Abstract

Differentiating between early malignancy and benign lesions in oral cavities is difficult using current optical tools. As has been shown in previous studies, microvascular changes in squamous epithelium can be regarded as a key marker for diagnosis. We propose the combination of structural and vascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for the investigation of disease related changes. Progressive thickness changes of epithelium and the destruction of underlying lamina propria was observed during cancer development in a 4- nitroquinoline-1-oxide (inc4NQO) mouse model. At the same time, microvascular changes in hyperplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and advanced cancer were observed. Findings from OCT imaging were compared with histology.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography based angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (7)

W. C. Kuo, C. M. Lai, Y. S. Huang, C. Y. Chang, and Y. M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Amagasa, M. Yamashiro, and N. Uzawa, “Oral premalignant lesions: from a clinical perspective,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 16(1), 5–14 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Napier and P. M. Speight, “Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(1), 1–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Vered, I. Allon, A. Buchner, and D. Dayan, “Stromal myofibroblasts and malignant transformation in a 4NQO rat tongue carcinogenesis model,” Oral Oncol. 43(10), 999–1006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Allo, G.

Allon, I.

M. Vered, I. Allon, A. Buchner, and D. Dayan, “Stromal myofibroblasts and malignant transformation in a 4NQO rat tongue carcinogenesis model,” Oral Oncol. 43(10), 999–1006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amagasa, T.

T. Amagasa, M. Yamashiro, and N. Uzawa, “Oral premalignant lesions: from a clinical perspective,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 16(1), 5–14 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amato, M. R.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Andersen, P. E.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bemis, D.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betz, C. S.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhonsle, R. B.

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchner, A.

M. Vered, I. Allon, A. Buchner, and D. Dayan, “Stromal myofibroblasts and malignant transformation in a 4NQO rat tongue carcinogenesis model,” Oral Oncol. 43(10), 999–1006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C.

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, H. C.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Chang, K. W.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
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Chang, N. W.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, H. M.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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Chen, Z.

G. Liu, W. Jia, V. Sun, B. Choi, and Z. Chen, “High-resolution imaging of microvasculature in human skin in-vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7694–7705 (2012).
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P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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Chiang, C. P.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
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M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
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Choi, W. J.

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
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W. J. Choi and R. K. Wang, “In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2620–2634 (2014).
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T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
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F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
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M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
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K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
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H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
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Epstein, J. B.

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905 (2008).
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Esposito, P.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Ethier, C. R.

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
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A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
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F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Gentile, E.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
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Gey van Pittius, D.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
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Girard, M. J.

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldbaum, M.

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gudas, L. J.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. C.

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hamdoon, Z.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hart, W. E.

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayee, B.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

He, D.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopper, C.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W. T.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. C.

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. S.

Ihrler, S.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, H.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Inoue, H.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jackson, K.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jay, A.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
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Jemec, G. B.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
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Jerjes, W.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, W.

Jiang, A.

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joergensen, T. M.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
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Jones, J.

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
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Kaga, M.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kalmar, J. R.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, M. C.

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, S. Y.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karrison, T.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, A. R.

L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knudsen, B.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraft, M.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kube, P.

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, W. C.

W. C. Kuo, C. M. Lai, Y. S. Huang, C. Y. Chang, and Y. M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. M.

Lai, C. M.

W. C. Kuo, C. M. Lai, Y. S. Huang, C. Y. Chang, and Y. M. Kuo, “Balanced detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19280–19291 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauritano, D.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lee, C. K.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. R.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leunig, A.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. F.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. C.

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T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
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Lindenmaier, A.

Lingen, M. W.

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
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Liu, C. J.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
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T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
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Liu, G.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
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Lu, C. W.

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucchese, A.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lui, M. T.

T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mari, J. M.

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marques, M. E.

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masuyer, E.

F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
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M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKenzie, G.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
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Mehta, F. S.

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
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Minami, H.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moles, D. R.

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
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Murti, P. R.

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

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S. S. Napier and P. M. Speight, “Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(1), 1–10 (2008).
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W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’regan, E.

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, S.

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parmer, J.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
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Patel, P. M.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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Perera, K. S.

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

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M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Pindborg, J. J.

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
[PubMed]

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J. S.

F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, D. A.

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riegler, G.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Salvadori, D. M.

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santi, E. G.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sato, C.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sato, H.

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serpico, R.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Sherriff, M.

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva, R. N.

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivayoham, S.

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Sobin, L. H.

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Speight, P. M.

S. S. Napier and P. M. Speight, “Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(1), 1–10 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiteri, M. A.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stephens, M.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepp, H.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stjernswärd, J.

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Strouthidis, N. G.

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, V.

Susarla, M.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, X. H.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
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Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tickoo, S.

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
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Tsai, M. H.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. T.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, H. C.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Upile, T.

Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
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T. Amagasa, M. Yamashiro, and N. Uzawa, “Oral premalignant lesions: from a clinical perspective,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 16(1), 5–14 (2011).
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M. Vered, I. Allon, A. Buchner, and D. Dayan, “Stromal myofibroblasts and malignant transformation in a 4NQO rat tongue carcinogenesis model,” Oral Oncol. 43(10), 999–1006 (2007).
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Vitkin, A.

Volgger, V.

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
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Wang, R. K.

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
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C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography based angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
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W. J. Choi and R. K. Wang, “In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2620–2634 (2014).
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S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. M.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warnakulasuriya, K. A.

K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
[PubMed]

Warnakulasuriya, S.

S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whiteman, S. C.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashiro, M.

T. Amagasa, M. Yamashiro, and N. Uzawa, “Oral premalignant lesions: from a clinical perspective,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 16(1), 5–14 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
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Yeh, K. T.

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yousefi, S.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zulli, C.

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ann. Gastroenterol. (1)

H. Inoue, M. Kaga, H. Ikeda, C. Sato, H. Sato, H. Minami, E. G. Santi, B. Hayee, and N. Eleftheriadis, “Magnification endoscopy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the intrapapillary capillary loop classification,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 28(1), 41–48 (2015).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

BMC Cancer (1)

C. Jiang, D. Ye, W. Qiu, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. He, P. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO,” BMC Cancer 7(1), 40 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. (1)

M. McGurk, C. Chan, J. Jones, E. O’regan, and M. Sherriff, “Delay in diagnosis and its effect on outcome in head and neck cancer,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 43(4), 281–284 (2005).
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K. A. Warnakulasuriya, A. N. Ekanayake, S. Sivayoham, J. Stjernswärd, J. J. Pindborg, L. H. Sobin, and K. S. Perera, “Utilization of primary health care workers for early detection of oral cancer and precancer cases in Sri Lanka,” Bull. World Health Organ. 62(2), 243–250 (1984).
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Cancer Detect. Prev. (1)

F. S. Mehta, P. C. Gupta, R. B. Bhonsle, P. R. Murti, D. K. Daftary, and J. J. Pindborg, “Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 9(3-4), 219–225 (1986).
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Cancer Lett. (1)

T. H. Chu, C. C. Yang, C. J. Liu, M. T. Lui, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “miR-211 promotes the progression of head and neck carcinomas by targeting TGFβRII,” Cancer Lett. 337(1), 115–124 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

Y. F. Chen, C. C. Yang, S. Y. Kao, C. J. Liu, S. C. Lin, and K. W. Chang, “MicroRNA-211 Enhances the Oncogenicity of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Carcinoma by Repressing TCF12 and Increasing Antioxidant Activity,” Cancer Res. 76(16), 4872–4886 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Biol. Interact. (1)

N. W. Chang, R. J. Pei, H. C. Tseng, K. T. Yeh, H. C. Chan, M. R. Lee, C. Lin, W. T. Hsieh, M. C. Kao, M. H. Tsai, and C. F. Lin, “Co-treating with arecoline and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide to establish a mouse model mimicking oral tumorigenesis,” Chem. Biol. Interact. 183(1), 231–237 (2010).
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Clin. Cancer Res. (2)

X. H. Tang, B. Knudsen, D. Bemis, S. Tickoo, and L. J. Gudas, “Oral cavity and esophageal carcinogenesis modeled in carcinogen-treated mice,” Clin. Cancer Res. 10(1), 301–313 (2004).
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S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
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Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. (1)

R. N. Silva, D. A. Ribeiro, D. M. Salvadori, and M. E. Marques, “Placental glutathione S-transferase correlates with cellular proliferation during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide,” Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 59(1), 61–68 (2007).
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Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51(4), 467–474 (2000).
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Head Neck (1)

V. Volgger, H. Stepp, S. Ihrler, M. Kraft, A. Leunig, P. M. Patel, M. Susarla, K. Jackson, and C. S. Betz, “Evaluation of optical coherence tomography to discriminate lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract,” Head Neck 35(11), 1558–1566 (2013).
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Int. J. Cancer (1)

F. Bray, J. S. Ren, E. Masuyer, and J. Ferlay, “Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008,” Int. J. Cancer 132(5), 1133–1145 (2013).
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T. Amagasa, M. Yamashiro, and N. Uzawa, “Oral premalignant lesions: from a clinical perspective,” Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 16(1), 5–14 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Med. Inform. (1)

W. E. Hart, M. Goldbaum, B. Côté, P. Kube, and M. R. Nelson, “Measurement and classification of retinal vascular tortuosity,” Int. J. Med. Inform. 53(2-3), 239–252 (1999).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

M. J. Girard, N. G. Strouthidis, C. R. Ethier, and J. M. Mari, “Shadow removal and contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography images of the human optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(10), 7738–7748 (2011).
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L. L. Patton, J. B. Epstein, and A. R. Kerr, “Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139(7), 896–905 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents (1)

M. Contaldo, A. Lucchese, E. Gentile, C. Zulli, M. Petruzzi, D. Lauritano, M. R. Amato, P. Esposito, G. Riegler, and R. Serpico, “Evaluation of the intraepithelial papillary capillary loops in benign and malignant oral lesions by in vivo Virtual Chromoendoscopic Magnification: a preliminary study,” J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 31(2Suppl 1), 11–22 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

H. Lin, M. C. Kao, C. M. Lai, J. C. Huang, and W. C. Kuo, “All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, C. W. Lu, Y. M. Wang, C. K. Lee, C. C. Yang, and C. P. Chiang, “Delineation of an oral cancer lesion with swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044012 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 086004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. S. Napier and P. M. Speight, “Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(1), 1–10 (2008).
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J. Theor. Biol. (1)

X. Liu, N. Xu, and A. Jiang, “Tortuosity entropy: a measure of spatial complexity of behavioral changes in animal movement,” J. Theor. Biol. 364, 197–205 (2015).
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Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

W. Wei, W. J. Choi, and R. K. Wang, “Microvascular imaging and monitoring of human oral cavity lesions in vivo by swept-source OCT-based angiography,” Lasers Med. Sci. 33(1), 123–134 (2018).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

P. Wilder-Smith, K. Lee, S. Guo, J. Zhang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, and D. Messadi, “In vivo diagnosis of oral dysplasia and malignancy using optical coherence tomography: preliminary studies in 50 patients,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(5), 353–357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Oral Dis. (1)

A. Vu and C. S. Farah, “Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Dis. 22(5), 383–390 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oral Oncol. (4)

M. C. Downer, D. R. Moles, S. Palmer, and P. M. Speight, “A systematic review of test performance in screening for oral cancer and precancer,” Oral Oncol. 40(3), 264–273 (2004).
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S. Warnakulasuriya, “Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer,” Oral Oncol. 45(4-5), 309–316 (2009).
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Z. Hamdoon, W. Jerjes, T. Upile, G. McKenzie, A. Jay, and C. Hopper, “Optical coherence tomography in the assessment of suspicious oral lesions: an immediate ex vivo study,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 10(1), 17–27 (2013).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. (1)

M. Mogensen, L. Thrane, T. M. Joergensen, P. E. Andersen, and G. B. Jemec, “Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 28(3), 196–202 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Imaging protocol. (A) OCT imaging schedule and time of mouse sacrifice for histology. (B) Fluorescent image of the tongue: the green spot indicated the potential tumor location on the dorsal surface of the tongue and was fixed by two plastic slides with a 2mm diameter hole before OCT imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 In vivo structural and vascular imaging of the anterior, dorsal tongue of control mouse. (A) 3D rendered OCT structural image. (B) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the green dotted line in (A). (C) Histological image of approximately the same location as displayed in (B). (D) Corresponding vascular image from the orange rectangle in (B) (orange arrow: IPCL in the junction of EP and LP; green arrow: branching vessels in the LP). (E) 2D en-face vascular image of superficial mucosal layer showing IPCL. (F) Magnified image of region indicated with orange rectangle in (E) showing small and narrow IPCL. (G) 2D en-face vascular image in deep mucosal layer showing branching vessels in LP. (H) Magnified image of branching vessels indicated with orange rectangle in (G). IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loops; KL: keratinized layer; FiPa: filiform papilla; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 In vivo Structural and Vascular imaging of the dorsal tongue with hyperplasia to LGD of 4NQO mouse. (A) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the green dotted line in (C) shows increased thickness of the EP (orange double-sided arrow) with the preserved boundary of EP and LP. (B) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (A) which shows increased thickness of EP with basal cell hyperplasia. (C) 2D en-face vascular image of superficial mucosal layer showing IPCL. (D) Magnified image of region indicated with orange rectangle in (C). IPCL presents as elongated and closed loops. (E) 2D en-face vascular image of deep mucosal layer showing branching vessels in LP. (F) Magnified image of region indicated with orange rectangle in (E). IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loop; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria; LGD: low grade dysplasia.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In vivo structural and vascular imaging of the dorsal tongue with HGD to CIS of 4NQO mouse (A) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the green dotted line in (C) shows increased thickness of the EP (orange double-sided arrow) with the preserved boundary of EP and LP. (B) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (A) which shows full thickness of dysplastic changes of the lining epithelium. (C) 2D en-face vascular image of superficial mucosal layer showing IPCL. (D) Magnified image of region indicated with orange rectangle in (C). IPCL presents as open, dilated, meandering, and non-uniform loops. (E) 2D en-face vascular image of deep mucosal layer showing branching vessels in LP. (F) Magnified image of region indicated with orange rectangle in (E). IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loop; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria; HGD: high grade dysplasia; CIS: carcinoma in situ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparing IPCL between hyperplasia to LGD and HGD to CIS. (A) 2D en-face vascular image of superficial mucosal layer showing IPCL. (B) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the blue dot line in (A) shows increased thickness of the EP (orange double-sided arrow) with the preserved boundary of EP and LP. (C) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (B) which indicates hyperplasia to LGD. (D) Magnified image of IPCL indicated with the blue rectangle in (A). It presents IPCL with elongated and closed loop, favor hyperplasia to LGD change. (E) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the orange dot line in (A) shows focal thickness of the EP (orange double-sided arrow) with the preserved boundary of EP and LP layer. (F) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (E) which indicates HGD to CIS change. (G) Magnified image of IPCL indicated with the orange rectangle in (A). It presents IPCL with opened, dilated, meandering, and non-uniform loop, favor HGD to CIS change. IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loop; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria; LGD: low grade dysplasia; HGD: high grade dysplasia; CIS: carcinoma in situ
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparing IPCL between HGD to CIS and SCC (A) 2D en-face vascular image of superficial mucosal layer showing IPCL. (B) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the blue dot line in (A) shows increased thickness of the EP with the preserved boundary of EP and LP layer (orange double-sided arrow). (C) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (B) which indicates HGD to CIS change. (D) Magnified image of IPCL indicated with the blue rectangle in (A). It presented IPCL with open, dilated, meandering, and non-uniform loop, favor HGD to CIS change. (E) Cross-sectional OCT image at the location of the orange dot line in (A) shows polypoid tumor with LP layer invasion (orange arrow). (F) Corresponding histology image obtained at a similar location as displayed in (E) which indicates SCC with muscular layer invasion. (G) Magnified image of IPCL indicated with the orange rectangle in (A). It presented large branching type neovascular tumor vessels, favor advanced SCC change. IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loop; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria; HGD: high grade dysplasia; CIS: carcinoma in situ; SCC: squamous cell carcinoma.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Change of structure and vasculature in different pathological stages of disease progression. (A) normal histology: normal structural image (left part) with small and closed IPCL (right part). (B) hyperplasia to LGD: focal thickness of EP layer (left part) with elongated and closed IPCL (right part). (C) HGD to CIS: focal thickness of EP layer (left part) with open, dilated and meandering IPCL (right part). (D) SCC: polypoid tumor with LP invasion (left part) with large and branching IPCL (right part). IPCL: intraepithelial papillary capillary loop; EP: epithelial layer; LP: lamina propria; LGH: low grade dysplasia; HGD: high grade dysplasia; CIS: carcinoma in situ; SCC: squamous cell carcinoma.

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σ 2 =1  y j=1 J z=1 N | A x, y j ,z || A x, y j+1 ,z | / y j=1 J z=1 N  ( | A x, y j ,z | 2 + | A x, y j+1 ,z | 2 2 )

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