Abstract

Accurate, quantitative assessment of retinal blood oxygen saturation (sO2) may provide a useful early indicator of pathophysiology in several ocular diseases. Here, with visible-light optical coherence tomography (OCT), we demonstrate an automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry algorithm to measure the sO2 within the retinal arteries (A-sO2) and veins (V-sO2) in rats by automatically detecting the vascular posterior boundary on cross-sectional structural OCT. The algorithm was validated in vitro with flow phantoms and in vivo in rats by comparing the sO2 results, respectively, to those obtained using a blood gas analyzer and pulse oximetry. We also investigated the response of oxygen extraction (A-V sO2), including inter-session reproducibility, at different inhaled oxygen concentrations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (3)

2016 (1)

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (2)

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” JOSA 64(8), 1107–1110 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aalders, M. C.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Beach, J. M.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernucci, M.

Bosschaart, N.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camino, A.

Cepurna, W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chappell, P. H.

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, S. P.

Deleon-Ortega, J.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edelman, G. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliasdottir, T. S.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

Girkin, C. A.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halldorsson, G. H.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardarson, S. H.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Hu, J.

Huang, D.

Hwang, T. S.

Jia, Y.

Jiang, M.

Jiao, S.

Karlsson, R. A.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Kristjansdottir, J. V.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lister, T.

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, W.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merkle, C. W.

Mik, E. G.

Morrison, J.

Palmer, K. F.

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” JOSA 64(8), 1107–1110 (1974).
[Crossref]

Pechauer, A. D.

Pi, S.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Sakata, L. M.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakata, V.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwenzer, K. J.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheibani, N.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Sorenson, C. M.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stefánsson, E.

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Tan, O.

Tiedeman, J. S.

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokayer, J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
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D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
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Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Wei, Q.

Williams, D.

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” JOSA 64(8), 1107–1110 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. J.

Wright, P. A.

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
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J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
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J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
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Zhang, H. F.

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, M. Jiang, J. Hu, A. Fawzi, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, C. A. Puliafito, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy for in vivo retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3967–3972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zhou, Q.

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

J. V. Kristjansdottir, S. H. Hardarson, G. H. Halldorsson, R. A. Karlsson, T. S. Eliasdottir, and E. Stefánsson, “Retinal Oximetry With a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 3120–3126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86(2), 748–758 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lister, P. A. Wright, and P. H. Chappell, “Optical properties of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(9), 0909011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JOSA (1)

K. F. Palmer and D. Williams, “Optical properties of water in the near infrared,” JOSA 64(8), 1107–1110 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Logarithmic absorption extinction coefficients of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1000 nm [16]. The much higher extinction coefficients in the visible range (vis-OCT) compared to the infrared range (standard OCT) provides a better contrast to quantify oxygen saturation (sO2).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Posterior vessel boundary detection in the rat retina. (A) Vascular cross-section ellipse in the B-scan. θ: angle between the B-scan plane and normal direction of blood flow. (B) Vascular centerline extraction. Scale bar = 200 μm. (C) Vascular posterior boundary detection in B-scan. Scale bar = 100 μm. (D) The detected posterior boundaries (red) for eight vessels, compared to their anterior borders (green). Scale bar = 100 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Enlarged B-Scans marked with the identified voxels (blue: anterior voxels, red: selected posterior voxels) and the fitted sO2 along the depth of selected voxels for blood sample at SpO2 = 97% (left), an artery at 100% O2 (center) and a vein at 100% O2 (right). Scale bar = 100 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In vitro validation of the algorithm using flow phantom experiments with whole human blood. The fully oxygenated and highly deoxygenated blood samples were mixed at different ratios to vary the sO2 in blood from 60% to 100%. The sO2 determined by vis-OCT agreed well with SpO2 values determined by blood gas analyzer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-(c): Arteries demonstrate higher oxygen saturation (sO2) than veins by visible light OCT oximetry. Red: artery. Green: vein. The sO2 of each vessel is overlaid on structural en face images. (d)- (f): Fundus images. (g)- (i): Doppler OCT images around the optic disc show opposite flow directions between arteries and veins.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Representative sO2 response of each major vessel (red: arteries, green: veins) in one rat retina to changes in oxygen concentration in the inhalation gas from 100% to 50% and to 21%, and then back to 50% and finally 100%.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The oxygen saturation (sO2) response of arteries (red) and veins (green) to the inhaled oxygen concentration at the first and second sessions, overlaid by the mean ± standard deviation fitting curve at each oxygen concentration.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of the oxygen saturation between arteries and veins in individual animals at different oxygen concentrations and imaging sessions. Each hexagonal chart represents a certain inhaled oxygen concentration (100%, 50%, 21%, back to 50% and then back to 100%). Each vertex of the hexagons represents the measurements for a given animal (Rat 1-6) under the given oxygen concentration. For each rat, the systemic arterial oxygen saturation SaO2 measured by a pulse oximeter is provided for both sessions (I and II). The radius of the hexagon represents the sO2 values between 50% to 100%. The red color represents arterial sO2 (A-sO2) whereas the green color represents venous sO2 (V-sO2). Typically, A-sO2 is larger than V-sO2. Solid lines connect measurements made in the first session (I) and dashed lines connect measurements made in the second session (II). Proximity between the same measurement in two sessions indicates good repeatability.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Response of oxygen extraction [mean ± population standard deviation (std), A-V sO2] to changes in oxygen concentration and inter-session reproducibility.

Equations (3)

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I(z,λ)= I 0 (λ) R 0 r(λ) e 2(z z 0 )[ C Hb O 2 ε Hb O 2 (λ)+ C Hb ε Hb (λ)]
OD(z,λ)=ln( I(z,λ) I 0 (λ) )=2(z z 0 )[ C Hb O 2 ε Hb O 2 (λ)+ C Hb ε Hb (λ)]αln(λ)+ln(A R 0 )
[ OD(z, λ 1 ) OD(z, λ 2 ) ... OD(z, λ n ) ]=[ ε Hb O 2 ( λ 1 ) ε Hb ( λ 1 ) ln( λ 1 ) 1 ε Hb O 2 ( λ 2 ) ε Hb ( λ 2 ) ln( λ 2 ) 1 ... ... ... ... ε Hb O 2 ( λ n ) ε Hb ( λ n ) ln( λ n ) 1 ][ 2(z z 0 ) C Hb O 2 2(z z 0 ) C Hb α ln(A R 0 ) ]

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