Abstract

A clinical trial on the autofluorescence imaging of skin lesions comprising 16 dermatologically confirmed pigmented nevi, 15 seborrheic keratosis, 2 dysplastic nevi, histologically confirmed 17 basal cell carcinomas and 1 melanoma was performed. The autofluorescence spatial properties of the skin lesions were acquired by smartphone RGB camera under 405 nm LED excitation. The diagnostic criterion is based on the calculation of the mean autofluorescence intensity of the examined lesion in the spectral range of 515 nm–700 nm. The proposed methodology is able to differentiate seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, pigmented nevi and melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method was estimated as being close to 100%. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed in this article.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Spigulis, “Multispectral, fluorescent and photoplethysmographic imaging for remote skin assessment,” Sensors (Basel) 17(12), 1165 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. March, M. Hand, and D. Grossman, “Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(6), 929–941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. G. Borisova, L. P. Angelova, and E. P. Pavlova, “Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence skin cancer diagnostics for clinical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7100412 (2014).

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Carrera, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy in melanoma,” Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) 25(5), 410–422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gerhäuser, “Cancer cell metabolism, epigenetics and the potential influence of dietary components – A perspective,” Biomed. Res. 23(1), 1–21 (2012).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. Y. Liou and P. Storz, “Reactive oxygen species in cancer,” Free Radic. Res. 44(5), 479–496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

I. Bliznakova, E. Borisova, and L. Avramov, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy of human skin in dependence on excitation wavelengths,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 112(5), 1131–1136 (2007).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, S. A.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amirhossein, R.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelova, L. P.

E. G. Borisova, L. P. Angelova, and E. P. Pavlova, “Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence skin cancer diagnostics for clinical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7100412 (2014).

Avramov, L.

I. Bliznakova, E. Borisova, and L. Avramov, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy of human skin in dependence on excitation wavelengths,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 112(5), 1131–1136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balu, M.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, S.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bargo, P. R.

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bassukas, I.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bliznakova, I.

I. Bliznakova, E. Borisova, and L. Avramov, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy of human skin in dependence on excitation wavelengths,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 112(5), 1131–1136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borisova, E.

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Bliznakova, E. Borisova, and L. Avramov, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy of human skin in dependence on excitation wavelengths,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 112(5), 1131–1136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borisova, E. G.

E. G. Borisova, L. P. Angelova, and E. P. Pavlova, “Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence skin cancer diagnostics for clinical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7100412 (2014).

Carrera, C.

C. Carrera, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy in melanoma,” Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) 25(5), 410–422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, J. T.

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cula, G. O.

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Curiel-Lewandrowski, C.

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derjabo, A.

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desai, R. S.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutsch, M.

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dontu, S.

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, M.

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farideh, D.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferulova, I.

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, C.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, S.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Forsea, A.

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galaris, D.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganga, R. S.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, M.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerhäuser, C.

C. Gerhäuser, “Cancer cell metabolism, epigenetics and the potential influence of dietary components – A perspective,” Biomed. Res. 23(1), 1–21 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ghervase, L.

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grossman, D.

J. March, M. Hand, and D. Grossman, “Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(6), 929–941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gundre, D.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hand, M.

J. March, M. Hand, and D. Grossman, “Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(6), 929–941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, R. M.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hilgefort, J. P.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kaufman, M.

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaxiras, E.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, J. W.

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. M.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

König, K.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lange, M.

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lihachev, A.

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lihacova, I.

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, M. J.

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liou, G. Y.

G. Y. Liou and P. Storz, “Reactive oxygen species in cancer,” Free Radic. Res. 44(5), 479–496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loescher, L. J.

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lycans, D.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Malvehy, J.

C. Carrera, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy in melanoma,” Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) 25(5), 410–422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansour, M.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mar, V.

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

March, J.

J. March, M. Hand, and D. Grossman, “Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(6), 929–941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, C.

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammad, E. A.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parichehr, K.

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlova, E. P.

E. G. Borisova, L. P. Angelova, and E. P. Pavlova, “Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence skin cancer diagnostics for clinical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7100412 (2014).

Peng, C.

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Platkov, M.

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puig, S.

C. Carrera, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy in melanoma,” Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) 25(5), 410–422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savastru, D.

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seo, I.

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shirsat, P. M.

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuler, F. D.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Song, Z.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soyer, H. P.

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, “Multispectral, fluorescent and photoplethysmographic imaging for remote skin assessment,” Sensors (Basel) 17(12), 1165 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Storz, P.

G. Y. Liou and P. Storz, “Reactive oxygen species in cancer,” Free Radic. Res. 44(5), 479–496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tirosh, R.

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. H.

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsolakidis, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagnières, G. A.

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson-Byrne, T.

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zachary, C. B.

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurgil, N.

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Phys. Pol. A (1)

I. Bliznakova, E. Borisova, and L. Avramov, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy of human skin in dependence on excitation wavelengths,” Acta Phys. Pol. A 112(5), 1131–1136 (2007).
[Crossref]

Anal. Lett. (1)

L. Ghervase, D. Savastru, S. Dontu, A. Forsea, and E. Borisova, “Characterization of human skin by fluorescence, exemplified by dermatofibroma, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis,” Anal. Lett. 49(3), 342–349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Australas. J. Dermatol. (1)

M. J. Lin, V. Mar, C. McLean, R. Wolfe, and J. W. Kelly, “Diagnostic accuracy of malignant melanoma according to subtype,” Australas. J. Dermatol. 55(1), 35–42 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Res. (1)

C. Gerhäuser, “Cancer cell metabolism, epigenetics and the potential influence of dietary components – A perspective,” Biomed. Res. 23(1), 1–21 (2012).
[PubMed]

Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) (1)

C. Carrera, S. Puig, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy in melanoma,” Dermatol. Ther. (Heidelb.) 25(5), 410–422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Free Radic. Res. (1)

G. Y. Liou and P. Storz, “Reactive oxygen species in cancer,” Free Radic. Res. 44(5), 479–496 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. G. Borisova, L. P. Angelova, and E. P. Pavlova, “Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence skin cancer diagnostics for clinical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7100412 (2014).

Indian Dermatol. Online J. (1)

E. A. Mohammad, M. Mansour, K. Parichehr, D. Farideh, R. Amirhossein, and S. A. Ahmad, “Assessment of clinical diagnostic accuracy compared with pathological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma,” Indian Dermatol. Online J. 6(4), 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2)

J. March, M. Hand, and D. Grossman, “Practical application of new technologies for melanoma diagnosis: Part I. Noninvasive approaches,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 72(6), 929–941 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Chao, L. J. Loescher, H. P. Soyer, and C. Curiel-Lewandrowski, “Barriers to mobile teledermoscopy in primary care,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 69(5), 821–824 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Lihachev, A. Derjabo, I. Ferulova, M. Lange, I. Lihacova, and J. Spigulis, “Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 120502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014017 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. (1)

J. Lin, S. Han, L. Cui, Z. Song, M. Gao, G. Yang, Y. Fu, and X. Liu, “Evaluation of dermoscopic algorithm for seborrhoeic keratosis: a prospective study in 412 patients,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 28(7), 957–962 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

M. Platkov, R. Tirosh, M. Kaufman, N. Zurgil, and M. Deutsch, “Photobleaching of fluorescein as a probe for oxidative stress in single cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 140, 306–314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA Dermatol. (1)

M. Balu, C. B. Zachary, R. M. Harris, T. B. Krasieva, K. König, B. J. Tromberg, and K. M. Kelly, “In Vivo Multiphoton Microscopy of Basal Cell Carcinoma,” JAMA Dermatol. 151(10), 1068–1074 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oral Oncol. (1)

R. S. Ganga, D. Gundre, S. Bansal, P. M. Shirsat, P. Prasad, and R. S. Desai, “Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope,” Oral Oncol. 75, 67–74 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

G. A. Wagnières, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68(5), 603–632 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Seo, S. H. Tseng, G. O. Cula, P. R. Bargo, and N. Kollias, “Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin,” Proc. SPIE 7161, 716103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

J. Spigulis, “Multispectral, fluorescent and photoplethysmographic imaging for remote skin assessment,” Sensors (Basel) 17(12), 1165 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumour Biol. (1)

M. Fang, J. Yuan, C. Peng, and Y. Li, “Collagen as a double-edged sword in tumor progression,” Tumour Biol. 35(4), 2871–2882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Med. J. (1)

J. P. Hilgefort, S. Fitzpatrick, D. Lycans, T. Wilson-Byrne, C. Fisher, and F. D. Shuler, “Smartphone mobile application to enhance diagnosis of skin cancer: A guide for the rural practitioner,” W. V. Med. J. 110(5), 40–44 (2014).
[PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Oakley, “Dermoscopy of seborrhoeic keratosis CME,” (DermNet NZ, 2008) https://www.dermnetnz.org/cme/dermoscopy-course/dermoscopy-of-seborrhoeic-keratosis/ .

American Cancer Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2017,” (American Cancer Society, 2017) http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-048738.pdf .

D. S. Rigel, J. Robinson, M. Ross, R. Friedman, C. Cockerell, H. Lim, and J. Kirkwood, Cancer of the Skin: 2nd Edition (Saunders, 2011), Chap. 11.

S. Pratavieira, C. T. Andrade, A. G. Salvio, V. S. Bagnato, and C. Kurachi, “Optical Imaging as auxiliary tool in skin cancer diagnosis,” in Skin Cancers – Risk Factors, Prevention and Therapy, C. A. M. La Porta, ed. (In tech, 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Three examples of pigmented nevi AF signal in the filtered RGB images: a) 85 year-old male, left collar bone area, b) 81 year-old male, left shoulder, c) 56 year-old female, left side of the abdomen.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Filtered RGB autofluorescence images of dysplastic nevi: a) 67 year-old female, between the shoulder blades, b) 41 year-old male, back.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Filtered AF images of multiple basal cell carcinoma of 44 y.o. male: a),b) and c), all located on the left breast.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Filtered RGB image representing AF signal of malignant melanoma with ulceration, 52 year-old male, left blade.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Three examples of filtered RGB autofluorescence intensity images of seborrheic keratosis: a) 85 year-old male, left hip, b) 85 year-old male, back belt location, c) 81 year-old male, back belt location.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Distributions of the mean autofluorescence intensity for seborrheic keratoses, pigmented nevi, basal cell carcinomas, and healthy skin.

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