Abstract

The applications of terahertz (THz) waves have been increasing rapidly in different fields such as information and communication technology, homeland security and biomedical engineering. However, study on the possible health implications due to various biological effects induced by THz waves is relatively scarce. Previously, it has been reported that the human sweat ducts play a significant role in the interaction of the THz wave with human skin due to its coiled structure. This structure imposes on them the electromagnetic character of a helical antenna. To further understand these phenomena, we investigated the morphological features of human sweat ducts and the dielectric properties of their surrounding medium. Based upon these parameters, we estimated the frequency of the resonance of the human sweat duct in a normal mode of operation and our estimation showed that there is a broad resonance around 228 GHz. This result indicates that careful consideration should be given while designing electronic and photonic devices operating in the sub-terahertz frequency region in order to avoid various effects on human health due to these waves.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Kato, S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, K. Imayama, and K. Kawase, “Non-destructive drug inspection in covering materials using a terahertz spectral imaging system with injection-seeded terahertz parametric generation and detection,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6425–6432 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  28. S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. K. Saga, “Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 37(4), 323–386 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mehner, M. Cuevas, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography in the spectral domain for high resolution in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19486–19500 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Betzalel, Y. Feldman, and P. Ben Ishai, “The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 7(5), 521–528 (2017).

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

2016 (3)

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

M. Kato, S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, K. Imayama, and K. Kawase, “Non-destructive drug inspection in covering materials using a terahertz spectral imaging system with injection-seeded terahertz parametric generation and detection,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6425–6432 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. S. Nusinovich, M. K. A. Thumm, and M. I. Petelin, “The gyrotron at 50: Historical overview,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 35(4), 325–381 (2014).

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, D. Fogen, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses cause H2AX phosphorylation and activate DNA damage response in human skin tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 559–568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

N. A. Taylor and C. A. Machado-Moreira, “Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans,” Extrem. Physiol. Med. 2(1), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging-Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

G. Shafirstein and E. G. Moros, “Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(5), 1329–1339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yang, R. S. Donnan, M. Zhou, and A. A. Kingravi, “Reassessment of the electromagnetic reflection response of human skin at W-band,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4203–4205 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and sub-terahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

P. Cimalla, J. Walther, M. Mehner, M. Cuevas, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography in the spectral domain for high resolution in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19486–19500 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Electromagnetic fields stress living cells,” Pathophysiology 16(2-3), 71–78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Hardell and C. Sage, “Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards,” Biomed. Pharmacother. 62(2), 104–109 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, “Three dimensional polarization sensitive OCT of human skin in vivo,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3236–3244 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Saga, “Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 37(4), 323–386 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

B. L. Welch, “On the comparison of several mean values: an alternative approach,” Biometrika 38(3/4), 330–336 (1951).
[Crossref]

Abbasi, Q. H.

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

Adams, J. A.

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Agranat, A. J.

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajito, K.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Almony, A.

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

Alomainy, A.

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begley, R.

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben Ishai, P.

N. Betzalel, Y. Feldman, and P. Ben Ishai, “The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 7(5), 521–528 (2017).

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bera, A.

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

Betzalel, N.

N. Betzalel, Y. Feldman, and P. Ben Ishai, “The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 7(5), 521–528 (2017).

Blank, M.

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Electromagnetic fields stress living cells,” Pathophysiology 16(2-3), 71–78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brizzi, A.

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caduff, A.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopra, N.

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

Cimalla, P.

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging-Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cuevas, M.

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darbandi, M.

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Darbandi, S.

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Davidovich, I.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnan, R. S.

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteves, S. C.

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Federici, J.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and sub-terahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feldman, Y.

N. Betzalel, Y. Feldman, and P. Ben Ishai, “The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 7(5), 521–528 (2017).

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitgerald, A. J.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fogen, D.

Freude, W.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galloway, T. S.

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

Golubov, A.

Goodman, R.

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Electromagnetic fields stress living cells,” Pathophysiology 16(2-3), 71–78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundt, J. E.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

Hao, Y.

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Hardell, L.

L. Hardell and C. Sage, “Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards,” Biomed. Pharmacother. 62(2), 104–109 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harvey, A. R.

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayut, I.

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Hegmann, F. A.

Henkle, R.

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Henneberger, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirao, T.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hool, L.

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imayama, K.

Ishai, P. B.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging-Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kallfass, I.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kato, M.

Kawase, K.

M. Kato, S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, K. Imayama, and K. Kawase, “Non-destructive drug inspection in covering materials using a terahertz spectral imaging system with injection-seeded terahertz parametric generation and detection,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6425–6432 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingravi, A. A.

Koch, E.

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging-Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kovalchuk, O.

Kukutsu, N.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Leuther, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Diaz, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Machado-Moreira, C. A.

N. A. Taylor and C. A. Machado-Moreira, “Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans,” Extrem. Physiol. Med. 2(1), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathews, F.

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehner, M.

Miyata, E.

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moeller, L.

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and sub-terahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mondal, D.

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moros, E. G.

G. Shafirstein and E. G. Moros, “Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(5), 1329–1339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munoz, M.

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Muramoro, Y.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murate, K.

Nagatsuma, T.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nusinovich, G. S.

G. S. Nusinovich, M. K. A. Thumm, and M. I. Petelin, “The gyrotron at 50: Historical overview,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 35(4), 325–381 (2014).

Palmer, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, A.

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petelin, M. I.

G. S. Nusinovich, M. K. A. Thumm, and M. I. Petelin, “The gyrotron at 50: Historical overview,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 35(4), 325–381 (2014).

Philpott, M.

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pircher, M.

Polsman, A.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Puzenko, A.

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qaraqe, K.

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

Qaraqe, K. A.

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

Rodriguez-Juarez, R.

Romanenko, S.

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadeghi, M. R.

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Saga, K.

K. Saga, “Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 37(4), 323–386 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sage, C.

L. Hardell and C. Sage, “Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards,” Biomed. Pharmacother. 62(2), 104–109 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakran, F.

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmogrow, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shafirstein, G.

G. Shafirstein and E. G. Moros, “Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(5), 1329–1339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, U.

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

Sinha, A. K.

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

Song, H.-J.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ssallabi, H. E.

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, N. A.

N. A. Taylor and C. A. Machado-Moreira, “Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans,” Extrem. Physiol. Med. 2(1), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tessmann, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thumm, M. K. A.

G. S. Nusinovich, M. K. A. Thumm, and M. I. Petelin, “The gyrotron at 50: Historical overview,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 35(4), 325–381 (2014).

Titova, L. V.

Tripathi, S. R.

M. Kato, S. R. Tripathi, K. Murate, K. Imayama, and K. Kawase, “Non-destructive drug inspection in covering materials using a terahertz spectral imaging system with injection-seeded terahertz parametric generation and detection,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6425–6432 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakutsuki, A.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walther, J.

Welch, B. L.

B. L. Welch, “On the comparison of several mean values: an alternative approach,” Biometrika 38(3/4), 330–336 (1951).
[Crossref]

Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

Yang, B.

Yang, K.

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Zhou, M.

Zwick, T.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Acta Derm. Venereol. (1)

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altern. Ther. Health Med. (1)

M. Darbandi, S. Darbandi, A. Agarwal, R. Henkle, and M. R. Sadeghi, “The Effects of Exposure to Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Male Fertility,” Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2017, AT5423 (2017).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biomed. Pharmacother. (1)

L. Hardell and C. Sage, “Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards,” Biomed. Pharmacother. 62(2), 104–109 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biometrika (1)

B. L. Welch, “On the comparison of several mean values: an alternative approach,” Biometrika 38(3/4), 330–336 (1951).
[Crossref]

Elec. Lett. (1)

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoro, A. Wakutsuki, T. Nagatsuma, and N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Elec. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[Crossref]

Environ. Int. (1)

J. A. Adams, T. S. Galloway, D. Mondal, S. C. Esteves, and F. Mathews, “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Int. 70, 106–112 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Extrem. Physiol. Med. (1)

N. A. Taylor and C. A. Machado-Moreira, “Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans,” Extrem. Physiol. Med. 2(1), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz Medical Imaging:in vivo Hydration Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) (5)

I. Hayut, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Polsman, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 3(2), 207–215 (2013).

N. Betzalel, Y. Feldman, and P. Ben Ishai, “The Modeling of the Absorbance of Sub-THz Radiation by Human Skin,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 7(5), 521–528 (2017).

K. Yang, A. Pellegrini, M. Munoz, A. Brizzi, A. Alomainy, and Y. Hao, “Numerical Analysis and Characterization of THz Propagation Channel for Body-Centric Nano-Communications,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 5(3), 419–426 (2015).

Q. H. Abbasi, H. E. Ssallabi, N. Chopra, K. Yang, K. Qaraqe, and A. Alomainy, “Terahertz channel characterization inside the human skin for nano-scale body-centric networks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(3), 427–434 (2016).

N. Chopra, K. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, K. A. Qaraqe, M. Philpott, and A. Almony, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin for in-body nanonetworks,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Tech. (Paris) 6(6), 803–809 (2016).

J Infrared Millim. THz Waves (3)

G. S. Nusinovich, M. K. A. Thumm, and M. I. Petelin, “The gyrotron at 50: Historical overview,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 35(4), 325–381 (2014).

N. Kumar, U. Singh, A. Bera, and A. K. Sinha, “RF behavior of cylindrical cavity based on 240 GHz, 1MW gyrotron for future tokamak system,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(11), 1342–1356 (2017).

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Current State of Research on Biological Effects of Terahertz Radiation,” J Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and sub-terahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

S. Romanenko, R. Begley, A. R. Harvey, L. Hool, and V. P. Wallace, “The interaction between electromagnetic fields at megahertz, gigahertz and terahertz frequencies with cells, tissues and organisms: risks and potential,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(137), 20170585 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging-Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pathophysiology (1)

M. Blank and R. Goodman, “Electromagnetic fields stress living cells,” Pathophysiology 16(2-3), 71–78 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, I. Davidovich, F. Sakran, and A. J. Agranat, “The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3341–3363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Shafirstein and E. G. Moros, “Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(5), 1329–1339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Hayut, P. Ben Ishai, A. J. Agranat, and Y. Feldman, “Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts,” Phys. Rev. E 89(4), 042715 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Feldman, A. Puzenko, P. Ben Ishai, A. Caduff, and A. J. Agranat, “Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(12), 128102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. (1)

K. Saga, “Structure and function of human sweat glands studied with histochemistry and cytochemistry,” Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 37(4), 323–386 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. R. Tripathi, E. Miyata, P. B. Ishai, and K. Kawase, “Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9071 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed. (WileyJohn Wiley & Sons, 2007).

K. Sakamoto, et al., “Study of high power and high frequency gyrotron for fusion reactor,” in Proceedings of the 42th int. conf. of IRMMW-THz, 1–3 (2017)
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Data file

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Modes of operation of a helix: (a) axial mode and (b) normal mode. The structural parameters (c) of the helix, which is characterized by its length (L), its diameter (D) and the spacing between the turns (S).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The measurement regions on the palm and the foot (b) A typical OCT image showing the stratum corneum and the helical sweat duct.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Box plots showing median (central line of box), 1st and 3rd quartile ranges around the median (bottom and top of box respectively) and maximum and minimum (represented by whiskers) of (a) sweat duct diameter (b) number of turns in sweat duct (c) length of the duct and (d) total length of the duct in different measurement regions. ‘ × ’ indicates the mean of data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Axial ratio of the helix with diameter (D) = 95 μm, spacing between the turn (S) = 61 μm and refractive index (n) = 1.8.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Pearson’s correlation coefficient between different sweat duct parameters

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A R =   2 λ 0 S ( π D ) 2
C = π D = 2 S λ 0
tan α =   S π D = π D 2 λ 0
f c n 2 s π 2 D 2

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