.

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Petrecca, K.

Pichette, J.

Pichlmeier, U.

W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
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Picot, F.

Prayer, D.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Preusser, M.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Raabe, A.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Reddy, H.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
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Rejmstad, P.

K. Wårdell, S. Hemm-Ode, P. Rejmstad, and P. Zsigmond, “High-Resolution Laser Doppler Measurements of Microcirculation in the Deep Brain Structures: A Method for Potential Vessel Tracking,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 94(1), 1–9 (2016).
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P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
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Rey-Dios, R.

R. Rey-Dios, E. M. Hattab, and A. A. Cohen-Gadol, “Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(6), 1071 (2014).
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K. Wardell, P. Zsigmond, J. Richter, and S. Hemm, “Relation Between Laser Doppler Signals and Anatomy During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Towards Vim and STN,” Neurosurgery 72, 127 (2012).

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
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K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
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Richter, J. C. O.

J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
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N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
[PubMed]

Roberts, D. W.

Rühm, A.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

Safavi, M.

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Saxena, A. P.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
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Schechner, J. S.

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
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E. Suero Molina, S. Schipmann, and W. Stummer, “Maximizing safe resections: the roles of 5-aminolevulinic acid and intraoperative MR imaging in glioma surgery-review of the literature,” Neurosurg. Rev.E-pub ahead of print (2017).
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Schober, R.

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[PubMed]

Schucht, P.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Schulze, P. C.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schwarzmaier, H. J.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

Scolaro, L.

Seidel, K.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Silverman, D. G.

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Slotboom, J.

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sootsman, W. K.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Soulez, G.

Sroka, R.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

St-Arnaud, K.

Starr, P. A.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Stepp, H.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
[PubMed]

Stewart, F. A.

M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
[PubMed]

Stummer, W.

W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
[PubMed]

E. Suero Molina, S. Schipmann, and W. Stummer, “Maximizing safe resections: the roles of 5-aminolevulinic acid and intraoperative MR imaging in glioma surgery-review of the literature,” Neurosurg. Rev.E-pub ahead of print (2017).
[PubMed]

Suero Molina, E.

E. Suero Molina, S. Schipmann, and W. Stummer, “Maximizing safe resections: the roles of 5-aminolevulinic acid and intraoperative MR imaging in glioma surgery-review of the literature,” Neurosurg. Rev.E-pub ahead of print (2017).
[PubMed]

Sugawara, K.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Svanberg, S.

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Tamber, M. S.

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tancioni, F.

A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
[PubMed]

Tomanek, B.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Toms, S. A.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tremblay, M.-A.

Ulrich, F.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

Urmey, K.

van der Vange, N.

M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wardell, K.

K. Wardell, P. Zsigmond, J. Richter, and S. Hemm, “Relation Between Laser Doppler Signals and Anatomy During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Towards Vim and STN,” Neurosurgery 72, 127 (2012).

Wårdell, K.

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
[PubMed]

P. Zsigmond, S. Hemm-Ode, and K. Wårdell, “Optical Measurements during Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation: Safety Aspects,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 95(6), 392–399 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Wårdell, S. Hemm-Ode, P. Rejmstad, and P. Zsigmond, “High-Resolution Laser Doppler Measurements of Microcirculation in the Deep Brain Structures: A Method for Potential Vessel Tracking,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 94(1), 1–9 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Warnke, P. C.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

Waters, J. D.

J. D. Waters, D. D. Gonda, H. Reddy, E. M. Kasper, P. C. Warnke, and C. C. Chen, “Diagnostic yield of stereotactic needle-biopsies of sub-cubic centimeter intracranial lesions,” Surg. Neurol. Int. 4(3), S176–S181 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wei, K. C.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Weil, R. J.

S. A. Toms, W.-C. Lin, R. J. Weil, M. D. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Intraoperative Optical Spectroscopy Identifies Infiltrating Glioma Margins with High Sensitivity,” Neurosurgery 57(4), 382–391 (2005).
[PubMed]

Widhalm, G.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wiestler, O. D.

W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Witham, T. F.

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

Woehrer, A.

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wolfsberger, S.

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wright, J. D.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wu, C. T.

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Yang, J.

H. Malone, J. Yang, D. L. Hershman, J. D. Wright, J. N. Bruce, and A. I. Neugut, “Complications Following Stereotactic Needle Biopsy of Intracranial Tumors,” World Neurosurg. 84(4), 1084–1089 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yarlagadda, J.

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yeoh, G. C.

Yokoo, H.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yoshimoto, Y.

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zelenkov, P.

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zsigmond, P.

P. Zsigmond, S. Hemm-Ode, and K. Wårdell, “Optical Measurements during Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation: Safety Aspects,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 95(6), 392–399 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Wårdell, S. Hemm-Ode, P. Rejmstad, and P. Zsigmond, “High-Resolution Laser Doppler Measurements of Microcirculation in the Deep Brain Structures: A Method for Potential Vessel Tracking,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 94(1), 1–9 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Wardell, P. Zsigmond, J. Richter, and S. Hemm, “Relation Between Laser Doppler Signals and Anatomy During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Towards Vim and STN,” Neurosurgery 72, 127 (2012).

K. Wårdell, P. Blomstedt, J. Richter, J. Antonsson, O. Eriksson, P. Zsigmond, A. T. Bergenheim, and M. I. Hariz, “Intracerebral Microvascular measurements During Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation Using Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 85(6), 279–286 (2007).
[PubMed]

Acta Neurochir. (Wien) (3)

J. E. Kim, D. G. Kim, S. H. Paek, and H.-W. Jung, “Stereotactic biopsy for intracranial lesions: reliability and its impact on the planning of treatment,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 145(7), 547–554, discussion 554–555 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Rey-Dios, E. M. Hattab, and A. A. Cohen-Gadol, “Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(6), 1071 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Schucht, S. Knittel, J. Slotboom, K. Seidel, M. Murek, A. Jilch, A. Raabe, and J. Beck, “5-ALA complete resections go beyond MR contrast enhancement: shift corrected volumetric analysis of the extent of resection in surgery for glioblastoma,” Acta Neurochir. (Wien) 156(2), 305–312 (2014).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Can. J. Neurol. Sci. (1)

P. N. Kongkham, E. Knifed, M. S. Tamber, and M. Bernstein, “Complications in 622 Cases of Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy, a Decreasing Procedure,” Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 35(1), 79–84 (2008).
[PubMed]

Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. (1)

C.-C. Chen, P.-W. Hsu, T.-W. Erich Wu, S.-T. Lee, C.-N. Chang, K. C. Wei, C. C. Chuang, C. T. Wu, T. N. Lui, Y. H. Hsu, T. K. Lin, S. C. Lee, and Y. C. Huang, “Stereotactic brain biopsy: Single center retrospective analysis of complications,” Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 111(10), 835–839 (2009).
[PubMed]

Int. J. CARS (1)

D. Black, H. K. Hahn, R. Kikinis, K. Wårdell, and N. Haj-Hosseini, “Auditory display for fluorescence-guided open brain tumor surgery,” Int. J. CARS 13(1), 25–35 (2018).
[PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (2)

N. A. Markwardt, N. Haj-Hosseini, B. Hollnburger, H. Stepp, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “405 nm versus 633 nm for protoporphyrin IX excitation in fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 901–912 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. A. Markwardt, H. Stepp, G. Franz, R. Sroka, M. Goetz, P. Zelenkov, and A. Rühm, “Remission spectrometry for blood vessel detection during stereotactic biopsy of brain tumors,” J. Biophotonics 10(8), 1080–1094 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Neurooncol. (1)

C. M. Owen and M. E. Linskey, “Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle,” J. Neurooncol. 93(1), 139–149 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (4)

K. Iijima, M. Hirato, T. Miyagishima, K. Horiguchi, K. Sugawara, J. Hirato, H. Yokoo, and Y. Yoshimoto, “Microrecording and image-guided stereotactic biopsy of deep-seated brain tumors,” J. Neurosurg. 123(4), 978–988 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Minchev, G. Kronreif, M. Martínez-Moreno, C. Dorfer, A. Micko, A. Mert, B. Kiesel, G. Widhalm, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “A novel miniature robotic guidance device for stereotactic neurosurgical interventions: preliminary experience with the iSYS1 robot,” J. Neurosurg. 126(3), 985–996 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. E. Ivan, J. Yarlagadda, A. P. Saxena, A. J. Martin, P. A. Starr, W. K. Sootsman, and P. S. Larson, “Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI,” J. Neurosurg. 121(1), 149–160 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Field, T. F. Witham, J. C. Flickinger, D. Kondziolka, and L. D. Lunsford, “Comprehensive assessment of hemorrhage risks and outcomes after stereotactic brain biopsy,” J. Neurosurg. 94(4), 545–551 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. (1)

S. Abrishamkar, H. Moin, M. Safavi, A. Honarmand, M. Hajibabaie, E. K. Haghighi, and S. Abbasifard, “A New System for Neuronavigation and Stereotactic Biopsy Pantograph Stereotactic Localization and Guidance System,” J. Surg. Tech. Case Rep. 3(2), 87–90 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Ankerst, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Tumour marking properties of different haematoporphyrins and tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine—A comparison,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4(2), 115–123 (1989).

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Optical touch pointer for fluorescence guided glioblastoma resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 9–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

P. Rejmstad, G. Åkesson, O. Åneman, and K. Wårdell, “A laser Doppler system for monitoring cerebral microcirculation: implementation and evaluation during neurosurgery,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 123–131 (2016).
[PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

I. M. Braverman, J. S. Schechner, D. G. Silverman, and A. Keh-Yen, “Topographic mapping of the cutaneous microcirculation using two outputs of laser-Doppler flowmetry: flux and the concentration of moving blood cells,” Microvasc. Res. 44(1), 33–48 (1992).
[PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

P. V. Butte, A. N. Mamelak, M. Nuno, S. I. Bannykh, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for guided therapy of brain tumors,” Neuroimage 54(1), S125–S135 (2011).
[PubMed]

Neurosurg. Rev. (1)

G. Widhalm, G. Minchev, A. Woehrer, M. Preusser, B. Kiesel, J. Furtner, A. Mert, A. Di Ieva, B. Tomanek, D. Prayer, C. Marosi, J. A. Hainfellner, E. Knosp, and S. Wolfsberger, “Strong 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence is a novel intraoperative marker for representative tissue samples in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies,” Neurosurg. Rev. 35(3), 381–391, discussion 391 (2012).
[PubMed]

Neurosurgery (4)

J. W. Cozzens, B. C. Lokaitis, B. E. Moore, D. V. Amin, J. A. Espinosa, M. MacGregor, A. P. Michael, and B. A. Jones, “A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Adult Patients Undergoing Resection of a Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-Grade Glioma,” Neurosurgery 81(1), 46–55 (2017).
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W. Stummer, H. Stepp, O. D. Wiestler, and U. Pichlmeier, “Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas,” Neurosurgery 81(2), 230–239 (2017).
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M. C. G. Aalders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, F. A. Stewart, and N. van der Vange, “Photodetection with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-induced Protoporphyrin IX in the Rat Abdominal Cavity: Drug-dose-dependent Fluorescence Kinetics,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72(4), 521–525 (2000).
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A. C. Croce, S. Fiorani, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, M. Ceroni, F. Tancioni, E. Giombelli, E. Benericetti, and G. Bottiroli, “Diagnostic Potential of Autofluorescence for an Assisted Intraoperative Delineation of Glioblastoma Resection Margins,” Photochem. Photobiol. 77(3), 309–318 (2003).
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N. Haj-Hosseini, J. C. O. Richter, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Low dose 5-aminolevulinic acid: Implications in spectroscopic measurements during brain tumor surgery,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 12(2), 209–214 (2015).
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J. C. O. Richter, N. Haj-Hosseini, M. Hallbeck, and K. Wårdell, “Combination of Hand-Held Probe and Microscopy for Fluorescence Guided Surgery in the Brain Tumor Marginal Zone,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 18, 185–192 (2017).
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Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. (4)

J. D. Johansson, I. Fredriksson, K. Wårdell, and O. Eriksson, “Simulation of reflected light intensity changes during navigation and radio-frequency lesioning in the brain,” Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 87(2), 105 (2009).
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N. Haj-Hosseini, J. Richter, S. Andersson-Engels, and K. Wårdell, “Photobleaching behavior of protoporphyrin IX during 5-aminolevulinic acid marked glioblastoma detection,” SPIE Proc. 7161, 716131–8 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) The system design concept and b) configuration of the fibers in the probe. The system was composed of a fluorescence spectroscopy and a laser Doppler flowmetry system. The probe incorporated several optical fibers that were connected to the two systems. Fl: fluorescence, LDF: Laser Doppler flowmetry, em: emission, ex: excitation, AF: autofluorescence, TLI: total backscattered laser light intensity, PpIX: protoporphyrin IX.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Radiology images from the three patients. The markers show the planned entry and target points where the solid lines are the planned insertion trajectories. The images are oblique and in the same plane as the displayed trajectory.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) The probe positioned in the mechanical insertion device and the stereotactic frame, b) the concept of measurements along the trajectory towards the tumor, c) MR image with precalculated targets in Surgiplan where the green markers are in displayed plane and the red markers are in a different plane d) example of IPpIX along the insertion trajectory and e) the histopathology slide image from the target point.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Fluorescence (Fl) and b) LDF signals measured with the systems shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PpIX fluorescence and autofluorescence intensity measured from cortex down to the tumor in the three patient cases. a) Fluorescence ratio and blood perfusion, b) IPpIX, IAF(510) and fluorescence ratio, and c) IAF(510) and TLI. Biopsies were taken from the points mentioned in Table 1. IAF(510): autofluorescence at 510nm, TLI: total light reflection at 780 nm, IPpIX: PpIX fluorescence intensity at 635nm.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Specifications of the biopsy positions, imaging modality, the number of optical measurements performed on each patient, trajectory length (l) and localization of the tumor in the brain. CT: Computed tomography, MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging, Fl: fluorescence, LDF: Laser Doppler flowmetry

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Table 2 Summary of the histopathology diagnosis of the biopsy samples taken at the precalculated stereotactic positions. TC: tumor cells, LGT: Low grade tumor, HGT-: High grade tumor with less TCs, HGT+: High grade tumor with more TCs.

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Table 3 Median and range of the optical signals compared to the histopathology diagnosis.

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