Abstract

We investigated the water contents in several organ tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain tissue of rats using the terahertz spectroscopic imaging technique. The water contents of the tissues were determined by using a simple equation containing the absorption coefficients of fresh and lyophilized tissues and water. We compared the measured water contents with the difference in mass of tissues before and after lyophilization. All results showed a good match except for the kidney, which has several Bowman’s capsules.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).
  2. S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. B. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Dehydration kinetics of D-glucose monohydrate studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 229–233 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. B. Ji, S. H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(5), 946–949 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  21. I. A. Parfentjev and W. A. Perlzweig, “The composition of the urine of white mice,” J. Biol. Chem. 100, 551 (1933).
  22. L. M. Zurk, B. Orlowski, D. P. Winebrenner, E. I. Thorsos, M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, and L. M. Hayden, “Terahertz scattering from granular material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2238–2243 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-H. Son, Terahertz Biomedical Science and Technology (CRC Press, 2014), Chap. 19.

2016 (1)

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

Y. B. Ji, S. H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

2012 (1)

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. M. Zurk, B. Orlowski, D. P. Winebrenner, E. I. Thorsos, M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, and L. M. Hayden, “Terahertz scattering from granular material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2238–2243 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. B. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Dehydration kinetics of D-glucose monohydrate studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 229–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1933 (1)

I. A. Parfentjev and W. A. Perlzweig, “The composition of the urine of white mice,” J. Biol. Chem. 100, 551 (1933).

Abbott, D.

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajito, K.

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J. H.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S. H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cluff, J.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Derle, D. V.

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

Erande, K. B.

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

Fan, S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B. M.

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flanagan, N.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haam, S.

Haam, S. J.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

He, Y.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J.-P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Ito, H.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, T.-I.

Jeong, K.

Ji, Y. B.

Joo, C.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-G.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaushik, M.

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, S. H.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S. H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, C. H. Park, H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G. M. Lee, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, J.-H. Son, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. J. Oh, S. K. Lee, and J.-S. Suh, “Feasibility of terahertz reflectometry for discrimination of human early gastric cancers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1398–1406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kukutsu, N.

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

Lee, D. H.

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. M.

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. K.

Linfield, E. H.

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Dehydration kinetics of D-glucose monohydrate studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 229–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maeng, I.

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minamide, H.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nawata, K.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, B. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, B. W.-H.

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noh, S. K.

Notake, T.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, C. H. Park, H. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G. M. Lee, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, J.-H. Son, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. J. Oh, S. K. Lee, and J.-S. Suh, “Feasibility of terahertz reflectometry for discrimination of human early gastric cancers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1398–1406 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, S. H. Kim, K. Jeong, Y. Choi, J.-H. Son, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, T.-I. Jeon, Y.-M. Huh, S. Haam, S. K. Lee, S. J. Oh, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4162–4170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
[Crossref]

Orlowski, B.

Parfentjev, I. A.

I. A. Parfentjev and W. A. Perlzweig, “The composition of the urine of white mice,” J. Biol. Chem. 100, 551 (1933).

Park, C. H.

Park, D. W.

Pawar, A. Y.

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlzweig, W. A.

I. A. Parfentjev and W. A. Perlzweig, “The composition of the urine of white mice,” J. Biol. Chem. 100, 551 (1933).

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

Pye, R.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shankar, S.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. C.

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sim, Y. C.

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, H. Y.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

Sonawane, D. D.

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

Song, H. J.

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamechika, E.

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorsos, E. I.

Ueno, Y.

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Upadhya, P. C.

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winebrenner, D. P.

Yeung, D. K. W.

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, O.

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Dehydration kinetics of D-glucose monohydrate studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 229–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zurk, L. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Kaushik, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Terahertz scattering by dense media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(24), 241110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Shankar, N. Flanagan, R. Pye, J. Cluff, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of basal cell carcinoma ex vivo and in vivo,” Br. J. Dermatol. 151(2), 424–432 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. B. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Dehydration kinetics of D-glucose monohydrate studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 429(1-3), 229–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. C. Sim, I. Maeng, and J.-H. Son, “Frequency-dependent characteristics of terahertz radiation on the enamel and dentin of human tooth,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(5), 946–949 (2009).
[Crossref]

Drug invent. Today (1)

A. Y. Pawar, D. D. Sonawane, K. B. Erande, and D. V. Derle, “Terahertz technology and its applications,” Drug invent. Today 5(2), 157–163 (2013).

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. H. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(7), 074702 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

I. A. Parfentjev and W. A. Perlzweig, “The composition of the urine of white mice,” J. Biol. Chem. 100, 551 (1933).

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

P. C. Upadhya, Y. C. Shen, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of glucose and uric Acid,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2-3), 117–121 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

K. Ajito, Y. Ueno, H. J. Song, E. Tamechika, and N. Kukutsu, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of polymorphic forms in pharmaceutical crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 538(1), 33–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

S. Y. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, D. K. W. Yeung, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(1), 149–160 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Wang, T. Notake, M. Tang, K. Nawata, H. Ito, and H. Minamide, “Terahertz-wave water concentration and distribution measurement in thin biotissue based on a novel sample preparation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4517–4527 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. B. Ji, S. J. Oh, S.-G. Kang, J. Heo, S.-H. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Song, H. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. J. Haam, Y.-M. Huh, J. H. Chang, C. Joo, and J.-S. Suh, “Terahertz reflectometry imaging for low and high grade gliomas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36040 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Borovkova, M. Khodzitsky, A. Popov, A. Bykov, and I. Meglinski, “Assessment of Water Content in Biological Samples by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy,” in Novel Biophotonics Techniques and Applications IV, A. Amelink, ed., Vol. 10413 of SPIE Proceedings (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper 104130R.

J.-H. Son, Terahertz Biomedical Science and Technology (CRC Press, 2014), Chap. 19.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Visible images (upper side) and THz images (bottom side) of surgically extracted (a) liver, (b) spleen, (c) kidney, and (d) brain.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz absorption coefficients of fresh liver (green triangle), spleen (orange square), kidney (violet circle), brain (red inverted triangle), and water (solid line). The inset figure shows a magnified graph of the absorption coefficients of organs from 0.8 to 1.2 THz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 THz absorption coefficients of lyophilized liver (green triangle), spleen (yellow square), kidney (violet circle), and brain (red inverted triangle). The inset figure shows a magnified graph of the absorption coefficients of organs from 0.8 to 1.2 THz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 THz spectrum of the transmission (lyophilized liver) and reflection (fresh liver) THz system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison the water fractions calculated using weights (bar) and THz absorption coefficients (red point).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 H&E stained microscopy image of (a) kidney, (b) brain, (c) spleen, and (d) liver. The unit of scale bar was 100 μm.

Equations (3)

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α fresh = v water α water +(1 v water ) α lyophilized .
v water = α fresh α lyophilized α water α lyophilized ×100.
v water = m fresh m lyophilized m fresh ×100.

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