Abstract

Chondroitin sulfate (CS), derived from cartilage tissues, is an important type of biomacromolecule. In this paper, the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was investigated as a potential method for content detection of CS. With the increase of the CS content, the THz absorption coefficients of the CS/polyethylene mixed samples linearly increase. The refractive indices of the mixed samples also increase when the CS content increases. The extinction coefficient of CS demonstrates the THz frequency dependence to be approximately the power of 1.4, which can be explained by the effects of CS granular solids on THz scattering.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  2. A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).
  3. K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. M. Lauder, “Chondroitin sulphate: a complex molecule with potential impacts on a wide range of biological systems,” Complement. Ther. Med. 17(1), 56–62 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Volpi, “Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61(10), 1271–1280 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).
  10. J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).
  11. X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(2), 409–415 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).
  19. J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, “Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3823–3830 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. M. Lauder, “Chondroitin sulphate: a complex molecule with potential impacts on a wide range of biological systems,” Complement. Ther. Med. 17(1), 56–62 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Volpi, “Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61(10), 1271–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, “Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3823–3830 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

C. B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1986 (1)

M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, A.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

Barat, R. B.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bjarnason, J. E.

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, E. R.

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, W. T.

M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
[Crossref]

Celis, M. A.

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chan, T. L. J.

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

Chen, M.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J. L.

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J.-L.

De Vathaire, F.

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Delmas, P. D.

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. L.

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

Dong, H. P.

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dorney, T. D.

Duvillaret, L.

Federici, J. F.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fioravanti, A.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B. M.

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, G. Z.

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

Garet, F.

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(2), 409–415 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gary, D. E.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guan, R. Z.

J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hofman, M.

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. Y.

J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).

James, C. B.

C. B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).

Jiao, Q. C.

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

Kahan, A.

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaushik, M.

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kieras, F. J.

M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kitagawa, H.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Kojima, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Lauder, R. M.

R. M. Lauder, “Chondroitin sulphate: a complex molecule with potential impacts on a wide range of biological systems,” Complement. Ther. Med. 17(1), 56–62 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laverty, S.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Lee, A. W. M.

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

Liu, X. M.

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mailleux, E.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Malaise, M.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marcolongo, R.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matoso, L.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meilhan, J.

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mikami, T.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, “Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3823–3830 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. D. Dorney, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Material parameter estimation with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(7), 1562–1571 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mizuguchi, S.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mwale, F.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Ng, B. W. H.

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nomura, K.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pearce, J.

J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, “Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3823–3830 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Piperno, M.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Plochocka, P.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poole, A. R.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Reginster, J. Y.

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sengupta, A.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simoens, F.

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

Su, H. X.

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

Sugahara, K.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanner, D. B.

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

Uebelhart, D.

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uhl, T. L.

C. B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).

Uyama, T.

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vignon, E.

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Volpi, N.

N. Volpi, “Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61(10), 1271–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

Yasuda, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Zebrower, M. E.

M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

Zhao, T.

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. Y.

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).

Anal. Biochem. (1)

M. E. Zebrower, F. J. Kieras, and W. T. Brown, “Analysis by high-performance liquid-chromatography of hyaluronic-acid and chondroitin sulfates,” Anal. Biochem. 157(1), 93–99 (1986).
[Crossref]

Anal. Methods-Uk (1)

X. M. Liu, L. Li, T. Zhao, and H. P. Dong, “Determination of chondroitin sulfate in tablets by Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods,” Anal. Methods-Uk 6(12), 4219–4227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, and J. L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. L. J. Chan, J. E. Bjarnason, A. W. M. Lee, M. A. Celis, and E. R. Brown, “Attenuation Contrast between biomolecular and inorganic materials at terahertz frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2523–2525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, “Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arthritis Rheum. (1)

A. Kahan, D. Uebelhart, F. De Vathaire, P. D. Delmas, and J. Y. Reginster, “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum. 60(2), 524–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biopolymers (1)

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Biopolymers 67(4–5), 310–313 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1–2), 42–48 (2000).
[Crossref]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., (1)

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 391 ,Suppl, S26–S33 (2001).

Complement. Ther. Med. (1)

R. M. Lauder, “Chondroitin sulphate: a complex molecule with potential impacts on a wide range of biological systems,” Complement. Ther. Med. 17(1), 56–62 (2009).
[Crossref]

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1)

K. Sugahara, T. Mikami, T. Uyama, S. Mizuguchi, K. Nomura, and H. Kitagawa, “Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13(5), 612–620 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi (3)

G. Z. Gao, Q. C. Jiao, Y. L. Ding, and L. Chen, “Study on quantitative assay of chondroitin sulfate with a spectrophotometric method of azure A,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 23(3), 600–602 (2003).

J. Zheng, R. Z. Guan, and S. Y. Huang, “Comparative studies on the characteristics of the fourier-transform infrared spectra between sturgeon and shark chondroitin sulfates,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 28(1), 106–109 (2008).

Z. Li, Z. H. Zhang, X. Y. Zhao, H. X. Su, and F. Yan, “Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 32(4), 1043–1046 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

M. Kaushik, B. W. H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Reduction of scattering effects in THz-TDS signals,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 24(2), 155–157 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Infrared Milli. (1)

A. Bandyopadhyay, A. Sengupta, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, J. F. Federici, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Effects of scattering on THz spectra of granular solids,” Int. J. Infrared Milli. 28(11), 969–978 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Son, “Terahertz electromagnetic interactions with biological matter and their applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102033 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Athl. Train. (1)

C. B. James and T. L. Uhl, “A review of articular cartilage pathology and the use of glucosamine sulfate,” J. Athl. Train. 36(4), 413–419 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1)

N. Volpi, “Quality of different chondroitin sulfate preparations in relation to their therapeutic activity,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61(10), 1271–1280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osteoarthritis Cartilage (1)

D. Uebelhart, M. Malaise, R. Marcolongo, F. de Vathaire, M. Piperno, E. Mailleux, A. Fioravanti, L. Matoso, and E. Vignon, “Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 12(4), 269–276 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, “Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3823–3830 (2002).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Refractive indices for samples containing various amounts of the CS-PE mixed power. Total weight of pellet: (a) 60 mg, (b) 80 mg, (c)100 mg, and (d)120 mg.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption coefficient in THz frequencies for samples containing various amounts of mixed PE and CS powder. Total weights of pellet: (a) 60 mg, (b) 80 mg, (c)100 mg, and (d)120 mg.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 THz absorption coefficient vs. CS concentration at 0.5 THz,1.0 THz and 1.5 THz. (a) 60 mg, (b) 80 mg, (c) 100 mg, and (d)120 mg.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relationship between K C S and frequency from 0.2 THz to 1.6 THz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of CS and PE powders. (a) CS powder (particle diameter ≈8.2 ± 3.1μm), (b) PE powder (particle diameter ≈36.1 ± 13.4μm).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The mean thickness (mm) of nine pellet samples.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of K C S and R2 at 0.5 THz, 1.0 THz, and 1.5 THz in different samples.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Curve-fitting results of K C S and frequency.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A e ( ω ) A r ( ω ) = ρ ( ω ) exp [ i φ ( ω ) ]
n ( ω ) = φ ( ω ) c ω d + 1
α ( ω ) = 2 d ln 4 n ( ω ) ρ ( ω ) [ n ( ω ) + 1 ] 2
C C S = m C S m T o t a l × 100 % C PE = m PE m T o t a l × 100 % C CS + C PE = 1
α = α C S + α P E = K C S C C S + K P E C P E
α = α C S = K C S C C S
K C S = p × f q

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