Abstract

This work presents a diagnostic system for the hepatitis C infection using Raman spectroscopy and proximity based classification. The proposed method exploits transformed Raman spectra using the proximity based machine learning technique and is denoted as RS-PCA-Prox. First, Raman spectral data is baseline corrected by subtracting noise and low intensity background. After this, a feature transformation of Raman spectra is adopted, not only to reduce the feature’s dimensionality but also to learn different deviations in Raman shifts. The proposed RS-PCA-Prox shows significant diagnostic power in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity as 95%, 0.97 and 0.94 in PCA based transformed domain. The comparison of the RS-PCA-Prox with linear and ensemble based classifiers shows that proximity based classification performs better for the discrimination of HCV infected individuals and is able to differentiate the infected individuals from normal ones on the basis of molecular spectral information. Furthermore, it is observed that characteristic spectral changes are due to variation in the intensity of lectin, chitin, lipids, ammonia and viral protein as a consequence of the HCV infection.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

S. Khan, R. Ullah, S. Javaid, S. Shahzad, H. Ali, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Ahmed, “Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Principal Component Analysis for Screening Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Human Blood Sera,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(11), 2497–2503 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, A. Sohail, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Random Forest-Based Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy for Dengue Fever Analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(9), 2111–2117 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

V. S. R. P. V. Kamadi, A. R. Allam, S. M. Thummala, and P. V. N. Rao, “A computational intelligence technique for the effective diagnosis of diabetic patients using principal component analysis (PCA) and modified fuzzy SLIQ decision tree approach,” Appl. Soft Comput. 49, 137–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, M. Ayub, and W. M. Khan, “Hyperammonemia Is Associated with Increasing Severity of Both Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy,” Int. J. Hepatol. 2016, 6741754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Villa-Manriquez, J. Castro-Ramos, F. Gutierrez-Delgado, M. A. Lopez-Pacheco, and A. E. Villanueva-Luna, “Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 6, 1–6 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Firdaus, K. Saha, A. Biswas, and P. C. Sadhukhan, “Current molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus in high risk group population: A systematic review,” World J. Virol. 4(1), 25–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. V. Uliana, C. S. Riccardi, and H. Yamanaka, “Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C: recent trends in electrochemical immunosensor and genosensor analysis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(42), 15476–15491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, Z. Wu, and J. Jiang, “A novel feature selection approach for biomedical data classification,” J. Biomed. Inform. 43(1), 15–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, L. B. Seeff, and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update,” Hepatology 49(4), 1335–1374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. P. Van Der Maaten, E. O. Postma, and H. J. Van Den Herik, “Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1–41 (2009).

K. Q. Weinberger and L. K. Saul, “Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 207–244 (2009).

2008 (2)

J. Saade, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. R. Rodrigues, and L. Silveira, “Identification of hepatitis C in human blood serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 22(5), 387–395 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Camerlingo, F. Zenone, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, N. Cirillo, G. M. Gaeta, and M. Lepore, “An investigation on micro-Raman spectra and wavelet data analysis for pemphigus vulgaris follow-up monitoring,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3656–3664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Li and B. Yuan, “2D-LDA: A statistical linear discriminant analysis for image matrix,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 26(5), 527–532 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. W. Turner, “The role of mannose-binding lectin in health and disease,” Neth. J. Med. 62, 4–9 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Rohleder, W. Kiefer, W. Petrich, and S. Str, “Quantitative analysis of serum and serum ultrafiltrate by means of Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(10), 906–911 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Automated Method for Subtraction of Fluorescence from Biological Raman Spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(11), 1363–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Henderson, “Managing Occupational Risks for Hepatitis C Transmission in the Health Care Setting,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16(3), 546–568 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Liaw and M. Wiener, “Classification and Regression by randomForest,” R News 2, 18–22 (2002).

2000 (1)

M. W. Browne, “Cross-Validation Methods,” J. Math. Psychol. 44(1), 108–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Gregson, “Factor analysis,” Work Study 42(1), 10–11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abdi, H.

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ahangari, F.

C. G. Lee, C. A. Da Silva, C. S. Dela Cruz, F. Ahangari, B. Ma, J. Kang, C. He, S. Takyar, and J. A. Elias, “NIH Public Access,” 1–28 (2013).

Ahmed, M.

Ali, H.

Allam, A. R.

V. S. R. P. V. Kamadi, A. R. Allam, S. M. Thummala, and P. V. N. Rao, “A computational intelligence technique for the effective diagnosis of diabetic patients using principal component analysis (PCA) and modified fuzzy SLIQ decision tree approach,” Appl. Soft Comput. 49, 137–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amin, I.

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Asif Hanif, M.

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ayub, M.

A. Khan, M. Ayub, and W. M. Khan, “Hyperammonemia Is Associated with Increasing Severity of Both Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy,” Int. J. Hepatol. 2016, 6741754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baig, S. M.

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bamforth, F.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, E.

J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beleites, C.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S.

S. Bhatia, P. Prakash, and G. N. Pillai, “SVM Based Decision Support System for Heart Disease Classification with Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm to Select Critical Features,” Proc. World Congr. Eng. Comput. Sci. (2008).

Bilal, M.

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, S. Javaid, S. Shahzad, H. Ali, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Ahmed, “Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Principal Component Analysis for Screening Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Human Blood Sera,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(11), 2497–2503 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, A. Sohail, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Random Forest-Based Evaluation of Raman Spectroscopy for Dengue Fever Analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(9), 2111–2117 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, A. Khan, N. Wahab, M. Bilal, and M. Ahmed, “Analysis of dengue infection based on Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(6), 2249–2256 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswas, A.

R. Firdaus, K. Saha, A. Biswas, and P. C. Sadhukhan, “Current molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus in high risk group population: A systematic review,” World J. Virol. 4(1), 25–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocklitz, T.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnierg, F.

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H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
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U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
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J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
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C. Camerlingo, F. Zenone, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, N. Cirillo, G. M. Gaeta, and M. Lepore, “An investigation on micro-Raman spectra and wavelet data analysis for pemphigus vulgaris follow-up monitoring,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3656–3664 (2008).
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R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
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H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
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H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
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H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
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R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
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N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
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U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
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C. Camerlingo, F. Zenone, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, N. Cirillo, G. M. Gaeta, and M. Lepore, “An investigation on micro-Raman spectra and wavelet data analysis for pemphigus vulgaris follow-up monitoring,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3656–3664 (2008).
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J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
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N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
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Petrich, W.

D. Rohleder, W. Kiefer, W. Petrich, and S. Str, “Quantitative analysis of serum and serum ultrafiltrate by means of Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(10), 906–911 (2004).
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Pillai, G. N.

S. Bhatia, P. Prakash, and G. N. Pillai, “SVM Based Decision Support System for Heart Disease Classification with Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm to Select Critical Features,” Proc. World Congr. Eng. Comput. Sci. (2008).

Popp, J.

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Postma, E. O.

L. J. P. Van Der Maaten, E. O. Postma, and H. J. Van Den Herik, “Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1–41 (2009).

Prakash, P.

S. Bhatia, P. Prakash, and G. N. Pillai, “SVM Based Decision Support System for Heart Disease Classification with Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm to Select Critical Features,” Proc. World Congr. Eng. Comput. Sci. (2008).

Psychogios, N.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pybus, O. G.

J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahman, M.

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rao, P. V. N.

V. S. R. P. V. Kamadi, A. R. Allam, S. M. Thummala, and P. V. N. Rao, “A computational intelligence technique for the effective diagnosis of diabetic patients using principal component analysis (PCA) and modified fuzzy SLIQ decision tree approach,” Appl. Soft Comput. 49, 137–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rashid, N.

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Riccardi, C. S.

C. V. Uliana, C. S. Riccardi, and H. Yamanaka, “Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C: recent trends in electrochemical immunosensor and genosensor analysis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(42), 15476–15491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodrigues, M. R.

J. Saade, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. R. Rodrigues, and L. Silveira, “Identification of hepatitis C in human blood serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 22(5), 387–395 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rohleder, D.

D. Rohleder, W. Kiefer, W. Petrich, and S. Str, “Quantitative analysis of serum and serum ultrafiltrate by means of Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(10), 906–911 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saade, J.

J. Saade, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. R. Rodrigues, and L. Silveira, “Identification of hepatitis C in human blood serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 22(5), 387–395 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sadhukhan, P. C.

R. Firdaus, K. Saha, A. Biswas, and P. C. Sadhukhan, “Current molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus in high risk group population: A systematic review,” World J. Virol. 4(1), 25–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saha, K.

R. Firdaus, K. Saha, A. Biswas, and P. C. Sadhukhan, “Current molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus in high risk group population: A systematic review,” World J. Virol. 4(1), 25–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saleem, M.

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, R. Ullah, S. Javaid, S. Shahzad, H. Ali, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Ahmed, “Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Principal Component Analysis for Screening Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Human Blood Sera,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(11), 2497–2503 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salzer, R.

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saul, L. K.

K. Q. Weinberger and L. K. Saul, “Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 207–244 (2009).

Schackert, G.

R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeff, L. B.

M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, L. B. Seeff, and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update,” Hepatology 49(4), 1335–1374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahzad, S.

Short, M.

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

J. Saade, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. R. Rodrigues, and L. Silveira, “Identification of hepatitis C in human blood serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 22(5), 387–395 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinelnikov, I.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. R.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohail, A.

Steiner, G.

R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoddart, P. R.

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

Str, S.

D. Rohleder, W. Kiefer, W. Petrich, and S. Str, “Quantitative analysis of serum and serum ultrafiltrate by means of Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(10), 906–911 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strader, D. B.

M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, L. B. Seeff, and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update,” Hepatology 49(4), 1335–1374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takyar, S.

C. G. Lee, C. A. Da Silva, C. S. Dela Cruz, F. Ahangari, B. Ma, J. Kang, C. He, S. Takyar, and J. A. Elias, “NIH Public Access,” 1–28 (2013).

Thomas, D. L.

M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, L. B. Seeff, and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update,” Hepatology 49(4), 1335–1374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thummala, S. M.

V. S. R. P. V. Kamadi, A. R. Allam, S. M. Thummala, and P. V. N. Rao, “A computational intelligence technique for the effective diagnosis of diabetic patients using principal component analysis (PCA) and modified fuzzy SLIQ decision tree approach,” Appl. Soft Comput. 49, 137–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turner, M. W.

M. W. Turner, “The role of mannose-binding lectin in health and disease,” Neth. J. Med. 62, 4–9 (2004).
[PubMed]

Uckermann, O.

R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uliana, C. V.

C. V. Uliana, C. S. Riccardi, and H. Yamanaka, “Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C: recent trends in electrochemical immunosensor and genosensor analysis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(42), 15476–15491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullah, R.

Van Den Herik, H. J.

L. J. P. Van Der Maaten, E. O. Postma, and H. J. Van Den Herik, “Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1–41 (2009).

Van Der Maaten, L. J. P.

L. J. P. Van Der Maaten, E. O. Postma, and H. J. Van Den Herik, “Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1–41 (2009).

Villa-Manriquez, J. F.

J. F. Villa-Manriquez, J. Castro-Ramos, F. Gutierrez-Delgado, M. A. Lopez-Pacheco, and A. E. Villanueva-Luna, “Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 6, 1–6 (2016).
[PubMed]

Villanueva-Luna, A. E.

J. F. Villa-Manriquez, J. Castro-Ramos, F. Gutierrez-Delgado, M. A. Lopez-Pacheco, and A. E. Villanueva-Luna, “Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 6, 1–6 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wahab, N.

Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinberger, K. Q.

K. Q. Weinberger and L. K. Saul, “Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 207–244 (2009).

Wiener, M.

A. Liaw and M. Wiener, “Classification and Regression by randomForest,” R News 2, 18–22 (2002).

Williams, L. J.

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wishart, D. S.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Y. Peng, Z. Wu, and J. Jiang, “A novel feature selection approach for biomedical data classification,” J. Biomed. Inform. 43(1), 15–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, H.

C. V. Uliana, C. S. Riccardi, and H. Yamanaka, “Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C: recent trends in electrochemical immunosensor and genosensor analysis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(42), 15476–15491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, N.

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

M. Li and B. Yuan, “2D-LDA: A statistical linear discriminant analysis for image matrix,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 26(5), 527–532 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zenone, F.

C. Camerlingo, F. Zenone, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, N. Cirillo, G. M. Gaeta, and M. Lepore, “An investigation on micro-Raman spectra and wavelet data analysis for pemphigus vulgaris follow-up monitoring,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3656–3664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

D. Rohleder, W. Kiefer, W. Petrich, and S. Str, “Quantitative analysis of serum and serum ultrafiltrate by means of Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(10), 906–911 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Soft Comput. (1)

V. S. R. P. V. Kamadi, A. R. Allam, S. M. Thummala, and P. V. N. Rao, “A computational intelligence technique for the effective diagnosis of diabetic patients using principal component analysis (PCA) and modified fuzzy SLIQ decision tree approach,” Appl. Soft Comput. 49, 137–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1)

D. K. Henderson, “Managing Occupational Risks for Hepatitis C Transmission in the Health Care Setting,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16(3), 546–568 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hepatology (2)

J. P. Messina, I. Humphreys, A. Flaxman, A. Brown, G. S. Cooke, O. G. Pybus, and E. Barnes, “Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes,” Hepatology 61(1), 77–87 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, L. B. Seeff, and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: An update,” Hepatology 49(4), 1335–1374 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Hepatol. (1)

A. Khan, M. Ayub, and W. M. Khan, “Hyperammonemia Is Associated with Increasing Severity of Both Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy,” Int. J. Hepatol. 2016, 6741754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Inform. (1)

Y. Peng, Z. Wu, and J. Jiang, “A novel feature selection approach for biomedical data classification,” J. Biomed. Inform. 43(1), 15–23 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Galli, O. Uckermann, E. Koch, G. Schackert, M. Kirsch, and G. Steiner, “Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (4)

U. Neugebauer, J. H. Clement, T. Bocklitz, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Identification and differentiation of single cells from peripheral blood by Raman spectroscopic imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(8-9), 579–587 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, G. Steiner, C. Beleites, and R. Salzer, “Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 2(1-2), 13–28 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Villa-Manriquez, J. Castro-Ramos, F. Gutierrez-Delgado, M. A. Lopez-Pacheco, and A. E. Villanueva-Luna, “Raman spectroscopy and PCA-SVM as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify and classify qualitatively glycated hemoglobin levels in vivo,” J. Biophotonics 6, 1–6 (2016).
[PubMed]

W. Wang, J. Zhao, M. Short, and H. Zeng, “Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 8(7), 527–545 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mach. Learn. Res. (2)

L. J. P. Van Der Maaten, E. O. Postma, and H. J. Van Den Herik, “Dimensionality Reduction: A Comparative Review,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1–41 (2009).

K. Q. Weinberger and L. K. Saul, “Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classification,” J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 207–244 (2009).

J. Math. Psychol. (1)

M. W. Browne, “Cross-Validation Methods,” J. Math. Psychol. 44(1), 108–132 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (3)

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Kiefer, A. P. Mazzolini, and P. R. Stoddart, “Recent Advances in linear and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy I,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(12), 1538–1553 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Nawaz, N. Rashid, M. Saleem, M. Asif Hanif, M. Irfan Majeed, I. Amin, M. Iqbal, M. Rahman, O. Ibrahim, S. M. Baig, M. Ahmed, F. Bonnierg, and H. J. Byrnee, “Prediction of viral loads for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection in human plasma samples using raman spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 48(5), 697–704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, M. Bilal, M. Bilal, M. Saleem, and M. Bilal, “Raman spectroscopy – based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(9), 095602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Neth. J. Med. (1)

M. W. Turner, “The role of mannose-binding lectin in health and disease,” Neth. J. Med. 62, 4–9 (2004).
[PubMed]

Pattern Recognit. Lett. (1)

M. Li and B. Yuan, “2D-LDA: A statistical linear discriminant analysis for image matrix,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 26(5), 527–532 (2005).
[Crossref]

PLoS One (1)

N. Psychogios, D. D. Hau, J. Peng, A. C. Guo, R. Mandal, S. Bouatra, I. Sinelnikov, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Eisner, B. Gautam, N. Young, J. Xia, C. Knox, E. Dong, P. Huang, Z. Hollander, T. L. Pedersen, S. R. Smith, F. Bamforth, R. Greiner, B. McManus, J. W. Newman, T. Goodfriend, and D. S. Wishart, “The human serum metabolome,” PLoS One 6(2), e16957 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R News (1)

A. Liaw and M. Wiener, “Classification and Regression by randomForest,” R News 2, 18–22 (2002).

Sensors (Basel) (1)

C. Camerlingo, F. Zenone, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, N. Cirillo, G. M. Gaeta, and M. Lepore, “An investigation on micro-Raman spectra and wavelet data analysis for pemphigus vulgaris follow-up monitoring,” Sensors (Basel) 8(6), 3656–3664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrosc. Int. J. (1)

J. Saade, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. R. Rodrigues, and L. Silveira, “Identification of hepatitis C in human blood serum by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Int. J. 22(5), 387–395 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. (1)

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Work Study (1)

K. Gregson, “Factor analysis,” Work Study 42(1), 10–11 (1993).
[Crossref]

World J. Gastroenterol. (1)

C. V. Uliana, C. S. Riccardi, and H. Yamanaka, “Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C: recent trends in electrochemical immunosensor and genosensor analysis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 20(42), 15476–15491 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

World J. Virol. (1)

R. Firdaus, K. Saha, A. Biswas, and P. C. Sadhukhan, “Current molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis C virus in high risk group population: A systematic review,” World J. Virol. 4(1), 25–32 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

S. Ruberto, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of chondroitinase ABC treatment after spinal cord injury in an organotypic model,” thesis (2013).

P. Lasch and J. Kneipp, Biomedical Vibrational Spectroscopy (Wiley-Interscience, 2008).

C. G. Lee, C. A. Da Silva, C. S. Dela Cruz, F. Ahangari, B. Ma, J. Kang, C. He, S. Takyar, and J. A. Elias, “NIH Public Access,” 1–28 (2013).

P. Cunningham and S. J. Delany, “K -Nearest Neighbour Classifiers,” Mult. Classif. Syst. 1–17 (2007).

S. Bhatia, P. Prakash, and G. N. Pillai, “SVM Based Decision Support System for Heart Disease Classification with Integer-Coded Genetic Algorithm to Select Critical Features,” Proc. World Congr. Eng. Comput. Sci. (2008).

Y. Li, C. Yan, W. Liu, and M. Li, “A principle component analysis-based random forest with the potential nearest neighbor method for automobile insurance fraud identification,” Appl. Soft Comput. J., in press, 1–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of the proposed RS-PCA-Prox detection system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The plot of the mean spectral difference between HCV infected (red) and normal blood sera (blue).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variance plot for principal components.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Distribution of samples using feature 1 vs feature 2 and feature 3 vs feature 4 of the reduced dataset, (A) Mapping of PCA: PC1 vs PC2, and PC3 vs PC4 (B) Mapping of FA: Factor1 vs Factor2, and Factor3 vs Factor4 (C) Mapping of LMNN: component 1 vs component 2 and component 3 vs component 4.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Decision surface of kNN for 1000 and 1250 cm−1 Raman shift (2 features space). Blue crosses depict infected individuals while black dots show normal individuals.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 An example of the decision tree (base learner in RF ensemble) generated by RF. Node values correspond to Raman shifts (718, 872, 1004, 1169, 1250) that are correlated with the diagnostically significant Raman peaks. Decision tree is defined by 15 splits whereas terminal nodes show outcome class, i.e, infected (−1) and normal (1).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Receiver operating characteristic curve for kNN and RF on 60% test dataset, (A) ROC curve for kNN classification system, (B) ROC curve for RF classification system.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Performance of kNN on PCA transformed test data.

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Table 2 Performance of kNN on FA and LMNN transformed test data.

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Table 3 Performance of kNN in the original domain.

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Table 4 Performance of RF on the transformed test data.

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Table 5 Performance comparison of kNN with LDA and SVM on PCA transformed test data.

Equations (13)

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j=arg max i P( w i |t)
Vote( y j )= i=1 k 1 d ( q, x i ) n 1( y j , y i )
J(x)= x i T S b x i x i T S w x i
x opt =arg max x j(x)
( w t . x i )+c=0 wS,cR
minimize 1 2 w 2
subject to y i (( x i .w)+c)1
C= 1 n i=1 n ( x i μ ) T ( x i μ )
max L Tr( L T CL)subject to:L L T =I
x m =  λ m1 f 1  ,  λ m2 f 2    λ mn f n + e   m
min M i,j N i d( x i ,  x m )
d( x i ,  x j )d( x i ,  x m )+1
  min M i,mN d( x i ,  x m )+ i,m,j ξ imj

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