Abstract

Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sunglasses wear to an all-day protection scenario.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (2)

B. S. B. Wachler, “Assessment of levels of ultraviolet a light protection in automobile windshields and side windows,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134, 772–775 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, H. Hua, Y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Distributions of direct, reflected, and diffuse irradiance for ocular UV exposure at different solar elevation angles,” PloS one 11, e0166729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

S. Abdulrahim, Y. M. Abubakar, and I. T. Bello, “Evaluation of the level of transmission of solar radiation by eyeglasses (spectacles) and its effects on the human eye,” JASR 5, 489–498 (2015).

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (5)

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. C. Yam and A. K. Kwok, “Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases,” International Ophthalmology 34, 383–400 (2014).
[Crossref]

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Almutawa, R. Vandal, S. Q. Wang, and H. W. Lim, “Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 29, 65–72 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. A. Baczynska, A. J. Pearson, J. B. O’Hagan, and J. Heydenreich, “Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured in Wagrain, Austria in winter,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 154, 497–504 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Coroneo, “Ultraviolet radiation and the anterior eye,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 214–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Roberts, “Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 246–249 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Turner and A. V. Parisi, “Measuring the influence of UV reflection from vertical metal surfaces on humans,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 62–69 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Turner, A. V. Parisi, and D. J. Turnbull, “Reflected solar radiation from horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces: Ultraviolet and visible spectral and broadband behaviour due to solar zenith angle, orientation and surface type,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 92, 29–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C. Tuchinda, S. Srivannaboon, and H. W. Lim, “Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54, 845–854 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Young, “Acute effects of UVR on human eyes and skin,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 92, 80–85 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Oliva and H. Taylor, “Ultraviolet radiation and the eye,” International Ophthalmology Clinics 45, 1–17 (2005).
[PubMed]

P. Koepke and M. Mech, “UV irradiance on arbitrarily oriented surfaces: variation with atmospheric and ground properties,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 81, 25–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

A. Oppenrieder, P. Hoeppe, and P. Koepke, “Routine measurement of erythemally effective UV irradiance on inclined surfaces,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 74, 85–94 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 400 nm (incoherent optical radiation),” Health Physics 87, 171–186 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Streicher, W. C. Culverhouse, M. S. Dulberg, and R. J. Fornaro, “Modeling the anatomical distribution of sunlight,” Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 40–47 (2004).
[PubMed]

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. J. Dain, “Sunglasses and sunglass standards,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 86, 77–90 (2003).

P. Gies, “Ultraviolet protection factors for clothing: An intercomparison of measurement systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 77.1, 58–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

G. W. Hall and M. Schultmeyer, “The FUBI system for solar rating nonprescription eyewear,” Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) 73, 407–417 (2002).

P. Weihs, “Influence of ground reflectivity and topography on erythemal UV radiation on inclined planes,” Int. J.Biometeorol. 46, 95–104 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. H. Sliney, “Photoprotection of the eye- UV radiation and sunglasses,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 64, 166–175 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, and K. Sasaki, “Effectiveness of eyeglasses for protection against ultraviolet rays,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 566–567 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. G. Kimlin, A. V. Parisi, and J. C. F. Wong, “Quantification of personal solar UV exposure of outdoor workers, indoor workers and adolescents at two locations in southeast Queensland,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 14, 7–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. M. Sydenham, M. J. Collins, and L. W. Hirst, “Measurement of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1485–1492 (1997).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. Herlihy, P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy, and M. Jones, “Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288–294 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. G. Pitts, “Ultraviolet-absorbing spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 435–440 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

F. S. Rosenthal, C. Phoon, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 649–656 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

F. S. Rosenthal, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Am. J. Public Health 76, 1216–1220 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

Abdulrahim, S.

S. Abdulrahim, Y. M. Abubakar, and I. T. Bello, “Evaluation of the level of transmission of solar radiation by eyeglasses (spectacles) and its effects on the human eye,” JASR 5, 489–498 (2015).

Abubakar, Y. M.

S. Abdulrahim, Y. M. Abubakar, and I. T. Bello, “Evaluation of the level of transmission of solar radiation by eyeglasses (spectacles) and its effects on the human eye,” JASR 5, 489–498 (2015).

Alard, V.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almutawa, F.

F. Almutawa, R. Vandal, S. Q. Wang, and H. W. Lim, “Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 29, 65–72 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baczynska, K. A.

K. A. Baczynska, A. J. Pearson, J. B. O’Hagan, and J. Heydenreich, “Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured in Wagrain, Austria in winter,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 154, 497–504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baillet, G.

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Bakalian, A. E.

F. S. Rosenthal, C. Phoon, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 649–656 (1988).
[PubMed]

F. S. Rosenthal, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Am. J. Public Health 76, 1216–1220 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behar-Cohen, F.

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
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Bello, I. T.

S. Abdulrahim, Y. M. Abubakar, and I. T. Bello, “Evaluation of the level of transmission of solar radiation by eyeglasses (spectacles) and its effects on the human eye,” JASR 5, 489–498 (2015).

Bergmanson, J. P.

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, M. W.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulliard, J.-L.

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casson, R.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.-Y.

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cho, H.-K.

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N.

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C.

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, M. J.

M. M. Sydenham, M. J. Collins, and L. W. Hirst, “Measurement of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1485–1492 (1997).
[PubMed]

Collum, L. M.

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
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J. J. Streicher, W. C. Culverhouse, M. S. Dulberg, and R. J. Fornaro, “Modeling the anatomical distribution of sunlight,” Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 40–47 (2004).
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M. Coroneo and S. Dain, “The sun and eyes: sunlight-induced eye disease and its prevention,” Sun, Skin and Health (siro, 2014), p. 113.

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S. J. Dain, “Sunglasses and sunglass standards,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 86, 77–90 (2003).

de Ayguavives, T.

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dempsey, H.

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doda, D. D.

Dulberg, M. S.

J. J. Streicher, W. C. Culverhouse, M. S. Dulberg, and R. J. Fornaro, “Modeling the anatomical distribution of sunlight,” Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 40–47 (2004).
[PubMed]

Erianto, C.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferdowsi, N.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferrero, L.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, D. P.

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fornaro, R. J.

J. J. Streicher, W. C. Culverhouse, M. S. Dulberg, and R. J. Fornaro, “Modeling the anatomical distribution of sunlight,” Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 40–47 (2004).
[PubMed]

Fujita, N.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
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Fung, S.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, N.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Q.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gao, Y.-Y.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, P. O.

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Garrison, L. M.

Ge, T.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ge, T.-T.

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gers-Barlag, H.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
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Gies, P.

P. Gies, “Ultraviolet protection factors for clothing: An intercomparison of measurement systems,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 77.1, 58–67 (2003).
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Gies, P. H.

E. Herlihy, P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy, and M. Jones, “Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288–294 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
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Green, A. E. S.

Hall, G. W.

G. W. Hall and M. Schultmeyer, “The FUBI system for solar rating nonprescription eyewear,” Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) 73, 407–417 (2002).

Harald, M.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatsusaka, N.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herlihy, E.

E. Herlihy, P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy, and M. Jones, “Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288–294 (1994).
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Heydenreich, J.

K. A. Baczynska, A. J. Pearson, J. B. O’Hagan, and J. Heydenreich, “Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured in Wagrain, Austria in winter,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 154, 497–504 (2012).
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E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
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Hirst, L. W.

M. M. Sydenham, M. J. Collins, and L. W. Hirst, “Measurement of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1485–1492 (1997).
[PubMed]

Hoeppe, P.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oppenrieder, P. Hoeppe, and P. Koepke, “Routine measurement of erythemally effective UV irradiance on inclined surfaces,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 74, 85–94 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.-W.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

J. Yu, H. Hua, Y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Distributions of direct, reflected, and diffuse irradiance for ocular UV exposure at different solar elevation angles,” PloS one 11, e0166729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Issachar, N.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

E. Herlihy, P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy, and M. Jones, “Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288–294 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimlin, M. G.

M. G. Kimlin, A. V. Parisi, and J. C. F. Wong, “Quantification of personal solar UV exposure of outdoor workers, indoor workers and adolescents at two locations in southeast Queensland,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 14, 7–11 (1998).
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Koepke, P.

P. Koepke and M. Mech, “UV irradiance on arbitrarily oriented surfaces: variation with atmospheric and ground properties,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 81, 25–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oppenrieder, P. Hoeppe, and P. Koepke, “Routine measurement of erythemally effective UV irradiance on inclined surfaces,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 74, 85–94 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kojima, M.

Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, and K. Sasaki, “Effectiveness of eyeglasses for protection against ultraviolet rays,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 566–567 (1999).
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Krutmann, J.

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Kwok, A. K.

J. C. Yam and A. K. Kwok, “Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases,” International Ophthalmology 34, 383–400 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, H. W.

F. Almutawa, R. Vandal, S. Q. Wang, and H. W. Lim, “Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 29, 65–72 (2013).
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C. Tuchinda, S. Srivannaboon, and H. W. Lim, “Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54, 845–854 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, E.-C.

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liou, J.-C.

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liu, G.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.-C.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Yu, H. Hua, Y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Distributions of direct, reflected, and diffuse irradiance for ocular UV exposure at different solar elevation angles,” PloS one 11, e0166729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, H. Hua, Y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Distributions of direct, reflected, and diffuse irradiance for ocular UV exposure at different solar elevation angles,” PloS one 11, e0166729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matts, P. J.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McEvoy, H.

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMahon, D.

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mech, M.

P. Koepke and M. Mech, “UV irradiance on arbitrarily oriented surfaces: variation with atmospheric and ground properties,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 81, 25–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meraner, E.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milon, A.

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mok, J.

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, L. A.

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moyal, D.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, L. E.

Nowak, D.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hagan, J. B.

K. A. Baczynska, A. J. Pearson, J. B. O’Hagan, and J. Heydenreich, “Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured in Wagrain, Austria in winter,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 154, 497–504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oliva, M. S.

M. S. Oliva and H. Taylor, “Ultraviolet radiation and the eye,” International Ophthalmology Clinics 45, 1–17 (2005).
[PubMed]

Oppenrieder, A.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oppenrieder, P. Hoeppe, and P. Koepke, “Routine measurement of erythemally effective UV irradiance on inclined surfaces,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 74, 85–94 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orhan, M.

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ortega Garcia, P.

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou-Yang, N.-N.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pakrou, N.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Parisi, A. V.

J. Turner and A. V. Parisi, “Measuring the influence of UV reflection from vertical metal surfaces on humans,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 62–69 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Turner, A. V. Parisi, and D. J. Turnbull, “Reflected solar radiation from horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces: Ultraviolet and visible spectral and broadband behaviour due to solar zenith angle, orientation and surface type,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 92, 29–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Kimlin, A. V. Parisi, and J. C. F. Wong, “Quantification of personal solar UV exposure of outdoor workers, indoor workers and adolescents at two locations in southeast Queensland,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 14, 7–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearson, A. J.

K. A. Baczynska, A. J. Pearson, J. B. O’Hagan, and J. Heydenreich, “Effect of altitude on solar UVR and spectral and spatial variations of UV irradiances measured in Wagrain, Austria in winter,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 154, 497–504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pena-Garcia, P.

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Philipsen, P. A.

E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phoon, C.

F. S. Rosenthal, C. Phoon, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 649–656 (1988).
[PubMed]

Pitts, D. G.

D. G. Pitts, “Ultraviolet-absorbing spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 435–440 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinisch, C.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reme, C.

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reuder, J.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ri, J.-C.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. E.

J. E. Roberts, “Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 246–249 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, F. S.

F. S. Rosenthal, C. Phoon, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 649–656 (1988).
[PubMed]

F. S. Rosenthal, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Am. J. Public Health 76, 1216–1220 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, C. R.

E. Herlihy, P. H. Gies, C. R. Roy, and M. Jones, “Personal dosimetry of solar UV radiation for different outdoor activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 60, 288–294 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, Y.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, and K. Sasaki, “Effectiveness of eyeglasses for protection against ultraviolet rays,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 566–567 (1999).
[Crossref]

Saldana, G.

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, and K. Sasaki, “Effectiveness of eyeglasses for protection against ultraviolet rays,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 43, 566–567 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schmalwieser, A.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnider, C.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
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Schultmeyer, M.

G. W. Hall and M. Schultmeyer, “The FUBI system for solar rating nonprescription eyewear,” Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.) 73, 407–417 (2002).

Seefeldner, M.

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selva, D.

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sliney, D. H.

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. H. Sliney, “Photoprotection of the eye- UV radiation and sunglasses,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 64, 166–175 (2001).
[Crossref]

Soganci, E.

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Srivannaboon, S.

C. Tuchinda, S. Srivannaboon, and H. W. Lim, “Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54, 845–854 (2006).
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Streicher, J. J.

J. J. Streicher, W. C. Culverhouse, M. S. Dulberg, and R. J. Fornaro, “Modeling the anatomical distribution of sunlight,” Photochem. Photobiol. 79, 40–47 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sydenham, M. M.

M. M. Sydenham, M. J. Collins, and L. W. Hirst, “Measurement of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1485–1492 (1997).
[PubMed]

Taylor, H.

M. S. Oliva and H. Taylor, “Ultraviolet radiation and the eye,” International Ophthalmology Clinics 45, 1–17 (2005).
[PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

F. S. Rosenthal, C. Phoon, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 649–656 (1988).
[PubMed]

F. S. Rosenthal, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Am. J. Public Health 76, 1216–1220 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, M.-C.

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

Thieden, E.

E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y.-S.

J.-C. Liou, M.-C. Teng, Y.-S. Tsai, E.-C. Lin, and B.-Y. Chen, “UV-blocking spectacle lens protects against uv-induced decline of visual performance,” Molecular Vision 21, 846–856 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tuchinda, C.

C. Tuchinda, S. Srivannaboon, and H. W. Lim, “Photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, and sunglasses,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54, 845–854 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turnbull, D. J.

J. Turner, A. V. Parisi, and D. J. Turnbull, “Reflected solar radiation from horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces: Ultraviolet and visible spectral and broadband behaviour due to solar zenith angle, orientation and surface type,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 92, 29–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, J.

J. Turner and A. V. Parisi, “Measuring the influence of UV reflection from vertical metal surfaces on humans,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 8, 62–69 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Turner, A. V. Parisi, and D. J. Turnbull, “Reflected solar radiation from horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces: Ultraviolet and visible spectral and broadband behaviour due to solar zenith angle, orientation and surface type,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 92, 29–37 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Usumez, S.

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Uysal, T.

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vandal, R.

F. Almutawa, R. Vandal, S. Q. Wang, and H. W. Lim, “Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 29, 65–72 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vernez, D.

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuilleumier, L.

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
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Wachler, B. S. B.

B. S. B. Wachler, “Assessment of levels of ultraviolet a light protection in automobile windshields and side windows,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 134, 772–775 (2016).
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Walisch, S.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, D.

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. E.

D. P. Fleming, J. E. Walsh, L. A. Moore, J. P. Bergmanson, and D. McMahon, “A novel sensor array for field based ocular ultraviolet radiation measurements,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry 118, 265–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Q.

F. Almutawa, R. Vandal, S. Q. Wang, and H. W. Lim, “Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 29, 65–72 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Hu, Q. Gao, N. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Wang, H. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a mannequin,” J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 10, 17–25 (2013).
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Weihs, P.

P. Weihs, A. Schmalwieser, C. Reinisch, E. Meraner, S. Walisch, and M. Harald, “Measurements of personal UV exposure on different parts of the body during various activities,” Photochem. Photobiol. 89, 1004–1007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Weihs, “Influence of ground reflectivity and topography on erythemal UV radiation on inclined planes,” Int. J.Biometeorol. 46, 95–104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wolber, R.

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolffsohn, J.

J. Krutmann, F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. Ortega Garcia, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. Wolffsohn, “Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 30, 128–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolffsohn, J. S.

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Wong, J. C. F.

M. G. Kimlin, A. V. Parisi, and J. C. F. Wong, “Quantification of personal solar UV exposure of outdoor workers, indoor workers and adolescents at two locations in southeast Queensland,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 14, 7–11 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yam, J. C.

J. C. Yam and A. K. Kwok, “Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases,” International Ophthalmology 34, 383–400 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

N. Gao, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, T.-T. Ge, F. Wang, C. Chu, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, “Diurnal variation of ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation based on data from a mannequin head,” Photochem. Photobiol. 88, 736–743 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

G.-C. Liu, F. Wang, Y.-Y. Gao, Z. Yang, L.-W. Hu, Q. Gao, J.-C. Ri, and Y. Liu, “The enhancement of biological ocular UV radiation on beaches compared to the radiation on grass,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 141, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, H. D.

J. Kim, H.-K. Cho, J. Mok, H. D. Yoo, and N. Cho, “Effects of ozone and aerosol on surface UV radiation variability,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 119, 46–51 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, A. R.

A. R. Young, “Acute effects of UVR on human eyes and skin,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 92, 80–85 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, H. Hua, Y. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Distributions of direct, reflected, and diffuse irradiance for ocular UV exposure at different solar elevation angles,” PloS one 11, e0166729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

L. Hu, F. Wang, N.-N. Ou-Yang, N. Gao, Q. Gao, T. Ge, Y. Gao, G. Liu, Y. Zheng, and Y. Liu, “Quantification of ocular biologically effective UV exposure for different rotation angle ranges based on data from a mannequin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 90, 925–934 (2014).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop (1)

S. Usumez, T. Uysal, M. Orhan, and E. Soganci, “Relationship between static natural head position and head position measured during walking,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop 129, 42–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Public Health (1)

F. S. Rosenthal, A. E. Bakalian, and H. R. Taylor, “The effect of prescription eyewear on ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation,” Am. J. Public Health 76, 1216–1220 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

E. Thieden, P. A. Philipsen, J. Heydenreich, and H. C. Wulf, “UV radiation exposure related to age, sex, occupation, and sun behavior based on time-stamped personal dosimeter readings,” Arch. Dermatol. 140, 197–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, and J.-L. Bulliard, “Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 167, 383–390 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Walsh, J. P. Bergmanson, D. Wallace, G. Saldana, H. Dempsey, H. McEvoy, and L. M. Collum, “Quantification of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) field in the human eye in vivo using novel instrumentation and the potential benefits of UVR blocking hydrogel contact lens,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 85, 1080–1085 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. J. Dain, “Sunglasses and sunglass standards,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 86, 77–90 (2003).

Clin. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Behar-Cohen, G. Baillet, T. de Ayguavives, P. O. Garcia, J. Krutmann, P. Pena-Garcia, C. Reme, and J. S. Wolffsohn, “Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (e-spf), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 8, 87–104 (2014).

Eye (1)

N. Pakrou, R. Casson, S. Fung, N. Ferdowsi, G. Lee, and D. Selva, “South australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours,” Eye 22, 808–814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eye & Contact Lens (3)

H. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, C. Schnider, N. Fujita, N. Hatsusaka, D. H. Sliney, and K. Sasaki, “UV-b exposure to the eye depending on solar altitude,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 191–195 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Coroneo, “Ultraviolet radiation and the anterior eye,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 214–224 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Roberts, “Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration,” Eye & Contact Lens 37, 246–249 (2011).
[Crossref]

Health Physics (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between 180 nm and 400 nm (incoherent optical radiation),” Health Physics 87, 171–186 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Biometeorol. (1)

P. Hoeppe, A. Oppenrieder, C. Erianto, P. Koepke, J. Reuder, M. Seefeldner, and D. Nowak, “Visualization of UV exposure of the human body based on data from a scanning UV-measuring system,” Int. J. Biometeorol. 49, 18–25 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. (1)

P. J. Matts, V. Alard, M. W. Brown, L. Ferrero, H. Gers-Barlag, N. Issachar, D. Moyal, and R. Wolber, “The COLIPA in vitro UVA method: a standard and reproducible measure of sunscreen UVA protection,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 32, 35–46 (2010).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of irradiance contributions, a) condition C1, contribution Iindirect, b) condition C2, contribution Iback, c) condition C3, contribution Idirect.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Basic components of an organic spectacle lens: The main body of lens is plastic material (base lens substrate), protected by a hard coating of a few micron thickness and optionally equipped with an anti reflection coating on both sides. Layers are not in scale.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Reflection spectra, as well as b) transmission spectra of the four clear lenses tested, measured at 6 deg with a spectrophotometer (type LAMBDA 950S UV/Vis Spectrophotometer by PerkinElmer Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of irradiance at the eye of a spectacle wearer: two views of avatar, spectacle lens, and a set of typical ray bundles of Idirect, Iindirect, and Iback.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Eye-shaped mount of spectrometer fibre and PTFE diffusing plate, arrows indicate position of the fiber (light red), and the diffusing plate (dark red), b) Mechanically rotatable mount of mannequin head, c) Schematic setup of head rotations, d) Photo of mannequin head, equipped with spectacle frame and sensor.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) Irradiance at sensor with varying azimuth, b) Schematic setup including head, light source and reference spectrometer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) D65 spectrum [13], compared to Xenon arc lamp spectrum, b) Reflection spectrum of make-up, white head, and two human skin samples.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Overview on experimental data of UV irradiances reaching the eye integrated in the range of 350 – 400 nm. Idirect, Iindirect, Iback as stacked bar charts for empty frame as well as four different clear lenses.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulation (a) and experimental data (c) of UV irradiances reaching the eye integrated in the range of 350 – 400 nm. Idirect, and Iback as stacked bar charts the for four different clear lenses. b) Simulated integrated irradiance contributions of back-reflected irradiances for the four different clear lenses, together with d) experimental data for comparison.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Maximal UV irradiances reaching the eye. (a) Simulated peak irradiances, as well as (b) Experimentally measured peak irradiances, together with angles of occurrences (elevation/head yaw) in Idirect, and Iback for the four different clear lenses.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Simulated (a–d) and experimentally measured (e–h) UV irradiances reaching the eye. Idirect (blue), and Iback (red) for a, e) L0 Basic, b, f) L1 UV-block, c, g) L2 Back-UV, as well as d, h) L3 Combined as function of elevation angle, shaded error bars represent standard deviations from Iall.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Simulated (a–d) and experimentally measured (e–h) UV irradiances reaching the eye. Idirect (blue), and Iback (red) for a, e) L0 Basic, b, f) L1 UV-block, c, g) L2 Back-UV, as well as d, h) L3 Combined as function of head yaws, shaded error bars represent standard deviations from Iall.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Surface maps of experimantally measured as well as simulated irradiance contributions Idirect, Iindirect, and Iback of lens L0. Right/left indicates that the light is coming from the right/left side, front/back indicates that the light is coming from the front/back and bottom/top indicate that the light is coming from the horizon/zenith. Colorcodes show magnitude of irradiance in units of the overall irradiance at the naked head. For visualization purposes irradiances are interpolated to a grid of 0.025 unit radii.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 List of measurement conditions

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