Abstract

A microfluidic laser scattering system for rapid and label-free detection of single waterborne parasites in microfluidic flows was designed, fabricated and demonstrated. The key novelty of the system lies in the integration of functional modules involving pre-concentration, on-chip laser scattering detection, and pattern recognition. The silicon-based pre-concentration chip can concentrate 10 ml reagent water sample spiked with protozoa (oo)cysts into a volume of 200 μl in ~30 minutes. The concentrated sample is further channeled into the on-chip laser scattering detection module at a flow rate of 10 μl/min, which can collect the multi-angle scattering pattern of single flowing microparticles. The Zernike moment features of scattering patterns are extracted using principal component analysis, and classification of scattering patterns are performed using the linear discriminator analysis algorithm. As a result, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts spiked in ~10 ml reagent water can be enumerated and identified within an hour without labeling, with a mean recovery efficiency of ~73% and average accuracies of 96%, 97%, 97% and 98% at concentrations of 10, 50, 100, 300 (oo)cysts per 10 ml water, respectively. We believe that this compact microfluidic laser scattering system has potential for rapid and label-free water quality monitoring in field and resource-limited environments.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010,” Water Res. 45(20), 6603–6614 (2011).
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  2. M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  3. P. M. Fratamico, A. K. Bhunia, and J. L. Smith, Foodborne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology (Caister Academic Press, 2008)
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    [Crossref]
  5. W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/phoenix/2016/08/20/phoenix-cryptosporidium-outbreak/89019406/
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  16. R. Mukundan, “A new class of rotational invariants using discrete orthogonal moments, Honolulu, USA,” in 6th IASTED Conference on Signal and Image Processing (SIP, 2004), pp. 80–84.
  17. S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010,” Water Res. 45(20), 6603–6614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. S. Gradus, “Water quality and waterborne protozoa,” Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 11(16), 121–125 (1989).
[Crossref]

Abdullah, S. M.

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Addiss, D. G.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anis, H.

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aroonnual, A.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, E.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldursson, S.

S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010,” Water Res. 45(20), 6603–6614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banada, P. P.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhunia, A. K.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blair, K. A.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calderon, R. L.

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craun, G. F.

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. P.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiGiorgio, C. L.

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egli, T.

H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichinger, D.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erath, J.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erlinger, A.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, K. R.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frost, F.

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Füchslin, H. P.

H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, D. A.

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gradus, M. S.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Gradus, “Water quality and waterborne protozoa,” Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 11(16), 121–125 (1989).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirleman, E. D.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hooman, A.

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoxie, N. J.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hubbs, S. A.

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huff, K.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huitt, C. C.

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joung, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karamizadeh, S.

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karanis, P.

S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010,” Water Res. 45(20), 6603–6614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, J. J.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keserue, H. A.

H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. A.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Littlejohn, A. E.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mac Kenzie, W. R.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manaf, A. A.

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marshall, M. M.

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

Mudanyali, O.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukundan, R.

R. Mukundan, “A new class of rotational invariants using discrete orthogonal moments, Honolulu, USA,” in 6th IASTED Conference on Signal and Image Processing (SIP, 2004), pp. 80–84.

Murugkar, S.

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumovitz, D.

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

Niu, L.

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ortega, Y.

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

Ou, X.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, W. Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patsekin, V.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterson, D. E.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proctor, M. E.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajwa, B.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, G. P.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. P.

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, J. B.

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterling, C. R.

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

Tseng, D.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Via, S. H.

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Willems, P.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J. R.

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zamani, M.

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mat. Res. (1)

Y. He, B. Huang, Y. Zhang, and L. Niu, “Study on the manufacture of microfluidic chip with coated glass,” Adv. Mat. Res. 548(8), 254–257 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2)

C. L. DiGiorgio, D. A. Gonzalez, and C. C. Huitt, “Cryptosporidium and Giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(12), 5952–5955 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Keserue, H. P. Füchslin, and T. Egli, “Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(15), 5420–5427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. (1)

M. S. Gradus, “Water quality and waterborne protozoa,” Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 11(16), 121–125 (1989).
[Crossref]

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1)

M. M. Marshall, D. Naumovitz, Y. Ortega, and C. R. Sterling, “Waterborne protozoan pathogens,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10(1), 67–85 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Water Works Assoc. (1)

G. F. Craun, S. A. Hubbs, F. Frost, R. L. Calderon, and S. H. Via, “Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis,” J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 90(9), 81–91 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. Murugkar, C. L. Evans, X. S. Xie, and H. Anis, “Chemically specific imaging of cryptosporidium oocysts using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Microsc. 233(2), 244–250 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Journal of Signal and Information Processing (1)

S. Karamizadeh, S. M. Abdullah, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, and A. Hooman, “An Overview of Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Signal and Information Processing 4(033B), 173–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korean J. Parasitol. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Joung, S. Yoon, K. Choi, W. Y. Park, and J. R. Yu, “Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium,” Korean J. Parasitol. 48(4), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Microb. Biotechnol. (1)

K. Huff, A. Aroonnual, A. E. Littlejohn, B. Rajwa, E. Bae, P. P. Banada, V. Patsekin, E. D. Hirleman, J. P. Robinson, G. P. Richards, and A. K. Bhunia, “Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate,” Microb. Biotechnol. 5(5), 607–620 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

W. R. Mac Kenzie, N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis, “A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(3), 161–167 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

S. A. Lee, J. Erath, G. Zheng, X. Ou, P. Willems, D. Eichinger, A. Rodriguez, and C. Yang, “Imaging and Identification of Waterborne Parasites Using a Chip-Scale Microscope,” PLoS One 9(2), e89712 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Water Res. (1)

S. Baldursson and P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010,” Water Res. 45(20), 6603–6614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/phoenix/2016/08/20/phoenix-cryptosporidium-outbreak/89019406/

R. Mukundan, “A new class of rotational invariants using discrete orthogonal moments, Honolulu, USA,” in 6th IASTED Conference on Signal and Image Processing (SIP, 2004), pp. 80–84.

P. M. Fratamico, A. K. Bhunia, and J. L. Smith, Foodborne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology (Caister Academic Press, 2008)

R. O. Duba, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification (Wiley, 2001)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of microfluidic multi-angle laser scattering system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of on-chip laser scattering detection module.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Graphical representation of radial zernike polynomials: (a) real part Z2,2; (b) magnitude Z2,2; (c) real part Z10,2; (d) magnitude Z10,2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pre-concentration chip with particle trapping and release. (a). A photograph of the pre-concentration chip. (b). SEM image of the side view of the pillar array. (c). Micrograph of the micro-pillars with trapped PS spheres. (d). Fluorescent image demonstrating releasing of fluorescent-labeling PS spheres.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Recovery efficiency of pre-concentration chip at different concentrations (e.g., 10, 50, 100, and 300 (oo)cysts spiked in 10 ml water).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scattering patterns of waterborne parasites, E. coli, impurity and PS spheres with different diameter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Distribution of principal components of feature vectors for each species. (a) First principal component and (b) 60th principal component.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PCA plot of scattering patterns produced by C. parvum oocyst, G. lamblia cyst, E. coli and unknown impurity.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Confusion matrix of classification results

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z nm = n+1 Π x y f( x,y ) V nm * ( r,θ )dxdy,    x 2 + y 2 <1
V nm ( r,θ )= R nm ( r ) e jmθ
R nm ( r )= s=0 (n| m |)/2 ( 1 ) s ( ns )! s![ ( n+| m | 2 )s ]![ ( n| m | 2 )s ]! r n2s

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