Abstract

A new and noncontact approach of multispectral reflectance imaging has been developed to inversely determine the absorption coefficient of μa, the scattering coefficient of μs and the anisotropy factor g of a turbid target from one measured reflectance image. The incident beam was profiled with a diffuse reflectance standard for deriving both measured and calculated reflectance images. A GPU implemented Monte Carlo code was developed to determine the parameters with a conjugate gradient descent algorithm and the existence of unique solutions was shown. We noninvasively determined embedded region thickness in heterogeneous targets and estimated in vivo optical parameters of nevi from 4 patients between 500 and 950nm for melanoma diagnosis to demonstrate the potentials of quantitative reflectance imaging.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dimitriadis, B. Grychtol, M. Theuring, T. Behr, C. Sippel, and N. C. Deliolanis, “Spectral and temporal multiplexing for multispectral fluorescence and reflectance imaging using two color sensors,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12812–12829 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

X. Liang, M. Li, J. Q. Lu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, Y. Sa, J. Ding, and X. H. Hu, “Spectrophotometric determination of turbid optical parameters without using an integrating sphere,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2079–2085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

R. Novak, “Loop Optimization for Divergence Reduction on GPUs with SIMT Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 26(6), 1633–1642 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Leung and A. F. Gmitro, “Fluorescence and reflectance spectral imaging system for a murine mammary window chamber model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2887–2894 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

X. Chen, Y. Feng, J. Q. Lu, X. Liang, J. Ding, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “Fast method for inverse determination of optical parameters from two measured signals,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2095–2097 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Dai and C.-X. Kou, “A nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm with an optimal property and an improved Wolfe line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 23(1), 296–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Abookasis, B. Volkov, and M. S. Mathews, “Closed head injury-induced changes in brain pathophysiology assessed with near-infrared structured illumination in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 116007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pilz, S. Honold, and A. Kienle, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurements of the spatially resolved reflectance considering the point-spread function of the camera system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1981 (1)

Abookasis, D.

D. Abookasis, B. Volkov, and M. S. Mathews, “Closed head injury-induced changes in brain pathophysiology assessed with near-infrared structured illumination in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 116007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, D. W.

Ashida, H.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkins, M. B.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balch, C. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behr, T.

Bish, S. F.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, H. M.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brock, R. S.

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooke, M. A.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buzaid, A. C.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrd, D. R.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cen, H.

Chen, A. Y.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, H. Ding, K. M. Jacobs, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “A primary method for determination of optical parameters of turbid samples and application to intralipid between 550 and 1630 nm,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7420–7435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Cho, A.

Cochran, A. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coit, D. G.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooksey, C. C.

Dai, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Dai and C.-X. Kou, “A nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm with an optimal property and an improved Wolfe line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 23(1), 296–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deliolanis, N. C.

Descour, M.

Dimitriadis, N.

Ding, H.

Ding, J.

Ding, S.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, K.

Donner, C.

Du, Y.

Dunn, A. K.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggermont, A. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Diery, M. W.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteva, A.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fei, B.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Flaherty, K. T.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geradts, J.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gershenwald, J. E.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghassemi, P.

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimotty, P. A.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

Gmitro, A. F.

Greenup, R.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffith, C. C.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Grychtol, B.

Guo, B.

Guo, L.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hager, W. W.

W. W. Hager and H. Zhang, “A new conjugate gradient method with guaranteed descent and an efficient line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 16(1), 170–192 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honold, S.

M. Pilz, S. Honold, and A. Kienle, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurements of the spatially resolved reflectance considering the point-spread function of the camera system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsia, J. J.

Hu, X. H.

X. Liang, M. Li, J. Q. Lu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, Y. Sa, J. Ding, and X. H. Hu, “Spectrophotometric determination of turbid optical parameters without using an integrating sphere,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2079–2085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Feng, J. Q. Lu, X. Liang, J. Ding, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “Fast method for inverse determination of optical parameters from two measured signals,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2095–2097 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, H. Ding, K. M. Jacobs, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “A primary method for determination of optical parameters of turbid samples and application to intralipid between 550 and 1630 nm,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7420–7435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(6), 1151–1157 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, H. Ding, and X. H. Hu, “Bulk optical parameters of porcine skin dermis at eight wavelengths from 325 to 1557 nm,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 412–414 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Effect of surface roughness on determination of bulk tissue optical parameters,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2204–2206 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, X. H. Hu, and K. Dong, “Modeling of the rough-interface effect on a converging light beam propagating in a skin tissue phantom,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5890–5897 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Song, K. Dong, X. H. Hu, and J. Q. Lu, “Monte Carlo simulation of converging laser beams propagating in biological materials,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2944–2949 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

Hwang, J.

Hyman, B. T.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, K. M.

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, H. W.

Jokerst, N. M.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, P. B.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, N.

Kawauchi, S.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

M. Pilz, S. Honold, and A. Kienle, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurements of the spatially resolved reflectance considering the point-spread function of the camera system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkwood, J. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, J.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kou, C.-X.

Y.-H. Dai and C.-X. Kou, “A nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm with an optimal property and an improved Wolfe line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 23(1), 296–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuprel, B.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, H.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemaillet, P.

Leung, H. M.

Li, K.

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Liang, X.

Little, J. V.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llopis, A.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, G.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Liang, M. Li, J. Q. Lu, C. Huang, Y. Feng, Y. Sa, J. Ding, and X. H. Hu, “Spectrophotometric determination of turbid optical parameters without using an integrating sphere,” Appl. Opt. 55(8), 2079–2085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Feng, J. Q. Lu, X. Liang, J. Ding, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “Fast method for inverse determination of optical parameters from two measured signals,” Opt. Lett. 38(12), 2095–2097 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, H. Ding, K. M. Jacobs, Y. Du, and X. H. Hu, “A primary method for determination of optical parameters of turbid samples and application to intralipid between 550 and 1630 nm,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7420–7435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, J. Q. Lu, K. M. Jacobs, and X. H. Hu, “Determination of refractive indices of porcine skin tissues and intralipid at eight wavelengths between 325 and 1557 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(6), 1151–1157 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, H. Ding, and X. H. Hu, “Bulk optical parameters of porcine skin dermis at eight wavelengths from 325 to 1557 nm,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 412–414 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Effect of surface roughness on determination of bulk tissue optical parameters,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2204–2206 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, X. H. Hu, and K. Dong, “Modeling of the rough-interface effect on a converging light beam propagating in a skin tissue phantom,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5890–5897 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Song, K. Dong, X. H. Hu, and J. Q. Lu, “Monte Carlo simulation of converging laser beams propagating in biological materials,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2944–2949 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

Luo, G.

Ma, X.

Mack, V.

Mathews, M. S.

D. Abookasis, B. Volkov, and M. S. Mathews, “Closed head injury-induced changes in brain pathophysiology assessed with near-infrared structured illumination in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 116007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCachren, S. S.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMasters, K. M.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihm, M. C.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moffatt, L. T.

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morton, D. L.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. A.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nawashiro, H.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, B.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichols, B. S.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishidate, I.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novak, R.

R. Novak, “Loop Optimization for Divergence Reduction on GPUs with SIMT Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 26(6), 1633–1642 (2015).
[Crossref]

Novoa, R. A.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, M. R.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peabody, M.

Peng, C.

Perelman, L. T.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilz, M.

M. Pilz, S. Honold, and A. Kienle, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurements of the spatially resolved reflectance considering the point-spread function of the camera system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pravica, D. W.

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, L.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahman, M.

Rajaram, N.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tkaczyk, M. Rahman, V. Mack, K. Sokolov, J. Rogers, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, “High resolution, molecular-specific, reflectance imaging in optically dense tissue phantoms with structured-illumination,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3745–3758 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Ross, M. I.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sa, Y.

Sato, S.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senlik, O.

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. K.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shupp, J. W.

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sippel, C.

Sivco, D.

Sober, A. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tkaczyk, M. Rahman, V. Mack, K. Sokolov, J. Rogers, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, “High resolution, molecular-specific, reflectance imaging in optically dense tissue phantoms with structured-illumination,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3745–3758 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sondak, V. K.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Z.

Soong, S. J.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swetter, S. M.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theuring, M.

Thompson, J. F.

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrun, S.

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T.

Tunnell, J. W.

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uozumi, Y.

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, E.

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, B.

D. Abookasis, B. Volkov, and M. S. Mathews, “Closed head injury-induced changes in brain pathophysiology assessed with near-infrared structured illumination in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 116007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, X.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weidner, V. R.

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Zhang, H.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Hager and H. Zhang, “A new conjugate gradient method with guaranteed descent and an efficient line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 16(1), 170–192 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Wang, C. Peng, H. Zhang, G. Luo, H. Le, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, M. Peabody, and A. Cho, “Laser-based mid-infrared reflectance imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 12(1), 208–219 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (1)

R. Novak, “Loop Optimization for Divergence Reduction on GPUs with SIMT Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 26(6), 1633–1642 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Bish, N. Rajaram, B. Nichols, and J. W. Tunnell, “Development of a noncontact diffuse optical spectroscopy probe for measuring tissue optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 120505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kawauchi, I. Nishidate, Y. Uozumi, H. Nawashiro, H. Ashida, and S. Sato, “Diffuse light reflectance signals as potential indicators of loss of viability in brain tissue due to hypoxia: charge-coupled-device-based imaging and fiber-based measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 015003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Abookasis, B. Volkov, and M. S. Mathews, “Closed head injury-induced changes in brain pathophysiology assessed with near-infrared structured illumination in a mouse model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(11), 116007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Nichols, A. Llopis, G. M. Palmer, S. S. McCachren, O. Senlik, D. Miller, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, J. Geradts, R. Greenup, and N. Ramanujam, “Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(2), 026007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(8), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pilz, S. Honold, and A. Kienle, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media by measurements of the spatially resolved reflectance considering the point-spread function of the camera system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

P. Ghassemi, L. T. Moffatt, J. W. Shupp, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “A new approach for optical assessment of directional anisotropy in turbid media,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 100–108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

C. M. Balch, J. E. Gershenwald, S. J. Soong, J. F. Thompson, M. B. Atkins, D. R. Byrd, A. C. Buzaid, A. J. Cochran, D. G. Coit, S. Ding, A. M. Eggermont, K. T. Flaherty, P. A. Gimotty, J. M. Kirkwood, K. M. McMasters, M. C. Mihm, D. L. Morton, M. I. Ross, A. J. Sober, and V. K. Sondak, “Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(36), 6199–6206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (2)

J. Q. Lu, C. Chen, D. W. Pravica, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Validity of a closed-form diffusion solution in P1 approximation for reflectance imaging with an oblique beam of arbitrary profile,” Med. Phys. 35(9), 3979–3987 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, J. Q. Lu, K. Li, S. Zhao, R. S. Brock, and X. H. Hu, “Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method,” Med. Phys. 34(7), 2939–2948 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Vitkin, V. Turzhitsky, L. Qiu, L. Guo, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Photon diffusion near the point-of-entry in anisotropically scattering turbid media,” Nat. Commun. 2, 587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Esteva, B. Kuprel, R. A. Novoa, J. Ko, S. M. Swetter, H. M. Blau, and S. Thrun, “Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks,” Nature 542(7639), 115–118 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

SIAM J. Optim. (2)

W. W. Hager and H. Zhang, “A new conjugate gradient method with guaranteed descent and an efficient line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 16(1), 170–192 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Dai and C.-X. Kou, “A nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm with an optimal property and an improved Wolfe line search,” SIAM J. Optim. 23(1), 296–320 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Kortum, Reflectance spectroscopy. Principles, methods, applications (Springer, 1969).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple light scattering: tables, formulas, and applications (Academic Press, 1980).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of reflectance imaging and phantom: I: iris; S: stencil; L: collimating lens; WF: wavelength filter wheels; w: beam radius; CL: camera lens; A: lens aperture diameter; h: lens-target distance; (b) photos of (from left to right): two homogeneous phantoms of light and dark appearances, an 80% diffuse reflectance standard and a melanoma phantom; (c) reflection images of a homogeneous phantom of light appearance (Ir: left) and an 80% diffuse reflectance standard (Is: right) at θ0 = 45° and λ = 620nm without stencil for top-hat beam profile; (d) similar as (c) with stencil for grating beam profile. Bars = 10mm for photos in (b) and (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The reflectance imaging unit for patient imaging; (b) a holding ring taped on a patient’s back.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The linear profiles of Rc(x, y)|h calculated with homogeneous phantoms and collected by the camera lens at different h represented by solid lines: (a) P = (μa = 1.00mm−1, μs = 5.00mm−1, g = 0.75), θ0 = 0°, w = 12.5mm, ideal top-hat incident beam profile and A = 10mm; symbols represent S·Rc(x, 0) of h = 0.2mm with S = 1.60; (b) P = (μa = 0.50mm−1, μs = 1.80mm−1, g = 0.60), θ0 = 45°, w = 10mm, grating incident beam profile Sm(x, y; λ) acquired from a dark phantom at λ = 620nm and A = 18mm; symbols represent S·Rc(0, y) with S = 1.86; (c) h dependence of peak pixels of Rc in (a) at x = 0, y = 0 and in (b) at x = 0, y = −5.0mm. Other parameters: N0 ranging between 1x108 and 1x1012. The lines in (c) are for visual guide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The contour plots of the objective function δ with μt = 1.66mm−1 for the plots on the left and a = 0.760 for the plots on the right. The measure images Rm(x, y; λ) were obtained from a dark homogeneous phantom with θ0 = 45° and λ = 620nm of grating or top-hat beam profile.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The contour plots of δ obtained with the reflectance image measured from a light phantom sample with an incident beam of grating profile at θ0 = 45° and λ = 500nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The wavelength dependence of P = (μa, μs, g) and μs’ = μs(1-g) of homogeneous phantoms and thin disk copies made of dark and light suspensions determined by the methods of reflectance imaging (RI) and integrating sphere (IS). The error bars represent standard deviations of three measurements and lines are for visual guide.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The objective function δ versus the thickness D of the embedded region in heterogeneous phantoms with reflectance images acquired at different wavelengths. The vertical lines and blue arrows indicate the measured thickness Dm and uncertainty and color lines are for visual guide.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Examples of cross-polarized reflectance images acquired at wavelengths as marked on each image in the unit of nm. Top row: from patient B with pathology grade 1; bottom row: from patient D with pathology grade 4.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The wavelength dependence of optical parameters of nevus determined from the measured reflectance image Rm of 4 patients with melanocytic nevi. The pathology grades are noted in parentheses.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R m (x,y;λ)= I r (x,y;λ) I rb (x,y;λ) I max,s (λ) R s (λ),
S m (x,y;λ)= I s (x,y;λ) I sb (x,y;λ) I max,s (λ) ,
R c (x,y,h;λ,P)= ρ r (x,y,h;P) ρ max,s (λ) ,
ρ max,s (λ)=max[ ρ i (x,y, 0 ;λ)],
δ= 1 N p x,y H(x,y)| R m (x,y;λ) R c (x,y,h;λ,P) R m (x,y;λ) | 2
p k+1 = p k + α k d k ,
d k ={ g k ,ifk=0 g k + β k1 d k1 ,ifk1 ,
β k = g k+1 T y k d k T y k | y k | 2 g k+1 T d k ( d k T y k ) 2 ,
δ( p k + α k d k )f( p k )ρ α k g k T d k ,
| g ( p k + α k d k ) T d k |σ g k T d k ,

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